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Marco Polo Page     2008 Program page     My Performances 中文     首頁
Music from the Time of Marco Polo
Chinese and Italian instrumental music from 13th-15th century sources
Program notes for the CD by John Thompson and FA Schola
馬可波羅時代音樂
來自十三~十五世紀資料的中國與義大利器樂
Marco Polo CD Cover                

In 2008 Fa Schola and I recorded our 2008 program and made the CD whose cover is at right. The program notes are as below. I have copies available for interested writers, presenters and promoters. There is further information on the Tartu Early Music Festival website.

Introduction

According to his Travels, Marco Polo (1254-1324) visited Hangzhou some time after 1276, when Mongol soldiers had captured it on behalf of Kublai Khan. Music from the Time of Marco Polo puts music then being played in Hangzhou side by side with music such as Polo could have heard back home in early 14th century Italy. John Thompson plays the former on the Chinese guqin silk string zither, FA Schola plays the latter on early European music instruments. Although there is no evidence of actual musical contact at that time, this program expands on the original sources to include the fantasy of such musical exchange. Thus, FA Schola joins with the guqin for Calling out in Flight, while for La Manfredina the guqin joins FA Schola and the Western flute is replaced by a Chinese xun. How this might have happened seven centuries ago is left to the listeners' imaginations.

This program is unique in that, through historically informed performance, it provides a beautiful audio tour of two vastly different cultural areas 700 years and more in the past. What we will find from listening to these two very distinctive music genres is that their two respective musical languages show some very interesting similarities, more than what we might initially expect, and more than what we seem to find in the modern world. And yet the music sounds surprisingly new.

At the time Marco Polo described his travels to China, Europeans were just beginning to write down their instrumental music, but musical styles soon rapidly developed and expanded. Meanwhile, the Chinese guqin silk-string zither tradition was both more developed and more conservative. The guqin, although the only non-Western instrument with a detailed written tradition going back more than a few centuries, had long had such a tradition going back much earlier than what can be documented for Western music: a surviving guqin score from the 7th century already shows a high level of musical sophistication.

The key words uniting these two ancient musical worlds are modality and monodic playing style. Modal thinking (allowing melodies beyond the standard major and minor scales) forms a type of musical knowledge almost gone in present day classical Western music but still found in many oral and popular traditions. And the ensemble playing style in early Europe, as in China, is a type of monody in which all instruments play versions of the same melody. Much has been done to reconstruct the monodic ensemble music tradition from medieval Europe. This tradition was also then prevalent in China, and the present reconstructions of the early solo guqin repertoire are a substantial step in efforts at a similar reconstruction of the early Chinese ensemble tradition.

根據他的《遊記》,馬可•波羅(1254-1324)在1276年蒙古軍代忽必列汗佔領杭州後遊至該地。馬可波羅時代音樂將當時於杭州演奏的音樂和當時馬可波羅在14世紀初的義大利所會聽到的音樂並列演出。唐世璋於中國絲弦古琴上彈奏前者,而 FA Schola 於早期歐洲樂器上演奏後者。雖然並無當時音樂實際接觸的證據,此節目在原始資料的基礎上進一步擴展而包含這類音樂交流的幻想。這樣,FA Schola 與古琴結合而演奏《飛鳴吟》,至於在 La Manfredina 裏,古琴與 FA Schola 相結合而西方長笛則被中國塤代替。至於這如何能在幾世紀前發生,則在於聽衆的想象力。

這場音樂會的獨特性在于,通過復古風格的演奏,它向我們提供了700多年前來自兩種非常不同的文化的美麗的音樂之旅。當我們聆聽些兩種不同的音樂時,我們會發現它們各自的音樂語言顯示出一些非常有趣的相似之處。這些相似之處超出了我們的預想和我們在現代世界中似乎發現的東西,且這種音樂聽起來出人意外的新穎。

在馬可波羅描述他的中國之旅時,歐洲人剛剛開始將他們的器樂曲記成樂譜。但其音樂風格很快便成型而後擴展。同時,中國古琴音樂的傳統則是既更加成熟也更加保守。古琴爲已有幾百年詳細記譜傳統的唯一的非西方樂器,它的記譜傳統比西方音樂的要早得多,一份現存的來自7世紀的古琴譜已經顯示出一種很高的音樂水平。

連接這兩個古代音樂世界的關鍵在于調式和單音的演奏風格。調式的觀念(允許旋律超越標準的大小調音階)形成了一種音樂類型。它在今天的西方古典音樂中幾乎已不復存在,但仍可以在很多口頭和流行的傳統中找到。而早期歐洲和中國的合奏演奏方式也是一種單音音樂,其中所有的樂器演奏同樣的旋律。他們對于重建歐洲中世紀的單音合奏傳統已經做了很多工作。這種傳統在當時的中國也流行,而現在早期古琴獨奏曲目的重建爲重建中國早期合奏傳統的一重要步驟。

 
Music Sources

London, British Library, Additional 29987 (ca. 1400 CE)

Commonly called London, BL. Add. 29987, this manuscript is one of our central sources for Western medieval monodic instrumental music. Through this manuscript a number of long and extremely interesting estampies have been preserved for us, shedding some light on the structure, sonic texturing and ornamentation of 14th century Western instrumental music. We know today that Arabic music exerted a considerable influence on the development of European music. Indeed, a Middle Eastern flavour can surely be felt in the estampies in question. Yet they remain unmistakably European. Estampies have typically four to five verses, which are repeated twice: with an 'open' then a 'closed' ending. The next verse often incorporates a substantial portion of the previous one, so the verses gradually grow in length. The first verse usually introduces the main mood of the piece, the second verse takes the piece into a high register and the third into a low register. As a rule, the final verses have varying time signatures, often also changing the mode. All estampies in this manuscript run rather long and are replete with chromaticisms. Music for the present CD recording is based on a facsimile edition of this manuscript. Occasional variations in note length and pitch result from personal preference and improvisation.

Codex Reina

The Codex Reina (Paris, Bibl. Nat., Nouv. Acq. Fr. 6771) is a large source copied in either Padua or Venice from the later 14th century to the early 15th century, and containing more than 200 secular songs in Italian, French and Flemish. On this CD we have specially included a couple of polyphonic pieces to show the excitement and fast development of Ars Nova polyphonic repertoire in comparison to the more improvisational monophonic pieces.

Shen Qi Mi Pu: Handbook of Spiritual and Marvelous Mysteries (1425 CE)

Several important guqin melodies survive from earlier tablature, but the Shen Qi Mi Pu is the oldest surviving printed collection of such melodies. From 1280 to 1368 China had been ruled by the Mongols, and publishing this book was part of an effort by Zhu Quan, a son of the founder of the Ming Dynasty, to recover the guqin tradition as it had existed during the Song dynasty (960 - 1280). Many of its 64 melodies (none with lyrics) are connected to a compilation of ancient hand-written tablature made in 13th century Hangzhou; other melodies are directly attributed to famous players who had lived there at that time.

 
音樂來源

倫敦大英博物館的附加29987號樂譜(約公元1400)

常稱爲 London, BL. Add. 29987,此手稿爲我們對西方中世紀單音器樂的核心來源之一。數首長而非常有趣的「埃斯唐皮」(estampies)通過此手稿被保存了下來,而由此部分呈現了14世紀西方器樂的構造、音樂質地和裝飾音。我們今天知道阿拉伯音樂可觀地影響了歐洲音樂的發展。確實地,在這些埃斯唐皮中的確能感覺到一點中東風格。然而它們仍然明顯爲歐洲音樂。埃斯唐皮一般有四至五節,被重復兩次:先爲「開」(open)的結尾,後「閉」(close)的。下一節常常結合前一節顯著的一部分,這樣各節逐漸增加長度。第一節一般引入曲子的主要氣氛,第二節將曲子導入高音區,而第三節則將其導入低音區。作爲規則,各尾節有不同的拍子記號,常改變調式。此手稿內所有埃斯唐皮較長而充滿了半音階使用手法。現光盤錄音的音樂以此手稿的一份複件爲基礎。偶然的音長和音高變動來自個人喜愛和即興創作。

瑞納抄本(巴黎,國家圖書館,Nouv. Acq. Fr. 6771)

瑞納抄本爲在14至15世紀初於帕多瓦或威尼斯複製的重要來源,含200多首義大利語、法語和佛蘭芒語的非宗教歌曲。在此光盤上我們特地包含了幾首複音曲子,來顯示「新藝術」複音曲目的激動性和快速的發展,相比於更著重即興創作的單音曲子。

神奇秘譜(公元1425)

數首重要琴曲由更早的琴譜流傳了下來,但《神奇秘譜》爲含這些琴曲現存最古老的印刷的琴譜。從1280至1368年,中國由蒙古人統治,而此譜的出版爲明朝始祖的兒子之一朱權爲將古琴傳統恢復至其宋朝(960-1280)之日的努力。其64首琴曲(無一有詞)與13世紀杭州的一手抄琴譜集有關;其他琴曲直接歸源於當時居住那裏的琴家

 
Introduction to the guqin melodies

Song of Chu (Chu Ge)

Chu Ge relates the final defeat of the prince of Chu, Xiang Yu (232–202) at the hands of Liu Bang (247–195) in the struggle to overthrow and succeed the Qin dynasty (233–202). Before the major battle at Gaixia, Liu Bang had his soldiers sing a melody of Chu to make the Chu soldiers homesick. Throughout the guqin piece there is a motif that suggests this melody. After losing the battle Xiang Yu flees. A brief passage evokes Xiang Yu saying farewell to his concubine, Yu Ji:

My strength can lift mountains, and my spirit can encompass society;
But the times are not appropriate, and (my horse) Zhui is no longer quick.
When Zhui is no longer quick, what can I do?
Alas, Yu Ji; alas, Yu Ji; what will become of you?

After this she commits suicide. A final discordant passage then evokes Xiang Yu's own demise as he perishes on the banks of the Wu River. (Liu Bang then went on to found the Han dynasty.)

Clouds over the Xiao and Xiang Rivers (Xiao Xiang Shui Yun)

Xiao Xiang Shui Yun, attributed to the famous 13th century guqin master Guo Mian (Guo Chuwang), is one of the most popular of all guqin melodies, surviving in at least 55 handbooks from 1425 to 1946. The Jiuyi mountains of southern Hunan are the reputed burial place of the legendary Emperor Shun. Whenever Guo wanted to look at the Jiuyi mountains they were blocked by clouds above the Xiao and Xiang rivers. This reminded him that the Southern Song dynasty was no longer in control of north China, so his creation of this melody was an expression of his loyalty to his country. However, as its preface says, "this piece about water and clouds (also) has the suggestion of making one's own enjoyment; the flavor of cloud shapes reflected in sparkling water; and a desire to have wind and rain fall on the head, to wear a grass rain cape by the side of a river, and to use a boat on the Five Lakes (to hide from the world)."

Woodcutter's Song (Qiao Ge)

Qiao Ge, attributed to the famous 13th century guqin master Mao Minzhong, is another of the most popular of all guqin melodies, surviving in at least 54 handbooks from 1425 to 1946; some handbooks have two versions. Chinese culture has always put a high value on education. At the same time fishermen and woodcutters were often idealized as people who, though without formal education, have a profound understanding of the world. They also sometimes represented a life free from the cares of official work. According to its preface, "this piece was written because, when Yuan soldiers entered Lin An (Hangzhou), Mao Minzhong thought the times were not appropriate for himself. Wishing to imitate the deeds of former worthies, who went into hiding in the cliffs and valleys, he ran off into seclusion and did not accept public office. So he wrote this tune to attract like-minded people to go into seclusion with him. He himself felt no unhappiness about fleeing from society."

Captured Unicorn (Huo Lin)

This melody was included in the first folio of Shen Qi Mi Pu; of these melodies Zhu Quan said they were the most ancient. He could find no one who was able to play them, so he simply copied them out exactly according to the manuscript versions he found. The creator of the melody is unknown, but the inspriration came from a famous story about Confucius. Zhu Quan's original preface says, "The capture of a unicorn took place during the 14th year of the reign of Duke Ai of Lu (489 BC); during a big hunt at Daye to the west, Chu Shang, a carriage official of Lord Shu Sun, captured a unicorn. The unicorn had a broken leg, so he put it on the carriage and returned home. But Shu Sun, feeling that this was a bad omen, had it abandoned in the countryside, and then sent a man to tell Confucius, saying, "If a jun (muntjac) has horns, what is it?" Confucius went out and looked at it, then said, "It is a unicorn; why did it come here? He pulled his sleeves up to his face and cried until his vest was soaked. Shu Sun heard of this and had it brought back (into the palace). (Later) Zigong asked, "Confucius why did you cry?" Confucius answered, "The arrival of a unicorn should mean that a person of great talent has appeared, but it has come at the wrong time, and so it was injured. This made me very sad."

Calling out in Flight (Feiming Yin)

In Shen Qi Mi Pu this melody is divided into three sections, without repeats. With the Western instruments here joining the guqin, sections are repeated to highlight the different instrument sounds. Zhu Quan wrote of Calling out in Flight, "it is not known who wrote this piece, but what the piece concerns is speaking of the wild goose as an animal who, knowing that autumn (is arriving), visits the south. It cries out to the Milky Way, and flies through the clouds for 10,000 li, soaring over the four seas. How great its determination is! So (the melody) embellishes this event while describing it."

 
古琴曲子簡介

楚歌

《楚歌》敍述了楚王子項羽(232-202)在顛覆和繼承秦朝的鬥爭中,被劉邦(247-195)的最後擊敗。在垓下的主要戰鬥前,劉邦命其士兵唱一首楚國的歌來使楚國兵思鄉。此主題遍佈整首琴曲。在戰鬥中失敗後,項羽逃走。一短段喚起項羽向其妾虞姬的辭別﹕

「力拔山兮氣蓋世,
時不利兮騅不逝,
騅不逝兮可奈何,
虞兮虞兮奈若何!」

此後她便自盡。最終一不和諧的段落喚起項羽自己在烏江邊的死亡(劉邦後創漢朝)。

瀟湘水雲

瀟湘水雲,歸源於著名的13世紀琴家郭沔(郭楚望),爲最受歡迎的琴曲之一,自1425-1946其間至少55本琴譜集流傳下來。湖南南部的九嶷山傳說爲帝舜之葬地。"每欲望九嶷,為瀟湘之雲所蔽,以寓惓惓之意也。"這使他記起南宋已不再控制中國北方,因此他創作此曲亦爲表達愛國忠心。但其序亦言:「然水雲之為曲,有悠揚自得之趣,水光雲影之興;更有滿頭風雨、一簑江表、扁舟五湖之志。」

樵歌

樵歌,歸源於著名13世紀琴家毛敏仲,爲另一最受歡迎的琴曲之一,自1425-1946其間至少54本琴譜集流傳下來;有些琴譜有兩個版本。中國文化一直注重教育。同時,漁夫與樵夫常被理想化爲雖無正統教育卻深刻理解世界的人。他們常代表了遠離官場的自由生活。其序言:「是曲之作也,因元兵入臨安,敏仲以時不合。欲希先賢之志,晦跡岩壑,隱遁不仕。故作歌以招同志者隱焉。自以為遁世無悶也。」

獲麟

此曲收於《神奇秘譜》上卷,即朱權所稱「太古神品」。他無法找到能彈奏它們的人,便完全複製了他所找到的手稿版本。曲作者不可知,但其靈感來自關於孔子的一個著名故事。朱權原序言:「〈獲麟〉者,魯哀公十四年;西狩大野,叔孫氏之車子鉏商獲麟焉。折前足,載以歸。叔孫以為不祥,棄之郭外,使人告孔子曰,『有麇而角何也?』孔子往觀之曰,『麟也;胡為而來哉?』反袂拭面,涕淚沾襟。叔孫聞而取之。子貢問曰,『夫子,何泣耶?』孔子曰,『麟之至也,為明主出也;出非其時,而見害。是以傷焉。』」

飛鳴吟

在《神奇秘譜》中,此曲分爲三段,無重復。因現有西方樂器相伴古琴,多部分爲突出不同的樂器聲而被重復。朱權就《飛鳴吟》寫:「是曲者,不知何人所作也,然曲之趣,言鴻之為物,知秋而南賓。唳乎霄漢,決雲萬里,翱翔四海。其志何大也!故壯其事而寓焉。」

FA Schola

See general comments above and below.

 
Performers and instruments

FA Schola (Festivitas Artium Schola)

The FA Schola Center was founded in January 2000 under the initiative of Raho Langsepp as a collaboration between Festivitas Artium (which since 1996 has organized the Tartu Early Music Festival) and the University of Tartu (the national university of Estonia). FA Schola is a natural development in early music research and study in Tartu, helping to promote both early European music and non-European music. As a center of study, FA Schola's researches compare and promote early European and Asian medieval cultures as expressed in music. The center has compiled a library with extensive video and audio archives. It has also cooperated closely with the most reknowned study and research center of early music, Schola Cantorum Basiliensis (Switzerland).

As a Greek loan word in Latin, the original meaning of "schola" was "spending time in intelligent conversation". This meaning was later conflated with the familiar and more modern meanings of "teaching" and "erudition". Festivitas Artium Schola, which appreciates both the ancient and modern meanings, carries out regular studies and teaching projects. Members of the consort associated with the Center are active in teaching a variety of instruments. The Center also organizes many concert projects, for individual productions engaging additional cast as necessary.

Music from the Time of Marco Polo, a cooperative project with John Thompson (guqin, USA) draws on some of the Center's latest concert and research themes. In addition to the medieval manuscripts London Ms Add 29987 (1400) and Codex Rossi (1370), these include Codex Reina (Paris, Bibl. nat., nouv. acq. Fr. 6771, 14th century) as well as Cantigas de Santa Maria (13th century Spain).

 
Raho Langsepp, transverse flutes, xun

Raho Langsepp, director of the Tartu Early Music Festival since 1996, has for many years studied the history of bamboo flutes in Asian as well as in medieval European music, leading him to interesting discoveries that he has put into practise as a musician. The history and usage of transverse flute in different cultures was also the theme of his thesis when he took diploma from the Viljandi Cultural Academy of the University of Tartu (2006). Having played different types of flutes before, his main teacher of bamboo flute since 2001 has been Sri Lankan master V. Hemapala Perera. Over the years he has participated in advanced classes taught by such masters as Wilbert Hazelet (baroque flute, the Netherlands), Ranjith Fernando (bamboo flute, Sri Lanka), Dan Laurin (recorder, Sweden) and many others. In addition to being an active musician and music teacher, Raho Langsepp is director of the concert agency Festivitas Artium and the FA Schola Centre for Early European and Asian Music; since 2000 he has been President of the Central European Festivals of Early Music Association (CEFEMA).

Transverse flutes

Transverse flutes can be found in Western poetry and art at least as early as the 11th century. This relatively loud instrument with its large fingerholes is practically identical with flutes used in North Indian classical music. The fingering techniques of the Indian flute are also perfectly applicable to similar medieval instruments.

What kind of transverse flutes were played in medieval Europe and what they sounded like can only be intuited by piecing together a kaleidoscope of information preserved in the graphic arts, in literary and poetic works touching on the performance practice of medieval instrumental music, in folk music traditions using similar instruments and — there is no hiding that anyway! — adding a certain measure of personal imagination to the mix. No doubt the medieval transverse flute was similar in its construction to the oldest flutes, reports of which have been recorded in Asia, a part of the world where the instrument has enjoyed continued popular use from ancient times until the present. The flutes in question are more or less cylindrical in shape, with six or seven finger holes in addition to the blowing hole. As regards the material used to make flutes, it is highly probable that flutes were made chiefly of wood and bone, yet graphic arts fragments clearly point also to bamboo. In addition, magnificent-sounding transverse flutes can also be made of clay. Two clay flutes, in g and in c, were made in 2006/7 by Raho Langsepp in cooperation with ceramist Anneli Lupp. When thinking of other possible materials which could be used for making flutes in Europe, Raho Langsepp worked out special models made of clay and covered with birch bark; these can be heard in this program as well as a bass flute in C made by Raho Langsepp in 2007.

Xun

The xun is a clay flute with a spherical shape – it is thus also described as a vessel flute or globular flute, or called an ocarina, the name of a similar Western instrument. It is one of the earliest known musical instruments – the earliest xun have been found in Chinese archaeological sites as early as 5000 BCE. They are also mentioned in classical writings such as the Book of Songs. The xun is thus regarded as a national instrument of the Han Chinese people. However, although xun may have been played in various ceremonial orchestras, there was little mention of it in Chinese written sources until recent archaeological findings regenerated its popularity. Today it is widely heard, insinuating itself into movie soundtracks and popular music. The xun has a most peculiar and interesting timbre – its plaintive, deep and versatile sound can also be used for unique imitations of the human voice. Physically it is an egg-shaped hollow vessel with a blowing hole at top center and finger holes spread around the sides. Similarly to transverse flutes, the correct embouchure is the key to producing the correct tone. The number of finger holes varies from five to seven, although the modern instruments may sometimes have even more. Traditionally the xun had a range of just one octave.

Lilian Langsepp, gothic harp

Versatile musician Lilian Langsepp began her music studies with Western classical music (piano, music theory and choir conducting), and she has a Bachelor's degree in Musicology from the Estonian State Conservatory. In 1994 she began regularly working with Raho Langsepp in such early music groups as Via Sonora and FA Schola Ensemble. From 1997 to 2000 she did postgraduate studies in Switzerland at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, specializing mainly in Spanish baroque harp, Spanish organ repertoire, and improvisation in different styles. In addition, since 1996 her interest in non-Western music has led her not only to play various types of Asian music on the medieval harp, but also to take master classes in North Indian and Chinese music. In 2005 she earned her Master's Degree in Musicology from the Estonian Academy of Music; her thesis was "Mode and Tonal Structure in Diego Fernandez de Huete's Passacaglia Variations". In addition to her performances as a pre-classical harp soloist, she has appeared widely as a performer of harpsichord, organ and guzheng as well as director of a Gregorian chant group. She has made numerous recordings and has participated in recordings by various ensembles. She currently teaches in Tartu at both the University of Tartu and the Heino Eller School of Music.

Gothic harp

The world of medieval harps was amazingly rich in varying sizes, shapes and numbers of strings. The harp used to record this album is a copy (made in 2000 by the German master harp maker Eric Wilhelm Kleinmann). The original, which is kept at the Wartburg Art-Collection in Eisenach, in all likelihood used to belong to the famous Minnesinger Oswald von Wolkenstein (1377—1445). The slim, Gothic-looking harp has 26 strings (range G — d'''), tuned diatonically. Additional semitones can be played by reducing the vibrating length of the strings. In addition to its wide musical range, owing to the number of strings fitted on the instrument, the Wartburg/Wolkenstein harp is characterised by a rich timbre and lends itself easily to dynamic playing techniques. It is also noteworthy that the entire instrument is equipped with L-shaped bray pins permitting the player to create a vibrant buzzing sound characteristic of medieval harps. By varying the position of the pins, the harp can be used to play quietly yet in a highly nuanced dynamic manner.

Helena Uleksin, bell chimes, medieval flute

Helena Uleksin plays harpsichord, piano, classical flute, recorder and baroque flute as well as bell sets and medieval flutes. She is a graduate of the department of Estonian philology of the University of Tartu and holds her Master's degree on the subject of early music terminology in Estonian language. Since 2001 she has taught the recorder and works as a concertmaster in Tartu II Music School. Since that year she has also been a member of the FA Schola Ensemble.

Bell chimes

Although not commonly used for performances of early European music, sets of small chime bells are depicted in numerous medieval illustrations. These most commonly show them played by the ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras. The set of bell chimes used here (range A—f´) consists of bells made by the Swedish family firm Morells Metallgjuteri AB, established in 1920. In founding and hand working their bells the firm employs traditional methods descended from their forefathers.

John Thompson, guqin silk-string zither

John Thompson is the best-known musician giving historically informed performances of early Chinese music for the guqin silk-string zither. After a college degree in Western musicology (early music) and graduate studies in ethnomusicology, he began in 1974 to study the modern guqin tradition from Sun YüCh'in in Taiwan. Since 1976 he has focused on early repertoire, personally reconstructing 200 melodies published in 15th and 16th century handbooks. In 1992 the National Union of Chinese Musicians invited him to Beijing as the focus of a seminar on reconstructing music from the earliest surviving guqin handbook, Shen Qi Mi Pu (1425 CE). While based in Hong Kong as artistic consultant to the Festival of Asian Arts he performed throughout East Asia, and published seven CDs of his musical reconstructions as well as four books of music transcription. Since moving to New York in 2001 he has continued to perform, research and lecture on the guqin. His website, www.silkqin.com, is the most comprehensive English-language source of information on this instrument.

Guqin

Pronounced "chin" ("stringed instrument") or "goo chin" ("old stringed instrument"), the qin / guqin throughout its long history has been the musical instrument most prized by China's literati. They categorized it as one of their "four arts", collected it as an art object, praised its beautiful music, and built around it a complex ideology. No other instrument was described and illustrated in such detail, so often depicted in paintings, or so regularly mentioned in poetry. In addition, guqin tablature dates back at least to the surviving seventh century manuscript version of the melody You Lan. It thus documents the world's oldest detailed written instrumental music tradition, allowing both historically informed performance (requiring silk strings) of the many early melodies, and practical exploration of the relationship between Chinese music theory and music practice.

 

表演者與樂器

FA Schola (Festivitas Artium Schola)

FA Schola 中心於 2000 年一月,作爲 Festivitas Artium(該音樂會社自1996年一直籌辦塔爾圖早期音樂節)與塔爾圖大學(愛沙尼亞的國家大學)合作計劃,由Raho Langsepp率先成立。FA Schola爲塔爾圖早期音樂研究的自然發展,促進發揚早期歐洲和非歐洲音樂 。作爲研究中心,FA Schola的研究對照與發揚早期歐洲與亞洲中世紀文化在音樂中的表達。該中心成立了一含大量視頻和音頻檔案的圖書館。其亦密切地與聲譽最高的早期音樂研究中心,巴塞爾聲樂學院(Schola Cantorum Basiliensis,瑞士),相合作。

作爲拉丁文內的希臘外來詞,「schola」的原意爲「在理智性談話上花費時間」。此詞義後與現代熟悉的「教學」和「博學」的詞義相合併。Festivitas Artium Schola 領會古今兩種詞義,而開展固定的研究和教學計劃。該中心的協會成員積極地講授多類樂器。該中心亦爲個人作品組織許多音樂會,有時按需要雇用額外表演者。

馬可•波羅時代音樂爲與唐世璋(古琴,美國)的合作節目,利用了此音樂中心最近的一些音樂會和研究主題。除了中世紀手稿,即倫敦大英博物館的附加29987號樂譜(1400)和Codex Rossi(1370),這些包括瑞納抄本(巴黎,國家圖書館,Nouv. Acq. Fr. 6771)和 Cantigas de Santa Maria(13世紀西班牙).

 
拉豪•朗才坡(Raho Langsepp),橫笛、塤

自 1996 年來,拉豪•朗才坡一直擔任塔爾圖早期音樂節的主辦人。他學習亞洲及中世紀歐洲音樂的竹笛歷史多年,而此研究引出各類他作爲音樂家可實踐的新發現。他從塔爾圖大學的 Viljandi Cultural Academy 獲得文憑時的論文題目亦爲橫笛的歷史與用法。他演奏過多類笛子,而自2001年,他的竹笛老師爲斯里蘭卡音樂家 V. Hemapala Perera。近年來他參加了多個由 Wilbert Hazelet(巴洛克笛,荷蘭)、Ranjith Fernando(竹笛,斯里蘭卡)、Dan Laurin(豎笛,瑞典)與許多其他名家授教的高級課程。除了參加音樂演出及教學外,Raho Langsepp 還擔任 Festivitas Artium 音樂會社和 FA Schola 早期歐洲和亞洲音樂中心(FA Schola Centre for Early European and Asian Music)的執行人。自2000年以來他擔任早期音樂組織中央歐洲音樂節(CEFEMA) 的總裁。

橫笛

至少自11世紀的西方詩歌和藝術中便已出現橫笛。此聲音較大、有較大音孔的樂器與北印度古典音樂中的笛子幾乎完全相同。該印度笛的手法亦可用於演奏類似的中世紀樂器。

中世紀歐洲使用的橫笛類型與其聲音只能通過圖像藝術、相關中世紀器樂的文學與詩歌作品、使用類似樂器的民樂傳統和——不可掩藏的——個人想象力來猜想。無疑地,中世紀橫笛在構造上相似於最早期的笛子,相關後者的記錄來自該樂器從古至今一直受歡迎的亞洲。現討論的笛子大約爲圓筒形,除吹孔外有六或七個音孔。至於用來制笛的材料,橫笛很可能大多爲木或骨所制,但是現存的藝術片段也明顯指向竹子。聲音壯麗的橫笛亦可能用黏土所制。2006-7年,拉豪•朗才坡與陶瓷家 Anneli Lupp 合作製作了兩根各爲G和C的黏土橫笛。在考慮其他在歐洲制笛可能使用的材料時,拉豪•朗才坡製作了樺樹皮覆蓋的黏土模型;可在此節目聽到。另外,節目含拉豪•朗才坡於 2007 年製作的一根低音C橫笛。

塤爲一種球形的黏土笛子——因此它也被形容爲容器笛或球狀笛,或被稱爲陶笛,一種相似的西方樂器。它是現知最早的樂器之一——最早的塤發現於追溯到公元前5000年的中國考古遺址。塤亦出現於古典文學中,例如《詩經》,小雅,何人斯,「伯氏吹壎」(就是塤)。因此塤常被看爲中國漢族的一類民族樂器。但是,雖然可能各類禮樂團都演奏塤,中國書面資料很少提到它,直至近代考古發現使其重新受歡迎。當今塤常被演奏,且出現在電影和流行音樂內。塤的音色十分特殊且有趣,其哀愁、深沈且易變的聲音亦可獨特地模仿人聲。其構造上爲一蛋形空心容器,上有一吹孔,邊有指孔。像橫笛一樣,吹出正確的音在於正確的唇舌運用法。指孔的數目從五至七不等,雖然現代的樂器可能有更多。傳統上塤只涵蓋一個八度。

麗蓮•朗才坡(Lilian Langsepp),中世紀豎琴(哥德豎琴)

麗蓮•朗才坡是一位多才多藝的音樂家。她通過學習西方古典音樂(鋼琴、樂理和合唱團指揮)而開始她的音樂研究,且獲得愛沙尼亞國立音樂學院 (Estonian State Conservatory) 本科音樂學學位。在1994年,她開始定期地與拉豪•朗才坡參加早期音樂團體,例如 Via Sonora 和 FA Schola Ensemble。從1997年至2000年,她于瑞士的 Schola Cantorum Basiliensis 進修西班牙巴洛克豎琴、西班牙管風琴樂曲和各種即興演奏風格。另外,自1996年,她對非西方音樂的興趣促使她不僅在中世紀豎琴上演奏各類亞洲音樂,且選修了北印度和中國音樂的研究院課程。2005 年她于愛沙尼亞音樂學院 (Estonian Academy of Music) 獲得音樂學碩士學位,她的碩士論文題爲《Diego Fernandez de Huete Passacaglia 中的調式與調性結構》。她不僅出席過古典期前豎琴的獨奏演出,還出席過大鍵琴、管風琴和古箏的演出,且擔任一個格列高利聖咏(Gregorian chant)團的執行人。她製作了許多錄音且參加了許多樂團的錄音。她現在任教于塔爾圖市的塔爾圖大學和Heino Eller 音樂學院]。

中世紀豎琴(哥德豎琴)

中世紀豎琴的世界在不同大小,形狀和弦數目方面驚人地豐富。用來此專輯使用一把仿製豎琴[Is it 一把豎琴 or 一張豎琴?](2000年由德國豎琴製作家 Eric Wilhelm Kleinmann)錄製。原琴保留在愛森納赫的 Wartburg Art-Collection,很可能原屬於著名吟遊歌手 Oswald von Wolkenstein(1377—1445)。此細長、哥德式的豎琴有26弦(聲域G — d'''),按自然音階調音。額外的半音可通過減短琴弦振動的長度來演奏。除其琴弦數目帶來的寬闊音域之外,Wartburg/Wolkenstein 豎琴另一特點爲其渾厚音色,且允許改變力度的演奏技巧。亦值得注意的是整個樂器配備的L形喇叭針(bray pins)允許演奏者奏出一種中世紀豎琴獨有的嗡嗡振動聲。通過改變L形釘的位置,可以較安靜地演奏豎琴,卻保持細膩而動態的風格。

海蘭娜•塢萊可欣(Helena Uleksin),鐘琴、中世紀長笛

海蘭娜•塢萊可欣精通大鍵琴,鋼琴,古典長笛,豎笛和巴洛克長笛,與手鈴和中世紀長笛。她畢業于塔爾圖大學的愛沙尼亞文獻學系,現在正撰寫相關于愛沙尼亞語早期音樂詞匯的研究論文。自2001 她在塔爾圖II音樂學院 (Tartu II Music School) 擔任音樂指揮同時任教大鍵琴課程。自同年她成為 FA Schola 成員。

鐘琴

雖然很少用來演奏早期歐洲音樂,許多中世紀的圖例描述成套的鐘。這些普遍顯示古希臘哲學家畢達哥拉斯演奏它們。這裏使用的鍾琴(音域爲 A—f )上的鍾由1920年成立的瑞典家族商行 Morells Metallgjuteri AB 製作。該商行使用祖傳的鑄造和手工技巧。

唐世璋(John Thompson),古琴

唐世璋是古風演奏的著名古琴家。在完成西方音樂學學士和亞洲文化學研究碩士課程後,他進而深造民族音樂學。他1974年於臺灣從孫毓芹開始學習現代古琴傳統。自1976年,他著重早期曲目,親自打譜15-16世紀發表的琴譜集中150多琴曲。1992 年,中國音協民族音樂委員會邀請他作爲焦點人物參加北京的《神奇秘譜》(公元1425,現存最早琴譜)學術交流會。在作爲香港亞洲藝術節藝術顧問的同時,他在亞洲各處演出,並推出七張古琴音樂專輯和四本樂譜。自2001年定居紐約市以來他從未間斷古琴演奏,研究和教學。他的網站www.silkqin.com是收羅相關于古琴信息最廣的英語網站。

古琴

琴,或古琴,在其歷史上一直爲中國文人最珍視的樂器。文人將古琴歸爲「四藝」之一,作爲藝術品收藏,頌其美妙音樂,且以其爲中心而創立了一門複雜的學問。再無其他樂器如此詳盡地被描寫和描繪,或如此頻繁地出現在圖畫中或詩歌裏。另外,古琴譜追溯到至少現存七世紀的《幽蘭》手稿。這樣,古琴記錄了世界上最早的詳細書面器樂傳統,其許多早期琴曲可以古風式演奏(需絲弦),且其促進了中國樂理和音樂演奏之間關係的研究。

 
Program outline: Length

 
 
 
 
Istampitta in pro (medieval flute, gothic harp, bell chimes)
London, BL. Add. 29987 (1400)
7.46
 
 
 
Song of Chu (guqin solo)
    Shen Qi Mi Pu (1425)
6.50 (listen)
 
 
 
 
Clouds over the Xiao and Xiang Rivers (guqin solo)
    Shen Qi Mi Pu (1425)
6.36
 
 
 
 
 
Lamento di Tristano. La Rotta (medieval flutes, gothic harp, dizi)
    London, BL. Add. 29987 (1400)
6.27
 
 
 
 
Calling Out in Flight (guqin, gothic harp, bell chime)
    Shen Qi Mi Pu (1425)
5.52
 
 
 
Eh, vatene, segnor mio (harp solo)
    Codex Reina (XIV-XV century)
1.27
 
 
 
La nobil scala (medieval flutes, gothic harp)
    Codex Reina (XIV-XV century)
3.08
 
 
 
E con chaval (gothic harp solo)
    Codex Rossi (1370)
2.15
 
 
 
 
Nel prato pien di fiori (medieval flutes, gothic harp)
    Codex Reina (XIV-XV century)
2.20
 
 
 
 
Woodcutter's Song (guqin solo)
    Shen Qi Mi Pu (1425)
8.07
 
 
 
Istampitta Belicha (medieval flute, gothic harp, bell chime)
    London, BL. Add. 29987 (1400)
(together with next)
 
 
 
Captured Unicorn (guqin solo)
    Shen Qi Mi Pu (1425)
15.51
 
 
 
La Manfredina (medieval flute, gothic harp, bell chime, guqin)
    London, BL. Add. 29987 (1400)
9.54   Listen 1
  The final three melodies above are played without break;
sections of Istampitta Belicha alternate with sections of Captured Unicorn; the qin joins in for La Manfredina
 

 
節目: 時間

 
 
 
 
埃斯坦比塔舞曲(中世紀長笛、哥特式豎琴,鐘琴),
倫敦大英博物館,附加29987號樂譜(1400年)
7.46分鐘
 
 
 
楚歌 (古琴獨奏)
    神奇秘譜 (1425年)
6.50
 
 
 
 
瀟湘水雲 (古琴獨奏)
    神奇秘譜 (1425年)
6.36
 
 
 
 
 
崔斯坦之悲歌,羅塔舞曲(中世紀長笛、哥特式豎琴)
    倫敦大英博物館,附加29987號樂譜(1400年)
6.27
 
 
 
 
飛鳴吟 (古琴、哥特式豎琴,鐘琴)
    神奇秘譜(1425年)
5.52
 
 
 
我的先生,走開吧(豎琴獨奏)
    瑞納抄本(巴黎,14-15世紀)
1.27
 
 
 
高貴的階梯(中世紀長笛、哥特式豎琴)
    瑞納抄本(14-15世紀)
3.08
 
 
 
騎着馬(哥特式豎琴獨奏)
    羅西抄本(1370)
2.15
 
 
 
 
在那塊開滿鮮花的田地(中世紀長笛、哥特式豎琴)
    瑞納抄本(14-15世紀)
2.20
 
 
 
 
樵歌 (古琴獨奏)
    神奇秘譜(1425年)
8.07
 
 
 
貝利卡的埃斯坦比塔舞曲(中世紀長笛、哥特式豎琴,鐘琴)
    倫敦大英博物館,附加29987號樂譜(1400年)
(見下)
 
 
 
獲麟(古琴獨奏)
    《神奇秘譜》 (1425年)
15.51
 
 
 
曼弗雷迪納(中世紀長笛、哥特式豎琴,鐘琴、古琴)
    倫敦大英博物館,附加29987號樂譜(1400年)
9.54

 
Recorded in the Tartu University Teacher Training College Hall
(January and February 2008)

Recorded by Peeter Konks
Digital editing and mastering by Peeter Konks

Booklet texts: Raho Langsepp, John Thompson, Lilian Langsepp
Editor: Helena Uleksin
Chinese translation: Jin Qiuyu, Yu Zhigang
Cover calligraphy: Cui Shikai
Cover and booklet design: Helmi Marie Langsepp
Cover and booklet layout: Helena Uleksin
Booklet photos: Malev Toom, Sheng Shiyi

 
於塔爾圖大學師範學院大廳錄製
(2008年一、二月)

Peeter Konks 錄音
Peeter Konks 數字編輯、原版

本冊正文﹕拉豪•朗才坡、唐世璋、麗蓮•朗才坡
編輯﹕海蘭娜•塢萊可欣
中文翻譯﹕金秋雨、余志剛
封面書法﹕崔世凱
封面與本冊設計﹕Helmi Marie Langsepp
封面與本冊排版﹕海蘭娜•塢萊可欣
攝影﹕Malev Toom、盛識伊

 

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. La Manfredina Recording (listen)
The recording linked here is from a live performance; details are on the 2008 performances page. In contrast, on the CD the relative sound of the guqin and the Western instruments is better balanced, but sea sound was added to the background to mask some extraneous noises.

Some of the relevant guqin music is also available for listening on this site, including Chu Ge and (Huo Lin
(Return)

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