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03. Mount Tiantai Prelude
- Zhi mode,2 standard tuning: 5 6 1 2 3 5 6, but played as 1 2 4 5 6 1 2
天台引 1
Tiantai Yin
  Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao entering the Tiantai Mountains 3
There are various Chinese tales of people wandering into a secluded area, often a peach grove, and exiting to find a great amount of time has passed. The theme also has been illustrated in traditional paintings (see example at right).4 The peach tree spring or grotto became a metaphor for an idyllic place, Tiantai Mountain for a place to seek immortality. Nathaniel Hawthorne is said to have known at least one of these stories, leading to his Rip Van Winkle.

The tales' most common locales are Tiantai Mountain, southeast of Shaoxing in Zhejiang province,5 and Wuling Mountain, in northwestern Hunan province.6 In the story usually associated with Wuling Mountain a man goes to a peach tree spring, where he finds an idyllic society which knows nothing of history or the affairs of the world; he leaves, intending to come back, but cannot find it again. This version of the story is most famously found in Tao Yuanming's Taohuayuan Ji7 and Wang Wei's Taohua Xing.8 Further details of this are included with the introduction to the musically unrelated melody Taoyuan Chunxiao.

The story related here in the preface to Tiantai Yin, though attributed to the Wuling Mountain Scholar (later called Wuling Immortal),9 more closely resembles the stories generally associated with Tiantai Mountain. This confusion appears to have been rather common. The Tiantai Yin preface quotes Wu Jun's Continuation of All Writings of the Qi dynasty,10 which names the visitors to Peach Tree Spring as Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao (see painting), and says they originally lived in the 1st century CE.11

The title Tiantai Yin appears in seven handbooks to 1894.12 However, only Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu (1585), which has an almost identical preface and lyrics, seems to have music related to that of the present version; the 1585 preface also says it is by the Wuling Immortal.13 The five later versions seem to have no musical relationship to here. Also musically unrelated are several pieces with titles concerning peach groves.14

Because of pages missing from the surviving copy of Zheyin Shizi Qinpu, the tablature for this piece ends after one line of Section Three. Although related, the 1585 version seems too different and has too many problems to be used at this time to try to recover the whole piece. In my recording I add one note at the end of the surviving portion, so that the performance finishes on the primary tonal center of the mode.

 
Zheyin Shizi Qinpu preface: 15

The Beyond-Sounds Immortal says, as for this prelude, it was created by the Wuling Mountain Scholar. The Royal Ancestor's Handbook doesn't have this prelude.

According to Peachtree Spring in Xu Jixie Ji, Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao went to Tiantai Mountain to gather medicine. By mistake they entered the Grotto of Peachtree Spring. They could see only peach blossoms on either shore; for two or three li there were no households. Continuing forward, in the flowing stream they saw that there were bits of hemp seed. Continuing forward several more dozen steps, they suddenly encountered two female immortals and were invited to their home. They presented mountain fruit, dried mountain goat meat and hempseed rice, and prepared wine and special delicacies. Then they proposed a wedding ceremony so they could get married.

After 15 days (the men) excused themselves to the immortals, (saying), "We will go home to see our parents, then return." The immortals answered, "You have both spent seven generations in this idyllic marriage, attaining immortal women as mates, and now you want to leave just because your original relations are not yet broken. (But) once you have gone, how can you come back?" Liu and Yuan insisted. When Yuan returned home seven generations of children and grandchildren (had passed and they) no longer recognized him, though they had heard of their ancestor who had gone to Tiantai Mountain to pick medicine, but never returned. Liu and Yuan then (tried to) go back, but they couldn't find the immortal women.

As a result of this, someone later wrote a poem which says,16

Hempseed in the stream tells which direction to go;
there's no need to look for the medicine (of immortality).
Liu didn't understand this; mistakenly he went home.
(So) he missed out seven generations of human life.

Thus we have this prelude. Oh! What a situation!

 
Music and Lyrics
11 Sections? All have titles and lyrics. Titles 4-11 here are from
Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu 17

00.00   1. A stone road in the cloudy mountains
00.51   2. Grass, trees, mists and fog
01.37   3. An old grotto with peach trees by a spring
01.52       end of surviving tablature and recording
__.__   4. Hempseed in the flowing water
__.__   5. Earthly destiny brings an immortal mate
__.__   6. The worldly attachments of the common man
__.__   7. Sadness at departure
__.__   8. Recalling Master Lang (Liu Lang? and Ruan Zhao?)
__.__   9. Returning to Tiantai
__.__   10. Traces of the Immortals are hard to find
__.__   11. Trying in vain to recall old friends

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Mount Tiantai Prelude (天台引 Tiantai Yin)
5961.290 天台 mentions various actual mountains. There are a number of expressions with Tiantai concerning Buddhism, but none references a version of the present story.
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2. Zhi mode (徴調 zhi diao)
For more on zhi mode see Shenpin Zhi Yi and Modality in Early Ming Qin Tablature.
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3. 趙蒼雲:劉晨阮肇入天台山圖卷 Liu Chen and Yuan Zhao Entering the Tiantai Mountains, Zhao Cangyun (fl. late 13th–early 14th c.)
Currently the Metropolitan Museum of New York has online segments of the long scroll, including the scene above; this scene was also included under Recent Acquisitions in the Museum's Bulletin for Fall 2006, at which time it was a "Promised Gift of the Oscar L. Tang Family (L.1997.24.3)". In the whole scroll, "the story unfolds as an episodic narrative, with individual scenes set off from one another by blank spaces insribed with text. In the section illustrated here, Liu and Ruan are guests at an elaborate outdoor banquet."

The Museum exhibited this painting in 2012/13, at which time it put online extensive commentary that included the following:

"Painted by a member of the Song royal family who lived through the Mongol conquest, this handscroll, which revives the monochrome drawing style of the scholar-artist Li Gonglin (ca. 1041–1106), chronicles the legend of two men of the Han dynasty who stumble upon a magical realm of immortals. Returning home after what seemed like half a year, they discover that seven generations have come and gone and that they are alone in the world. The men’s loss of home and paradise evokes the disorientation and alienation felt by many of the Chinese elite following the fall of the Song dynasty in 1279.

What little we know of the artist is contained in the colophons mounted after the painting. The first, by Hua Youwu (1307–after 1386), describes Zhao Cangyun as an artist known for “boneless” (without outlines) ink-wash landscapes and delicate figure paintings. Hua also states that the artist was more famous in his youth than his fellow clansmen Zhao Mengjian (1199–before 1267) and Zhao Mengfu (1254–1322). As Zhao Cangyun withdrew to the mountains and lived as a recluse, never marrying or serving as an official, no documentation, except this scroll, survives.

There is further online information on this theme via related titles such as "劉晨阮肇誤入桃源" and "劉阮遇仙".
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4. Some further examples are mentioned in connection with the exhibition Fantastic Mountains.
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5. Tiantai Mountains (天台 Tian Tai or 天台山 Tiantai Shan) (Wikipedia)
The Tiantai mountains, about 100 km southeast of Shaoxing in Zhejiang province, are famous for having been centers for both Buddhism and Daoism: the Tiantai Sect of Buddhism is said to have originated there at the 國清寺 Guoqing Temple (Wiki), while the Southern School of Quanzhen Daoism is said to have originated with 張伯端 Zhang Boduan there at the Tongbo Palace (桐柏宫 Tongbo Gong, formerly 桐柏觀 Tongbo Guan). 桐柏真人 Tongbo Zhenren was a nickname for Wangzi Qiao, but his connection to this temple is unclear. Tongbo Palace claims connection to the story of two famous qins.

The melody Taoyuan Chunxiao tells a similar story to here, but is connected to the Wuling mountains.
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6. Wuling Mountain (武陵 Wuling)
16823.254 武陵 (no 山 shan) lists this as mountains in Jiangxi, Hubei and Guizhou; a river in Guangxi; and a district of Hunan and Jiangsu; and counties in Hubei and Hunan. The relevant Wuling here is probably the one in Hunan. No references are given to a Wuling Shanzi or Wuling Xianzi. The are also entries for 武陵春 Wuling Chun, 武陵桃源 Wuling Taoyuan and 武陵源 Wuling Chun, all referring to the Tao Yuanming story.

See also Wuling Mountain Scholar. Does the poetic reference Man of Wuling (武陵人 Wuling ren) refer to this story, suggesting someone who has disappeared, hopefully to a valley of immortals? See, for example, Fenghuang Taishang Yi Chui Xiao.
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7. 陶元明 Tao Yuanming, 桃花原記 Taohuayuan Ji
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8. 王維 Wang Wei, 桃花行 Taohua Xing
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9. Wuling Mountain Scholar (武陵山子 Wuling Shanzi)
Elsewhere: Wuling Immortal (武陵仙 Wuling Xian or 武陵仙子 Wuling Xianzi
16823.254 only 武陵 Wuling; there are no references to a real person of this name. In addition, "Wuling Shanzi" seems to be a term used only here, whereas later versions such as 1585 credit "Wuling Xianzi". Wuling Xianzi is also said in some prefaces to have composed 羽化登仙 Yuhua Deng Xian (one of the "five great melodies" [大曲 daqu])
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10. Continuation of Qi Xie's Records (續齊諧記 Xu Qi Xie Ji)
28686.85 續齊諧記 Xu Qi Xie Ji, one folio. The author was 吳均 Wu Jun.

Robert Ford Campany, Strange Writing, p.80, says nothing is known of Qi Xie other than that he was an official in the 劉松 Liu Song dynasty (5th century); his Records (齊諧記 Qi Xie Ji) are mentioned in a Sui dynasty catalogue but its text only survives in much later publications. As for the Continuation, Campany (p.88) says that almost all the stories in it are also quoted in other pre-Tang dynasty sources. The standard edition (CTP) includes two stories that mention qin: the one about 王敬伯 Wang Jingbo and one about 劉元 Liu Yuan.
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11. Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao 劉晨、院肇
2270.754 劉晨 Liu Chen says that during the Latter Han dynasty he went to Tiantai Mountain with Ruan Zhao.
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12. Tracing Tiantai Yin (tracing chart)
The Appendix, Chart Tracing Tiantai Yin, is based on Zha Fuxi's Guide 11/114/190.
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13. Tiantai Yin of 1585
Its preface (QQJC IV/457) is virtually identical to that of 1491, omitting only "希仙曰" from the beginning and changing the ending from "故有是引。云噫!偶哉。" to "而故有是引焉"。 The lyrics of 1491 are basically repeated in the first two sections of 1585: to compare these lyrics follow the link below.

The music of 1585 is also clearly related to that of 1591. And it is also quite possible to make the rhythm of the first two sections of each version so that both are very similar. But in spite of this, and the apparently near-identical lyrics, the tablature of the first two sections of 1585 is different enough that it would be very challenging to use sectons 3 to 11 of the 1585 version to try to recover the 1491 complete original. The main reasons for this are that the musical and stylistic idioms seem quite different: the 1585 version has many more non-pentatonic notes, and the 1585 tablature itself has numerous idiosyncracies (in particular some convoluted fingering indications) as well as many clear transcription errors (unplayable as written, not simply odd).
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14. Qin melodies concerning peach groves or springs
See further comment. Examples include 桃李園 Tao Li Yuan (Zha Guide) and 桃源吟 Taoyuan Yin (Guide) as well as 桃源春曉 Taoyuan Chunxiao.
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15. Original Preface
The original Chinese preface can be seen under 天台引.
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16. Lyrics in the Preface
These anonymous lyrics are not set to the present melody. In Chinese they are:

流水胡麻好問津,何須採藥更求真。
劉郎不悟空歸去,虛度人間七世春。
They were included in an anonymous Yuan dynasty story entitled 金璧故事五卷, so perhaps were copied from there (ctext.org).
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17. Original section titles and lyrics
The Chinese section titles (compare under 天台引) and lyrics for the melody fragment in Zheyin Shizi Qinpu are as follows (note the rhymes):

1. 雲山石路 Yún Shān Shí Lù
雲山漫漫,石路灣灣,
Yún shān màn màn, shí lù wān wān,
流水潺潺,幽鳥呵關關。
Liú shuǐ chán chán, yōu niǎo ā guān guān.
天不夜,日不落,月不殘,
Tiān bú yè, rì bù luò, yuè bù cán,
雞鳴犬吠,那風景呵非人間。
Jī míng quǎn fèi, nà fēng jǐng fēi rén jiān.
花爛熳,路入天台山,
Huā làn màn, lù rù Tiān Tái Shān,
劉、阮兮縱往還,剔藥兮脩還丹。         (剔 "pick" was miswritten 劚 zhu)
Liú-Ruǎn xī zòng wǎng huán, tī yào xī xiū huán dān.
依翠壁,躋蒼巒,猿爲友,鶴也爲伴,
Yī cuì bì, jī cāng luán, yuán wèi yǒu, hè yě wèi bàn,
松爲食。攀援。
Sōng wèi shí. Pān yuán.

2. 草樹烟霞 Cǎo Shù Yān Xiá
紫芝崖谷那逶迤,(那逶)迤,
Zǐ zhī yá gǔ nà wēi yí,(nà wēi) yí,
烟霞草樹,嵐光翠色萬年枝。
Yān xiá cǎo shù, lán guāng cuì sè wàn nián zhī.
山隱映,路蹊嶇,雲門禹穴,藤蘿逐步逐步慢攀移。
Shān yǐn yìng, lù qí qū, yún mén
Yǔ Xué, téng luó zhú bù zhú bù màn pān yí.
勝游佳景,風和日麗,春光呵明媚。
Shèng yóu jiā jǐng, fēng hé rì lì, chūn guāng ā míng mèi.
飮泉憩石,的那披雲度嶺怡偸。
Yǐn quán qì shí, dì nà pī yún dù lǐng yí tōu.
劉、阮兮,採苓尋木,竹藍兒對挈雙提。
Liú-Ruǎn xī, cǎi líng xún mù, zhú lán er duì qiè shuāng tí.
雲深處,盡日忘歸。
Yún shēn chù, jǐn rì wàng guī.
香惹袖,濕沾衣。徘徊緩步,天路齊迷。
Xiāng rě xiù, shī zhān yī. Pái huái huǎn bù, tiān lù qí mí.

3. 桃源古洞 Táo yuán gǔ dòng
步桃源,數十里絕人烟,松門石磴白雲連。
Bù táo yuán, shù shí lǐ jué rén yān, sōng mén shí dèng bái yún lián.
仙....
Xiān....

These <1491 lyrics are the same as those for Sections 1 and 2 of the 1585 complete version (this is not completely clear from the lyrics as copied in Zha Guide 190 [714]; see this .pdf file, which has Section 1 of the 1585 version begin, "溪山漫漫....") or on the website www.qinzhijie.com (compare 1491 and 1585). The lyrics for Sections 3 to the end of the complete 1585 version as copied from the latter are as follows:

3. 桃源古洞 Táo Yuán Gǔ Dòng
步桃源,數十里絕人煙,
Bù táo yuán, shù shí lǐ jué rén yān,
松門石磴白雲連。仙鳥漫飛旋,戾天鳶,
Sōng mén shí dèng bái yún lián. Xiān niǎo màn fēi xuán, lì tiān yuān,
臺山擁翠聳巍巔,緩步進岩前。
Tái Shān yōng cuì sǒng wēi diān, huǎn bù jìn yán qián.
光隱映,洞中天,清風一逕,桃花紅,夾岸鮮姸。
Guāng yǐn yìng, dòng zhōng tiān, qīng fēng yī jìng, táo huā hóng, jiā àn xiān yán.
門寂靜,嫣然,嫣然,通碧澗,
Mén jì jìng, yān rán, yān rán, tōng bì jiàn,
引紅泉涓涓,紅泉涓涓,的涓涓。
Yǐn hóng quán juān juān, hóng quán juān juān, de juān juān.
耕砂種玉佈藍田,佈藍田。
Gēng shā zhǒng yù bù lán tián, bù lán tián.
應是乾坤大,日月長人間,天上散誕神仙的神仙。
Yīng shì qián kūn dà, rì yuè cháng rén jiān, tiān shàng sàn dàn shén xiān, de shén xiān.

4. 流水胡麻 Liú Shuǐ Hú Má
轉壑溪流,悠悠寂寂,
Zhuǎn hè xī liú, yōu yōu jí jí,
涓涓滴滴。週遭滚滾縈迂,
Juān juān dī dī. Zhōu zāo gǔn gǔn yíng yū,
無休不息。塵寰仙蹟的仙蹟。           (for 蹟 "traces" pu has "𧾷+賓": not in
ZWDCD)
Wú xiū bù xī. Chén huán xiān jī de xiān jī.
舉棹漁郞,要津遙隔,
Jǔ zhào yú láng, yào jīn yáo gé,
間渡阮、劉難識的難識。
Jiān dù Ruǎn-Liú nán shí de nán shí.
泛中流,見胡麻飯屑,非谷粟,非麰非蘖。
Fàn zhōng liú, jiàn hú má fàn xiè, fēi gǔ sù, fēi móu fēi niè.
天香透徹三關,那神淸氣絜。
Tiān xiāng tòu chè sān guān, nà shén qīng qì jié.
地長靈根,占仙家天庭供設。
Dì cháng líng gēn, zhàn xiān jiā tiān tíng gōng shè.
令人不老也,長生壽山,
Lìng rén bù lǎo yě, cháng shēng Shòu Shān,
長生壽山髙截,的髙截。           (delete repeated phrase?)
Cháng shēng Shòu Shān gāo jié, de gāo jié.

5. 塵緣仙偶 Chén Yuán Xiān ǒu
通津,天和草樹半煙雲,連墻接屋皆居民。
Tōng jīn, tiān hé cǎo shù bàn yān yún, lián qiáng jiē wū jiē jū mín.
雲是漢世官臣,家移此,因避秦,因避秦。
飡霞飮露生,爲人紅顏也白頭新。
塵緣也,能相親,塵緣仙偶仙偶,友愛如賔。
憶劉郞淂與i仙女爲姻,具仙菓,山羊脯,筵開酒飮逡巡。
情繾綣,意相循,意因循。

6. 世路凡心
悲傷,斜陽,悲傷,斜陽,流水憶家鄕。
凄涼,興亡今古事堪傷,只妨桑田滄海地天荒。
遙思衷腸,父母那門閭倚望,道路何長。
洞天日月那何忙,歸去再來何妨,再來何妨。
歸去呵,嘆俗緣未斷,想再會尤難。
殷勤相送,攜手別離,遙出仙關。
玉佩聲,飛步連環,
青鸞罷舞那瑤堦,想復那仙班,那仙班,仙班。

7. 別離惆悵
雲液旣歸須強飮,叮嚀,玉書無事卻休開。
去歌歌無奈。鳥來苦哀哀,出天臺。
花當洞口應長在,水到人間定不廻。
碧雲裏仙境,那得能再來。
意徘徊,碧山明月照蒼苔,有懷,陟彼崔巍。

8. 恩憶劉郎
不將淸瑟理霓裳,麈夢那知鶴夢長,憶劉郞。
洞裏有天雲蕩蕩,人間無路月茫茫,憶劉郞。
玉沙瑤艸連溪綠,流水桃花滿澗香,時光撫景思鄕。
那曉露風燈,零落堪傷。房櫳寂靜,閑坐閑思閑想。
翠黛畫屛,不勝悵惆,十二巫山雲障那雲障。
宿緣麈夢頓難忘,,何處也是瀟湘。
煙淡淡,水茫茫,騰空縮地,那此身輕換骨,那凝望立斜陽,立斜陽。

9. 重到天臺
再到天臺,重尋舊路。
十里溪山,桃花紅樹皆非故,雞犬人家那不知何處。
草樹煙霞,緫非前度。
笙歌寂寞無依,雲鶴蕭條,今何所措,苔石俱成塵土,成塵土。
恨當初,悔當時,不作從容少住。
勸酒人,今何處,今何處。

10. 仙蹤難覓
掩洞門,迷石室,無蹤無跡,當時送別人如失。
無處覓,無處覓,情斷心慵意畢。
雲出沒,酌酒賞心,都成抑鬱。
杳杳然消息,形單影隻。
離別,追思當時昔日,盃捧醉琉璃,似有餘香留玉液。

11. 故人空憶
洞口兮,可惜花殘柳暗居人移。
仙人兮,何期香銷燭暗,煙雲迷凄凄。
舞休歌罷,風聲悲離離。
芳容夢裏勞追隨,偲偲。
嘆當時,宿緣仙偶,那苦別思歸,那知再會應無期。
天上兮,人間兮,追隨有路無梯,空想憶,空想憶,空想憶。
(泛音:)
續斷簡殘篇,染雲煙,香霧滿山川。

The music of 1585 is clearly related to that of ~1491 Sections 1 and 2, so one might guess that 1585 Sections 3 to 11 is related to that of the complete original version from ~1491, but this has not yet been studied.
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Appendix: Chart Tracing Tiantai Yin
based mainly on Zha Fuxi's Guide 11/114/190

      琴譜
    (year; QQJC Vol/page)
Further information
(QQJC = 琴曲集成 Qinqu Jicheng; QF = 琴府 Qin Fu)
  1.   浙音釋字琴譜
      (<1491; I/207)
徵調 Zhi mode; has only first two sections and beginning of third, then missing pages
 
  2. 重修真傳琴譜
      (1585; IV/457)
11 sections; lyrics seem to have been the same as <1491 (q.v.; see comment about 溪山漫漫....);
Melody quite similar; attributed to Wuling Xianzi
  3. 琴香堂琴譜
      (1760; XVII/91)
13 sections; 商音 shang yin; no lyrics;
Opening is quite different, and in general it seems to be a different melody
  4. 自遠堂琴譜
      (1802; XVII/341)
15 sections; 徵音; starts like 1760
 
  5. 蕉庵琴譜
      (1868; XXVI/42)
15; 徵音 zhi yin; attributed to Wuling Xianzi; 徵音 zhi yin; 15 sections; starts like 1760
 
  6. 天聞閣琴譜
      (1876; XXV/398)
15; " = 1802"
 
  7. 琴學初津
      (1894; XXVIII/287)
15; under title it says "also called 武陵遊 Wuling You";
afterword says "old piece....by 武陵仙子 the Wuling Immortal....from 自遠堂 (1802)"  

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