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SQMP ToC   /   Tracing chart       Huitong Yin 首頁
39. Emperor Yu's Gathering at Mount Tu
- Zhi mode, standard tuning: 5 6 1 2 3 5 6, but played as 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 2
 
禹會塗山
Yu Hui Tushan 1
Emperor Yu's meeting 3                  
Yu Hui Tushan concerns an event mentioned in Basic Annals 2 of the Book of History,4 which includes a biography of the legendary Emperor Yu, successor to successor to Emperor Shun and most famous for having controlled floods in China. The body of the annal says only that Yu died at Kuaiji5 while on an imperial inspection tour of the east, but in his afterword Sima Qian adds that some sources say that before dying Yu had a meeting there with feudal lords to assess their merits; he was then buried in Kuaiji.

The meeting was said to have taken place on Mount Tu in Kuaiji, the ancient name of a region near Shaoxing, southeast of Hangzhou, not far from the coast. Mount Tu was also said to have been the home of Yu's wife. While this is sometimes said to have been in Kuaiji, her birth place is more often associated with a Tushan in Anhui province.6

This is another melody attributed to the famous qin player Mao Minzhong, who flourished at the end of the Southern Song dynasty in Hangzhou, its capital. The Zheyin Shizi Qinpu version, which is related but quite different, is also attributed to Mao. Both prefaces say that the melody was created at the beginning of the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368) in protest against the barbarian Yuan government (see also #40 Qiao Ge).7

(Shangguo) Guanguang (Making a Tour of [the Great Country]8) is used as a title for this melody in a number of qin handbooks beginning with the third (1525). This title quite possibly comes from a story told by Wang Feng (1319-1388) in the preface to his poem Hearing Qin Master Ye's Guanguang Cao. He here relates that Mao Minzhong, having gone to the new capital, Beijing, with the qin players Ye Lanpo and Xu Qiushan, died while preparing to play a piece of this title before Kublai Khan. Wang later heard Ye Lanpo's grandson play Guan Guang Cao, presumably the same melody.9

These titles survive in at least 40 handbooks through 1876.10 The Zheyin version adds lyrics and gives titles to each section. However, it has only 12 sections, so the titles used here are from the Xilutang Qintong version. The only other available recording of this title is of the Zheyin version (cf. My CD, Music Beyond Sound ).

In the Shen Qi Mi Pu Table of Contents there is a marginal note next to Yu Hui Tushan saying "Huitong Yin (Grand Gathering Prelude) was not selected". Huitong Yin does in fact later appear as a prelude to Yu Hui Tushan. Why it was omitted in Shen Qi Mi Pu is never stated.11

 
Original Preface12

The Emaciated Immortal says,

the composition of this piece was done by Mao Minzhong. Emperor Yu of the Xia dynasty succeeded to his rank after Emperor Shun bestowed it on him. Yu then traveled south where he inspected Mount Tu in Kuaiji. The prosperity of Yu and (his predecessor) Emperor Shun continued. (Yu then) called together all the nobles of his kingdom, and the myriad countries came paying homage with gifts of jade and silk. There has never been an atmosphere of grandeur greater than this. At the beginning of the barbarian Yuan dynasty this melody was thus written thinking back on the virtues of the Song dynasty, and its feelings are in this.

 
Music
14 sections (Titles
13 are from Xilutang Qintong, 1525)

(00.00) 01. Imperial tour around the country
(00.55) 02. Crossing the (Yangzi) river
(01.40) 03. The yellow dragon carries the boat
(02.10) 04. The commission accords with the Way of Heaven
(02.32) 05. Royal stop at Mount Tu
(03.16) 06. Jade and cloth (as money) from the myriad territories
(03.47) 07. The princes arrive to request orders
(04.14) 08. Encouraging promotions and demotions
(04.42) 09. All the princes tremble with fright
(05.10) 10. Repairing the principles of government
(05.32) 11. Rulers and officials congratulate each other
(06.04) 12. Etiquette is clarified and problems are stopped
(06.38) 13. The jingling sound of jade ornaments
(07.23) 14. Assembled carriages turn around
(08.18) --- play harmonics of this mode
(08.33) --- Composition ends

Return to the Shen Qi Mi Pu ToC or to the Guqin ToC.

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page) 夏禹

1. Yu Hui Tusham 禹會塗山)
25449.75 禹會村 Yuhui cun is a village in Anhui; 5429.5 塗山 Tushan identifies mountains in Anhui, Zhejiang and Sichuan. All claim association with the wife of Emperor Yu. Yu's native place is sometimes said to have been Sichuan. 5429.6 Tushan Ge (塗山歌) is attrib. to Yu of Xia 夏禹 when he married a woman of Tu.
(Return)

2. Zhi mode (徵調 Zhi diao)
For more on this mode see Shenpin Zhi Yi as well as Modality in Early Ming Qin Tablature.
(Return)

3. Image
See details with this larger image.
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4. Book of History reference
William H. Nienhauser, ed., The Grand Scribe's Records, Vol. I. Taiwan, SMC Publishing House, 1996 (originally Indiana University Press, 1994). Pages 32 and 38.
(Return)

5. 會稽 Kuaiji (or Guiji, or Huiji)
The present reference seems to be either a place in Shaoxing or the region around Shaoxing. Today in Shaoxing there is a 禹廟 Yu Miao, part of what is today called the Mausoleum of Emperor Yu.

14636.156 mostly refers to this region, but mentions other places as well:

  1. 會計也 Same as Huiji, giving its earliest reference 史記,夏記贊 Shi Ji Book 2, end: 或言禹會諸侯江南,計功而崩,因葬焉,命曰會稽。會稽者,會計也。Nienhauser, GSR, Vol. 1, p.38, translates this: "Some say Yu met the feudal lords south of the (Yangzi) to assess their merits and died there. Accordingly he was buried there. The place was named Kuaiji. 會稽 Kuaiji means 會計 'gather together to evaluate'."
  2. 山名 name of a mountain (or hill) south of Qingdao in Shandong;
    another on the southeast side of 紹興 Shaoxing (this has the longest commentary).
  3. 道名 the name of a road near Shaoxing; the reference is modern.
  4. 郡名 the name of a commandery 秦置 established in Qin dynasty; it included parts of eastern Jiangsu and western Zhejiang, centered on 蘇州 Suzhou.
  5. 縣名 the name of a county established in the Sui dynasty; in the Republican period the name was changed to Shaoxing.

5/791 會稽 says today this is pronounced "guiji"; it mentions a mountain or hill near Shaoxing and a commandery as above.
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6. There was no Kuaiji associated with Anhui province. Modern Shaoxing city maps show a small hill named Tushan (涂山, which seems to be the simplified version of 塗山); Anhui maps have this Tushan just outside the city of 懷遠 Huaiyuan. Kuaiji Mountains Park, south of Shaoxing, does not have a Tushan.
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7. Protest song? Zheyin adds at the end, "Ah! The peace of people in former times transposed into the music of today. What to you think of that!" The versions of 1531 and 1539 have no commentary. 1546 and 1547 also have no commentary, but a subtitle says it is "also called Shangguo Guanguang". 1525, which calls it Guan Guang but adds that it is also called Yu Hui Tushan, has a short afterword telling the flood story. No surviving qin handbook mentions playing for Kublai Khan (see next footnote).
(Return)

8. Around the Great Country Making a Grand Tour (上國觀光 Shang Guo Guanguang)
Also called "Guan Guang' for short. 17.xxx. 17.505 上國 shang guo; 35820.38 觀光 guanguang. The latter gives an old meaning concerned with doing rituals properly; nothing related to here.
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9. Playing the qin for Kublai Khan
This information is summarized in 許健 Xu Jian, 琴史初編 Qin Shi Chubian. 王逢 Wang Feng, 聽葉琴師觀光操 Hearing Qin Master Ye's Guanguang Cao, is included in 琴書大全 Qinshu Daquan Folio 19B (see QQJC Vol. V, p.438). 21295.1218 has three men named Wang Feng; one is Tang, one is early Sung, so this must be the third one (see also Zhongguo Lidai Renming Dacidian, p.125). 葉蘭坡 Ye Lanpo and 徐秋山 Xu Qiushan were well-known qin players.
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10. Tracing Yu Hui Tushan (see tracing chart)
See Zha Guide 6/60/89; all versions are 徵 zhi mode (徵調 zhi diao or 徵音 zhi yin) unless otherwise noted.
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11. 會同引 Huitong Yin: Grand Gathering Prelude
A Huitong Yin, three sections, survives in at least seven handbooks, often preceding Yu Hui Tushan (which in 1525 is called Guan Guang). There is no information about why the SQMP Table of Contents says under the entry Yu Hui Tushan that, "The Grand Gathering Prelude was not selected" ("會同引不取 Huitong Yin bu qu". It is even more unclear why its omission was especially noted, but perhaps this could be considered as evidence that the surviving Huitong Yin was not a new piece. It is further discussed in this separate entry.
(Return)

12. Original preface
The original Chinese preface (see 禹會塗山) is:

臞仙曰﹕是曲之製,毛公敏仲所擬。夏禹嗣舜禪之後,禹南巡狩於會稽之塗山。承唐虞之盛。會天下諸侯,執玉帛來朝者萬國。其熙皞之風,莫有加於此焉。胡元之初,故作是操,追慕宋德,亦有感於中矣。

The commentary in 1491 is almost the same, but in 1525 the commentary (afterword) is much shorter:

禹受舜禪,南廵狩,會諸矦於塗山,承唐虞之盛,執玉帛者萬國,曲意本此。

This basically summarizes the 1425 preface.
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13. The original Chinese titles are as follows:

01. 巡狩方岳
02. 自江而濟
03. 黃龍負舟
04. 奉若天道
05. 駐蹕塗山
06. 萬方玉帛
07. 述職請命
08. 勸賞黜陟
09. 諸侯震疊
10. 綱紀脩明
11. 君臣胥慶
12. 風清弊絕
13. 環珮鏗鏘
14. 屬車旋軫
(Return)

 
Appendix: Chart Tracing 禹會塗山 Yu Hui Tushan
This chart covers the following entries from Zha Fuxi's
Guide (comment):

禹會塗山 Yu Hui Tushan (6/60/89)
塗山         Tu Shan (= above)
上國觀光 Shang Guo Guanguang (= above)
觀光         Guan Guang (= above)

      琴譜
    (year; QQJC Vol/page)
Further information
(QQJC = 琴曲集成 Qinqu Jicheng; QF = 琴府 Qin Fu)
  1.  神奇秘譜
      (1425; I/151)
14 sections; 徵調 zhi mode; attributed to Mao Minzhong
 
  2.  浙音釋字琴譜
      (<1491; I/216)
12T (details); 徵調 zhi mode; lyrics (begin "夏后氏文命,禹嗣舜帝禪位,....")
virtually same preface as 1425, but melody has some significant differences
  3. 西麓堂琴統
      (1525; III/150)
觀光 Guan Guang; 14; very similar music; "also called Yu Hui Tu Shan";
Afterword much shorter; it makes no attribution. Preceded by Hui Tong Yin
  4. 發明琴譜
      (1530; I/369)
14; like 1425
 
  5. 風宣玄品
      (1539; II/256)
14; grouped under 徵調 zhi mode; no commentary
Closely related
  6. 梧岡琴譜
      (1546; I/431)
"also called 上國觀光 Shang Guo Guanguang"; 12; begins quite similar to 1425;
First phrase repeated; at end are instructions to play harmonic coda
  7. 步虛僊琴譜
      (1556; III/292)
塗山; Tu Shan; 11; no closing harmonics; preceded by Hui Tong Yin
No commentary; another variant
  8. 太音傳習
      (1552; IV/113)
13; attributed to Mao Minzhong; another related version; preceded by Hui Tong Yin
After first phrase "艹厂6 5" then repeat
  9. 太音補遺
      (1557; III/358)
12; same as 1546; commentary attributes Mao Minzhong;
Preceded by Hui Tong Yin
10. 琴譜正傳
      (1561; II/504)
Identical to 1646
 
   . 新刊正文對音捷要
      (1573; #49)
Same as 1585?
 
11. 重修真傳琴譜
      (1585; IV/441)
12T; attributes to Mao Minzhong
lyrics almost same as 1491; music related but actually very different
12. 玉梧琴譜
      (1589; VI/53)
12; preface same as 1425; "also called Shang Guo Guanguang";
Opening phrase repeated; compare 1546
13 真傳正宗琴譜
      (1589; VII/109)
13T; lyrics different from earlier ("洪荒開,降水也警予 [repeat]...."); long preface;
Music still related (艹 7-2 before repeating 1st phrase); attribution still to Mao Minzhong
14. 琴書大全
      (1590; V/507)
14; no commentary; melody continues to develop differences
 
15. 文會堂琴譜
      (1596; VI/246)
14; Opening not like 1546; opening phrase is repeated;
Has as a prelude Hui Bin Yin
16. 藏春塢琴譜
      (1602; VI/393)
12; not identical to 1589; 1st phrase not repeated;
Preface: "Also called Shang Guo Guanguang", adds phrases before copying rest of 1425
17. 陽春堂琴譜
      (1611; VII/398)
13; no comments; starts like 1589#2;
(太古正音琴譜)
18. 松絃館琴譜
      (1614; VIII/119)
18; first piece in "徵" section (last is Huitong Yin); 1st phrase split in two and repeated;
Compare 1614 #1-2 with 1425 #1; #14-18 add much to 1425 #13-14
19. 樂仙琴譜
      (1623; VIII/431)
13; 徵音; opens like 1589#2
 
20. 古音正宗
      (1634; IX/331)
14T; 徵音; "also called Shang Guo Guanguang"; no further comment
After first phrase "二弓上七已", then phrase repeat written out
21. 義軒琴經
      (late Ming; IX/434)
13; "塗山 Tu Shan"; begins like 1634; no commentary
 
22. 徽言秘旨
      (1647; X/137)
18; 徵音; no other comment; very similar to 1614;
Next piece is Huitong Yin
23. 徽言秘旨訂
      (1692; fac/_)
18; presumed identical to 1647
 
24. 臣奔堂琴譜
      XI/104)
14; 徵調; blurred comment about location of Tushan (塗山在--東--王朝諸-三地?)
Section 1 subtitled "即萬國來朝 myriad countries come to the court"
25. 琴苑新傳全編
 #1 (1670; XI/385)
"1614 version" but 17 sections (its #1 is 1614 #1 & 2); "琴川道澈嚴澂集";
Preface: Mao Minzhong; Afterword: discusses different 1614 versions?
26. 琴苑新傳全編
 #2 (1670; XI/500)
13; "周本 Zhou volume"; like 1589#2 (lyrics written small);
Same preface but no mention of 1614; no afterword
26. 琴苑新傳全編
 #3 (1670; XI/521)
16; "音研本 Yin Yan volume";
Same preface and comment; no afterword
27. 大還閣琴譜
      (1673; X/383)
18; 塗山 Tu Shan; like 1614
No commentary
28. 德音堂琴譜
      (1691; XII/550)
18; 塗山 Tu Shan; like 1614
No commentary
30. 蓼懷堂琴譜
      (1702; XIII/238)
18; 禹會塗山 Yu Hui Tushan!; like 1614
No commentary; p.265 has 萬國來朝 (Guide)
31. 琴譜析微
      (1692; XIII/92)
18; 塗山 Tu Shan; like 1614
No commentary
32. 臥雲樓琴譜
      (1722; XV/70)
18; 塗山 Tu Shan; like 1614
No commentary
33. 琴劍合譜
      (1749; XVIII/322)
18; 禹會塗山 Yu Hui Tushan!; more ornamented than 1614;
No commentary
34. 琴香堂琴譜
      (1760; XVII/97)
18; 禹會塗山 Yu Hui Tushan!; more ornamented than 1614;
No commentary
35. 研露樓琴譜
      (1766; XVI/477)
16; starts "緩作 play slowly"; long ornament on second note
 
36. 自遠堂琴譜
      (1802; XVII/396)
18; 塗山 Tu Shan; "商音 shang yin"; much more ornamented than 1614;
No commentary
37. 裛露軒琴譜
      (>1802; XIX/303)
18; 徵音; 北音 northern sound;
Long ornament on second note (compare 1766)
38. 稚雲琴譜
      (1849; XXIII/381)
18; 禹會塗山 Yu Hui Tushan but starts like 1614;
No commentary
39. 天聞閣琴譜
      (1876; XXV/362)
18; 徵音; "= 1702"
 
40. 天籟閣琴譜
      (1876; XXI/155)
16; 1st phrase repeated with more ornaments on repeat;
Preceded by 萬國來朝 (1 section but almost same as in 1702)

Return to the Shen Qi Mi Pu ToC or to the Guqin ToC.