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096. Jade Sheng, Heavenly Crane
- Yu mode, 2 standard tuning: 5 6 1 2 3 5 6
瑤天笙鶴 1
Yao Tian Sheng He
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This melody, found only in Xilutang Qintong (1525), evokes the image of Wangzi Qiao (often read as Wang Ziqiao),3 usually depicted as at right, riding on a crane while playing the sheng mouth organ. This is a Daoist image often seen in folk art, and the story of Wangzi Qiao is perhaps the source for later poetic references to a jade sheng imitating the sound of a crane. The eldest son of King Ling of the Zhou dynasty4 (traditional reign period 571-544 BCE), Wangzi Qiao is said to have studied the Dao at Songshan,5 one of China's five sacred mountain ranges (in modern Henan province) and long a famous center of Daoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. Then from Goushi,6 now located as being just north of the Songshan range, he is said to have ascended into immortality.7

The earliest surviving biography of Wangzi Qiao, in the Biographies of Immortals (probably late Han), has details of this.8 The preface to Yao Tian Sheng He is largely a quote from the first half of his entry in this volume. The complete biography, which is quoted in the Yuefu Shiji,9 is as follows.

Wangzi Qiao, Zhou Ling Wang's eldest son, was named Jin. He was good at playing the sheng and could imitate the call of a phoenix. As he roamed in the area between the Yi and Luo rivers10 the Daoist Master Fuqiu (Fuqiu Gong11) drew him up to a high mountain in the Song mountain range. 30 years later he called (people?) to the mountain. Seeing (someone named) Huan Liang12 he said, "Tell my family to wait for me on the 7th day of the 7th lunar month at the top of Goushi Mountain." When that day arrived he mounted a white crane and stopped briefly on the mountaintop. People could see him but could not go near him. Raising his hands to thank his contemporaries, he left several days later (having become an immortal). A temple was established in his honor at the base of Goushi mountain, extending (?) a path high up to Songshan.

In some editions this is followed by a poem.13 Yuefu Shiji does not have this poem, but it does include five sets of lyrics about Wangzi Qiao.14 The second of these, by Jiang Yan (444-505),15 can be sung to the music of section 8 of the present melody.16 However, the pairing of these lyrics to the music does not quite fit the then-standard practice of one character for each right hand stroke or left hand pluck. 17

The earliest known mention of Wangzi Qiao is perhaps in the Chu Ci (Chu Lyrics) poem Yuan You (also a qin melody), traditionally attributed to Song Yu (ca. 290- ca. 223). On line 54 the author speaks of "following Wang(zi) Qiao for pleasure", apparently suggesting a search for immortality; and on lines 61/2 he speaks of asking Wangzi "about the balance made by unifying essence."18

Modern scholarship suggests that the poem Yuan You was not written until well into the Han dynasty. Another Chu Ci poem, this one probably dating from the late Han dynasty, describes Wangzi Qiao and another immortal, Chisongzi, as playing the se 52-string zither.19

Other than my own I know of no recordings of this melody. 20

Original preface21

Zhou Ling Wang's son Wang(zi) Qiao was good at playing the sheng mouth organ, able to imitate the call of a phoenix. He roamed in the area between the Yi and Luo rivers encompassing the Dao. The great Master Fuqiu drew him to Songliang Mountain, transmitting to him the Way of Long Life. As a result we have this melody.

Nine sections, untitled; timings follow
my recording 聽錄音

00.00   1.
00.49   2.
01.41   3.
02.09   4.
02.45   5.
03.30   6.
04.23   7.
04.52   8. (The lyrics below are sung on the recording)
05.29   9.
06.10         Closing harmonics
06.25         End

Lyrics (further detail)
The following lyrics by Jiang Yan can be sung (and are done so on the above recording) with Section 8 (compare alternate reading):

子喬好輕舉,不待襝銀丹。 Zi Qiao hao qing ju, bu dai lian yin dan.
控鶴去窈窕,學鳳對巑岏。 Kong he qu yao tiao, xue feng dui cuan wan. (elsewhere "去" => "上")
山無一春草,谷有千年蘭。 Shan wu yi chun cao, gu you qian nian lan.
雲衣下躑躅,龍駕何時還? Yun yi xia zhi zhu, long jia he shi huan? (elsewhere "下" => "不")

The following translation has a syllable count allowing it also to be sung with the present melody (compare this literal one, which also translates the two alternate readings):

Zi Qiao loves soaring, no need for elixers.
Riding a crane he roams the skies, like phoenix face high peaks.
Hills don't have grass for just one spring, dales have immortal blooms.
Clothed in clouds he comes down to wander, but on dragon when would he return?

Present tense used because Wangzi Qiao is an immortal; "face" (instead of "faces") and "on" (instead of "on a") are poetic license due to syllable number requirements. In performance I may sing the English version as a prelude.

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Jade Sheng, Heavenly Crane (瑤天笙鶴 Yao Tian Sheng He
21646.xx, but 4/618 瑤天 yao tian says it describes the beauty of the heavens or refers to an abode of the immortals; 21646.43 瑤笙 yaosheng says it can make the sound of a crane; there are several poetic references, but none mentions Wangzi Qiao. For sheng he 笙鶴 26531.22 says 仙鶴名 the name of an immortal crane (also used in Yunzhong Sheng He). 5961.1343 天鶴座 tianhe zuo is the name of a constellation. 姚品文 Yao Pinwen's 朱權研究 Study of Zhu Quan (Nanchang, 1993), pp.251-2, discusses an opera by Zhu Quan entitled Yao Tian Sheng He; the libretto is lost, but it describes the present story.

2. Yu mode (羽調 yu diao)
Yu mode uses standard tuning treated as 5 6 1 2 3 5 6, with 6 as the main tonal center and 3 as the secondary one, making it a sort of pentatonic minor mode. For more on this mode see Shenpin Yu Yi as well as Modality in Early Ming Qin Tablature.

3. 王子喬 Wangzi Qiao (see images)
21295.39/1 王子喬 says Wangzi Qiao is the name of a melody (q.v.), then it quotes a passage from the 古今樂錄 Gujin Yuelu. /2 has his biography. It says his name was 晉 Jin (Wangzi Jin), his original surname was 姬 Ji (same surname given the Yellow Emperor), and he became a commoner. It then relates basically the same information given in Liexian Zhuan (see below). It also has an illustration of Wangzi Qiao on a crane. Giles 2240 has mostly the same information. (He is also mentioned in the section titles of Yuan You.) And his nickname 桐柏真人 Tongbo Zhenren associates him with the Tongbo Palace in the Tiantai Mountains.

Wang Ziqiao (?)
This is almost certainly incorrect, although Yuefu Shiji does sometimes write of him as 子喬 Ziqiao. 21295.23/1 says 王子 wangzi means "son of a king"; /2 says it is a double surname. Early sources may also refer to him as 王子 Wangzi or 王喬 Wang Qiao (see the 楚辭 Chu Ci),

4. 3597.904 周靈王 Zhou Ling Wang does not mention a surname. (Return)

5. 嵩山 Song Shan (Wikipedia)
Songshan, in Henan province south of Luoyang, is one of the "Five Sacred Mountains". It is connected to a number of melodies and people on this website.

6. Goushi Mountain (緱氏 Goushi) Image from EpochTimes 
28328.3 緱氏 says Goushi is 山名 the name of a mountain in Henan province 40 li south of 偃師縣 Yanshi district town; it is also called Fufu Dui (覆釜堆 or 撫父堆). It adds that according to Liexian Zhuan this is the place where the son of King Ling of Zhou (i.e., Wangzi Qiao) ascended on a white crane. It also mentions Goushi as an ancient town name.

As for the marker at right, I cannot find mention of when it was built. The original Epoch Times article by 牟梅 Mou Mei accompanying the image is entitled, "緱氏山—太子升仙處 Goushi Mountain - where the heir apparent ascended into immortality." The text adds that the marker is in 河南省 Henan Province 洛陽東南40公里 40 km southeast of Luoyang, 處偃師市府店鎮南 placed south of Fudian Zhen in Yanshi township, and that the elevation of Goushi Shan is only 308 meters above sea level. On maps Fudian Zhen seems to be in a relatively flat area midway between Luoyang and Zhengzhou, north of Songshan. Thus a quote added to the online text seems quite appropriate: "山不在高,有仙則名 Mountains are not only about height: they are only famous if immortals live there." This quote, from a poem by 劉禹錫 Liu Yuxi, is also used as lyrics for the melody Loushi Ming.

7. Ascending into immortality
Alan Berkowitz, Patterns of Disengagement, p. 50, says the aim of an immortal was "existence beyond that which mortal men could normally expect. This goal eventually is reached either by leaving the world behind and joining the empyreal ranks of the godlike, or by staying in the world and achieving the state in which the body also becomes divinely transcendent....Chisongzi and Wangzi Qiao (are examples) of the former." 赤 松 子 Chisongzi, according to Giles, was "A being who controlled the rain and wind in the legendary age of Shen Nung. Among other feats, he was able to pass unharmed through fire." (See also 37843.105). According to Yü Ying-Shih, "Life and Immortality in the Mind of Han China." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 25 (1964-5), pp.80-122, immortality cults became very important after the Qin unified China and many 方士 fangshi came to the capital. Gradually the emphasis was placed on extending life in the present world.

8. The Biographies of Immortals (列仙傳 Liexian Zhuan)
This book was traditionally attributed to 劉向 Liu Xiang (ca.79-ca.06 BCE); modern scholarship suggests that it was probably written one or two centuries later. See Nienhauser, Companion, p.566. The biography is in Liexian Zhuan, A.1, A.23-24.

9. Wangzi Qiao entry in Liexian Zhuan
This biography of Wangzi Qiao from Liexian Zhuan is also included in 樂府詩集 Yuefu Shiji, Folio 29, p.437. Here it quotes the original as follows:

王子喬者,周靈王太子晉也。好吹笙作鳳(凰)鳴,遊伊、洛之間,道士浮丘公接以上嵩高山。三十餘年後,求之於山上,見桓良,曰:「告我家,七月七日,待我於緱氏山巔。至時,果乘白鶴駐山頭。」至時,果乘白鶴駐山頭,望之不得到,舉手謝時人,數日而去。為立祠於緱氏山下及嵩高之首焉。 亦稱為王喬、王子晉。

In Liexian Zhuan this is followed by a poem (below), but in Yuefu Shiji it is followed instead by different lyrics, by five people (also below).

10. The 伊 Yi and 洛 Luo rivers join just east of Luoyang, then flow into the Yellow River. (Return)

11. Master Fuqiu (see also Pei Lan) Master Fuqiu (right) with Wangzi Qiao (expand)      
The Master of the Drifting Mound (Fuqiu Gong 浮丘公 17924.37) is mentioned in various ancient sources. These have him living in different periods, beginning with the time of the Yellow Emperor. Several other names are said to refer to the same person, such as 壺丘子 Huqiuzi in Liezi. The Liexian Zhuan biography of Wangzi Qiao mentions Fuqiu Gong. And like Wangzi Qiao, Fuqiu Gong is sometimes said to have played a sheng mouth organ while riding a crane at Songshan. Fuqiu is also mentioned in connection with the melody Pei Lan. For further information on Fuqiu Gong see Robert Hymes, Way and Byway: Taoism, Local Religion and Models of Divinity in Sung and Modern China, pp.59-60.

The brick at right shows Fuqiu Gong at right greeting Wangzi Qiao, who plays a sheng mouth organ. Replicas of the original, a 5th-6th brick unearthed east of Nanyang City, Henan (河南鄧縣學莊 Henan, Deng County, Xue village), are displayed for sale on the internet.

12. Huan Liang 桓良
15061.xxx. I have not yet found any other references to him.

13. Poem at the end of the Liexian Zhuan entry for Wangzi Qiao
The poem is as follows,


Not yet translated.

14. 梁江淹 Jiang Yan of Liang (444-505)
See further.

15. Yuefu Shiji lyrics about Wangzi Qiao
Yuefu Shiji, pp. 437 - 439, after the biography of Wangzi Qiao from Liexian Zhuan, has five Wangzi Qiao poems, ordered chronologically:

  1. 古辭 "Ancient Lyrics", said to have accompanied 魏、晉樂所奏 music played in the Wei and Jin period
  2. 梁江淹 Jiang Yan of the Liang (these can fit Section 8 of the melody; see above)
  3. 高允生 Gao Yunsheng
  4. 後魏高允 Gao Yun of the Latter Wei
  5. 唐宋之問 Song Zhiwen of the Tang

Most of these have not been translated.

16. Pairing Jiang Yan lyrics about Wangzi Qiao to music in Yao Tian Sheng He
Of the lyrics from Yuefu Shiji just mentioned, those that fit best with a part of the Yao Tian Sheng He melody are those by Jiang Yan; they consist of four couplets, i.e., their character structure is (5+5) x 4. The stroke count of section eight of Yao Tian Sheng He is 5+5, 7+4, 5+6, 8+5; the note count is 9+6, 8+6, 8+6, 9+10. Having more notes than strokes or characters does not fit with the then-standard practice of having one character for each right hand stroke or left hand pluck. However, by using more than one stroke/note per character in three phrases, and pairing one character to a slide in another phrase, the melody and lyrics can be matched quite musically without changing any notes.

The singable translation above was made after the recording. Using it I often sing the melody of Section 8 in English as a prelude, then sing it in Chinese to accompany Section 8. When sung in English the rhythm tends to be slightly different with, in particular, several notes held longer. A literal translation into English requires more syllables, and thus cannot be sung with this melody in a natural way. My own tentative literal translation (including for the two alternate readings) is as follows,

Ziqiao loves lightly soaring; he doesn't rely on transmuting silver and cinnabar.
Riding a crane he goes into arcadia/the remote sky (or, "上窈窕 he ascends remote regions"/"ascended gracefully"); he emulates phoenixes facing mountain peaks.
Hills don't have grass that lasts just one spring; vales have flowers that bloom for a thousand years (千年蘭 2744.xxx; "thousand year thoroughwort"?).
With clouds as clothing he descends to wander in a leisurely manner (or, "不躑躅 he does not dawdle"); riding a dragon (chariot?) when would he (will he?) ever return?

My uncertainty at the end between "would return" and "will return" is based on uncertainty as to whether the author thinks that Wangzi Qiao is unlikely to return (why would he?), or that once Wangzi Qiao is on a dragon, not just a bird, he will come riding back in glory.

This poem, but with two characters that are different, has commentary and translation by Zornica Kirkova in her Roaming into the Beyond: Representations of Xian Immortality in the Context of the Human World; Brill, 2016, pp.318-319. The two alternate characters are due to her using a different edition of the poem, the one in 南齊文紀巻十 Folio 10 of the Literary Records of the Southern Qi, as editeded in the Ming dynasty by 梅鼎祚 Mei Dingzuo and preserved in the 欽定四庫全書 Qinding Siku Quan Shu.

The alternate reading is as follows (compare YFSJ version):

子喬好輕舉,不待襝銀丹。 Zi Qiao hao qing ju, bu dai lian yin dan.
控鶴上窈窕,學鳳對巑岏。 Kong he shang yao tiao, xue feng dui cuan wan. (YFSJ: "上" => "去")
山無一春草,谷有千年蘭。 Shan wu yi chun cao, gu you qian nian lan.
雲衣不躑躅,龍駕何時還? Yun yi bu zhi zhu, long jia he shi huan? (YFSJ: "不" => "下")

Translating this other version while keeping the same syllable count requires making only minor changes in the last line:

Zi Qiao loves soaring, no need for elixers.
Riding a crane he roams the skies, like phoenix face high peaks.
Hills don't have grass for just one spring, dales have immortal blooms.
Clothed in clouds he did not falter, but on dragon when will he return?

Regarding "falter", Dr. Kirkova writes that there are many stories of people faltering (hesitating) before making that last step into immortality.

Further regarding "蘭 lan", today it is usually translated as "orchid" but there is debate as to what this word meant in ancient China (see further). As for "thousand-year lan", in a brief translation it does not seem possible precisely to convey the distinction between lan that remain in bloom for a thousand years from ones that regenerate for this amount of time.

The binome 窈窕 yaotiao suggests a remote region (or a demure/graceful lady), with some dictionaries having "arcadia"; 49812.530 龍駕 long jia identifies it as a "雲神駕龍 cloud spirit riding a dragon", a “神駕雲龍之車 cart for a spirit riding cloud dragon”, or a “天子之駕 imperial chariot”.

17. Near fit of lyrics and music
In almost all other qin handbooks if a qin melody has lyrics it has them all the way through. And in virtually all of them the pairing follows a standard formula. Xilutang Qintong, by contrast, not only has several melodies with lyrics in only a few sections (further detail), it also has several further melodies with sections to which lyrics could be added folllowing this formula (e.g. in Han Gong Qiu) or a close version of it (as here).

At present one can only speculate on the significance of this. Was there an actual tradition of melodies with songs in only one section, or was this just the idea of one person or a few people? (These songs when published elsewhere have no lyrics). Perhaps it is because I like these pieces so much that I imagine players in the past taking pieces that they liked and either mixing in a section with lyrics or revising one of the existing sections so that lyrics could be sung (or: start with a song then build an instrumental melody around it). If the results were then published the lyrics would have to be paired so that they fit the standard formula, but if not published perhaps the rules were not so strict. (N.B., Although the poem's inclusion in the Yuefu Shiji suggests it was originally a song, there this no evidence to suggest that the present melody has any connection with any melody or melodies that might have originally been associated with any Yuefu melodies.)

18. See David Hawkes, Songs of the South, pp. 195 and 200. Hawkes says Wangzi Qiao is not mentioned in any pre-Han source. (Return)

19. See Sorrow for Troth Betrayed (惜誓 Xi Shi) in David Hawkes, Songs of the South, p.240. His translation says, "the two Masters held zithers tuned in perfect concord (while he) sang the Qing Shang air". For Chisongzi, see footnote 6 above. (Return)

20. The music is too rushed in the recording and I need to do it over. (Return)

21. 瑤天笙鶴,西麓堂琴統解題 (English)
The original Chinese is as follows:
西麓堂琴統,瑤天笙鶴解題﹕周靈王子王(子)喬好吹笙,作鳳鳴。遊伊洛間函道,大浮丘公引之入嵩亮山,授以長生之道。遂有此曲。 (Return)

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