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Xingzhuang Taiyin Buyi
Great Sounds Addendum from Apricot Village 1
The Old Man of Apricot Village 2  
by Zha Fuxi
from Qinqu Jicheng, Vol. 3
Beijing, Zhonghua Shuju Chuban Faxing, 1982

(Xingzhuang Taiyin Buyi), in the collection of the Shanghai Library,4 is a Ming print in three folios. It is a qin handbook specialized collection compiled by Xiao Luan5 [who called himself "Xingzhuang laoren" -- "old man of Apricot Village"]. At the beginning are Xiao Luan's own preface dated 1557; [just before Folio One] a preface by Shi Liangzhen6 dated 1560; and a 1561 preface by Qi Song.7 After [Qi Song's] preface are: a portrait of Mr. Xiao with laudatory inscription;8 writings about the qin, such as "Origins of the great sound", "System of the great sounds", "Xumen orthodox tradition", "Xingzhuang's correct regulations of the scale"; and a list of the pieces. At the end of the book are afterwords by Fang Mengyang9 dated 1558, a poem (fu) by Mr. Xiao (himself), and learned writings such as these by Jin Dayu10, Jin Bai11 (1557) and Liu Fan [?]12 (1558). Included altogether are 73 pieces.13 (None has lyrics; only one, Feng Bo Yin, has its earliest surviving version here.)

This is also listed among the reference books in the Yuelu Quanshu of Zhu Zaiyu (1536 - ca.1610). (Yuelu Quanshu) calls it Xiao Luan Qinpu. Xiao Luan emphasized that his own qin style was that of the Xumen orthodox tradition. His teacher for this was Mr. Xu Xiaoshan of Zhejiang province. At the same time, he states clearly that their qin style stood for "doing away with lyrics so as to preserve fingering." This is to say, they cherished using the qin for instrumental performance, and didn't allow using lyrics to sing along. Mr. Xiao also reckoned any qin piece ought to have a small "yin" (intonation, "introductory piece")14. We believe this perhaps is the standard musical structure customary in certain periods. Thus, he spent some time devoted to searching for a yin for every traditional qin piece. Those included [here] are in fact not just a few; and among them are included many that seem to be genuinely original, achieving "[a construction?] divided and complex"[?]. This is a problem worthy of serious consideration. As for using each of these traditional small melodies to become familiar with the modal style and modal nature, in the early Ming dynasty, after Shen Qi Mi Pu's ["Shenpin mou yi" -- sacred whatever modal explanations] were changed to [simply] "Mou yi" (whatever modal explanations), they were again changed into "Mou yi kao" (whatever modal introduction studies); [so] we say that Mr. Xiao's qin style stood for "melodies must (first) have intonations, and modal introductions must be called 'studies'."

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. 杏莊太音補遺 Xingzhuang Taiyin Buyi and 杏莊老人 Xingzhuang laoren
14820.29 杏莊 has xingzhuang only as the nickname of a Qing dynasty person. Here it is the nickname of Xiao Luan, the qin master whose repertoire is covered in this handbook as well as in Xingzhuang Taiyin Xupu; the two were (later?) bound together.

2. Image
From QQJC III/305 (太音補遺,上卷三)

3. 查阜西 Zha Fuxi; edited by 吳鉊 Wu Zhao

4. 上海圖書館; still there?

5. 蕭鸞 Xiao Luan (14820.29xxx; Bio/2101xxx: 齊明帝; illustration: QQJC III/299)
See the biographical notes by Xu Jian in Qinshi Chubian, Chapter 7.A.1. (p.125):

6. 施良臣 Shi Liangchen

7. 齊嵩 Qi Song

8. The image is copied above. The laudatory inscription (杏莊道人小像贊) on the facing page calls him Xingzhuang Daoren the Xingzhuang Daoist.

9. 方夢陽 Fang Mengyang

10. 金大與 Jin Dayu

11. 金白 Jin Bai

12. 劉__ Liu Po? (__ is like 鄱 po, but with radical on left side; character is not in ZWDCD.)

13. The 73 melodies in Taiyin Buyi
The first melody, Caoman Yin (Stroking-silk Prelude), is actually included among the introductory essays; it could be the origin of Xianweng Cao. It seems to be related to the Diaoxian Runong (Tuning-strings Introductory-piece) included in Zhongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu (1585), which adds lyrics about a xianweng (ancient immortal).

All but two of the 73 titles in Taiyin Buyi (#42 and #43) were also included among the 81 in Taiyin Chuanxi (1552). Conversely, the 81 melodies Taiyin Chuanxi had 10 that were not included in Taiyin Buyi. These 10 are #s 5, 14, 15, 16, 17, 31, 32, 35, 36 and 72. In addition, many of the versions are different in the two handbooks.

The 73 titles of Taiyin Buyi can be divided into: the one introductory exercise, 11 modal introductions (kao), 26 intonations (yin) and 35 regular pieces (nine have no yin). 15 to 18 titles, all intonations, appear here for the 1st time (three are concurrent with QPZC). All intonations have three sections except Leji Yin (one) and Zepan Yin (four). 11 of the intonations appear nowhere else. 36 of the titles are found in Shen Qi Mi Pu, including 10 (diao) yi (kao) and seven intonations (two of which Shen Qi Mi Pu does not call 'yin'; this is all of the intonations in Shen Qi Mi Pu [Huaxu Yin uses the 'yin' meaning 'introduction']).

14. Often confused with yin "introduction" or, here, "prelude".

Return to the annotated handbook list or to the Guqin ToC.