Shi Xian
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Zheyin ToC 聽錄音 Listen to my recording with transcription / 首頁 
06. Respect Virtuous People
- Zhi mode,2 standard tuning: 5 6 1 2 3 5 6, but played as 1 2 4 5 6 1 2
 
師賢 1
Shi Xian
Wen Wang chances upon Lü Shang3  
The only other occurrence of this piece is in Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu (1585), which sets the same lyrics to a related but quite different melody.4 There are, however, several musically unrelated pieces (in particular, Weibin Yin5) that concern the virtuous person extolled herein, Lü Shang,6 commonly called Tai Gong or Taigong Lü, said to have been a high official who broke his sword and retired into voluntary exile to avoid serving the tyrannous last Shang emperor, Zhou Xin.7 After Wen Wang (King Wen), who was serving as Chief of the West for the Duke of Zhou, enticed Lü out of exile, Lü helped Wen's son Wu Wang (King Wu) overthrow the Shang and establish the Zhou dynasty (ca. 1122 BCE).8

Here Shi Xian is grouped with zhi mode melodies presumably because the main note is the open fifth string (called zhi). According to my understanding of the melodies in Shenqi Mipu, the relative tuning for zhi mode melodies is 1 2 4 5 6 1 2; the main note is played as 5 (sol), and the secondary note is 2 (re).

A transcription of Shi Xian into staff notation using the open first string as C (1) keeps 5 and 2 as the main and secondary notes. However, it also shows numerous occurences of B flat. To avoid these accidentals would require transcribing the open first string as G (5), making the tuning 5 6 1 2 3 5 6 . In this case the main note of Shi Xian becomes 2 and the secondary note 6. The only mode in SQMP having this characteristic is Qiliang mode, which uses non-standard tuning.

The thematically connected melody Weibin Yin is also grouped with zhi mode melodies. When transcribed using the open first string as C (1) it also has 5 and 2 as the main and secondary notes, and it also shows numerous occurences of B flat. Again these can be avoided by considering the relative tuning to be 5 6 1 2 3 5 6 (i.e., the open first string becomes G). However, such a transcription then brings numerous occurences of the note F (4).9

 
Zheyin Shizi Qinpu preface:10

The Beyond-Sounds Immortal says, this melody was written by Wen Wang. The Royal Ancestor's Handbook does not have this melody.

According to what the Record of History (Chapter 32) says,

There was a certain Lü Shang, a superior man of Donghai, having nothing and being quite old, went fishing (and as a result had a felicitous meeting). When Zhou's Chief of the West (Wen Wang) went hunting, a diviner said, "Neither a dragon nor a black horse, not a tiger or a bear: what you will obtain is the counselor of a great prince." Thus he met Lü Shang on the north side of the Wei River. Their conversation made (Wen Wang) very happy. He said, "Since my first ancestor it has been said (that) one day a sage will fall in with Zhou, and so Zhou will prosper. You really are this person, the one sought by my ancestors." So people called him "Sought by Ancestors" (Taigong Wang). (Wen Wang) took him in his cart and they returned together. He established (Lü Shang) as "teacher" and called him "Teacher Shang Father".

And so there is this piece. The meaning which comes from (it) is: respect virtuous people. Its meaning is profound.

 
Music
Timings follow the recording on
my CD; 聽錄音 listen with my transcription.
Eight sections (titled) and lyrics 11

00.00   1. (Wen Wang) appoints officials insisting only that they be worthy
00.44   2. He helps people and encourages the gentry
01.02   3. (When Wen Wang is) about to look for (officials) he finds a good omen
01.35   4. A successful meeting between (Wen Wang) and (Lü Shang)
02.03   5. (Wen Wang) goes to consult a wise man, and takes his advice
02.38   6. (Lü Shang is happy to) take a post and give advice
03.09   7. (Lü Shang was Wen Wang's) late father's great hope
03.34   8. Heaven blesses the Zhou dynasty
03.52       Closing harmonics
04.05       End

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. 師賢 Shi Xian
9129.176xxx (seems unconnected)
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2. Zhi mode (徵調 zhi diao)
For more information about zhi mode see Shenpin Zhi Yi. For modes in general see Modality in Early Ming Qin Tablature. However, having studied the melody Weibin Yin, I have been re-evaluating my analysis for certain melodies. See also the comments in the text above.
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3. Wen Wang Chances upon Lü Shang
Copied from a Japanese website. On the side of the full page the text says, "新刊全相平話武王伐紂書卷下 Newly printed and fully illustrated popular edition of Wu Wang Attacks Zhou (Xin), Last Folio" (library reference for Wu Wang Fa Zhou Shu; 16623.xxx). The original Wu Wang Fa Zhou Shu apparently dates from the Yuan dynasty and was preserved in Japan.
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4. Tracing 師賢 Shi Xian (tracing chart)
The chart below is based on Zha Fuxi's Guide, 11/116/198.
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5. Weibin Yin
Although Weibin Yin concerns Lü Shang, it is paired instead with Si Shun.
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6. 呂尚 Lü Shang
He was commonly called 太公.
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7. 紂辛 Zhou Xin
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8. 文王 Wen Wang; 周西伯 Zhou's Chief of the West; 武王 Wu Wang; 周公 Zhou Gong
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9. Transcribing Weibin Yin
To transcribe Weibin Yin so that it most closely approaches standard pentatonic tuning requires considering the relative tuning to be 2 3 5 6 7 2 3 . The main note is then la, the secondary note mi.
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10. Original Chinese preface
The original Shen Qi Mi Pu preface can be seen under 師賢.
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11. Original Chinese section titles and lyrics (QQJC I/214-6)
The original section titles (see also 師賢) are below, together with the original lyrics:

  1. 建宮惟賢
    天下可以一人有,土地非可以一人守,堯有天下,得賢而有舜帝,舜得乎臯陶,成湯得賢而周召。吾周也邦雖舊,其命維新,受賢輔,招來就賓而友禮,幣非卑厚。雲龍風虎何時偶,建宮舉任需賢否,迷邦懷寶江山秀,人世誰其右。

  2. 資人勵士
    資人而勵士,經天而緯地,紀網而統制。保無虞,長治久安之計。 

  3. 將求叶卜(將求協卜: 叶 = 協, 葉)
    將求而叶卜,天與祝邦家而永福。鑿石而求美玉,牛山也棟梁取木。藏珠而蘊匵,遷喬也而出谷。資而不易得也恩須沃,盡誠求之於巖築。 

  4. 際遇君臣
    風雲際遇何稀奇,元龜吉卜符靈異。非龍也應非彲,非熊也應非羆,非虎也應非貔,王覇也當獲君師。良會應無期,際遇當其時。巍然太平也重開基,燁然邦家的那增光輝,非此謂誰。 

  5. 就賢納誨
    繩愆紏繆而日進,嘉謀嘉猷而日聞。就賢納誨,忠諫也而獲伸。滋衆樂,聞讜論,從善改過,人臣而人君。諫鼓謗木,敢設而因循。克終允德,的那稽首也而那是遵。君而尊,臣而賓,有賴匡救也,地利人事天文,一一披陳。 

  6. 供職進言
    人臣供職而進言,有犯無隱,敢諍當爲先。藏語以如默,揉方以爲圓,直行已道無偏。披心露腹,可否而從辯,萬計萬全,至臻熙皞之天。 

  7. 先君附望
    適周而有聖人興,子符我先君靈。先君太公靈,久望同爲盟,太公望以是也而爲名。尊爲師,尙父載與歸寧。 

  8. 天福有周
    靑天放出光明月,符望無論頭似雪。君臣相遇樂無窮,魚水應相得。德星輔弼耀南天,看皎潔光照黃金闕。萬萬年,周天下從施設。

The lyrics can also be found in this .pdf file (from Zha Guide 198 [722]).
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Appendix: Chart Tracing 師賢 Shi Xian
Further comment
above; based mainly on Zha Fuxi's Guide 11/116/198.

      琴譜
    (year; QQJC Vol/page)
Further information
(QQJC = 琴曲集成 Qinqu Jicheng; QF = 琴府 Qin Fu)
  1.  浙音釋字琴譜
      (<1491; I/214 [further])
6; 徵 zhi mode; standard tuning; preface; section titles; lyrics
 
  2. 重修真傳琴譜
      (1585; IV/455)
8; lyrics same as 1511; music related but still very different;
Preface still as in 1511

     
No other known occurrences
 

Return to the Zheyin Shizi Qinpu index or to the Guqin ToC.