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|五音琴譜 Wuyin Qinpu (1579) ToC Ou Cheng||Listen with lyrics to 聽 我的錄音 my recordings 首頁|
Shang Mode:2 1 2 4 5 6 1 2
Jing Guan Yin
The poem by Chengzi 3
There is no commentary with this 1579 version, but its third surviving publication (the 1609 edition of Zhenchuan Zhengzong Qinpu) connects the melody to the Song dynasty Confucian scholar Cheng Hao (referred to only as Chengzi).6 Specifically it quotes a couplet from a poem attributed to Cheng Hao, the full text of which is used as lyrics for the melody Ou Cheng. The couplet is:7
In other words, people can achieve what they need simply by having the same contemplative manner that one finds throughout nature.
Starting with 1722 Jing Guan Yin is more commonly associated with the Tang dynasty scholar Li Mian.8 However, this does not significantly alter the commentators' understanding of the mood of this piece. In the 1722 introduction the mood is described as follows:9
Meanwhile, the introduction to a recording by Xia Yifeng of this melody says as follows:10
The fourth surviving publication of Jing Guan Yin comes from Songxianguan Qinpu (1614), the earliest handbook of the very popular Yushan school, and this probably helps account for its later popularity.11 Later versions seem largely to be elaborations of 1614, adding mostly ornamentation.
At least three silk string recordings have been made: in addition to the one by Xia Yifeng (#9), mentioned above, there are also ones by Wang Duo (#2) based on the 1614 version12 and by Muka Fushimi based on the one in Chengyitang Qinpu (1705).13
Original preface 14
Music (transcription from IV/209; timings follow my recording (listen 15; there are also three others16)
Three Sections, untitled, plus coda.
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)
Jing Guan Yin (靜觀吟; Qinqu Jicheng, Vol. IV/209)
Also written Jingguan Yin; alternative translations include "Meditation in Stillness" and "Observing Calmly". 43533.322 only 靜觀 jing guan, with three references:
Shang mode (商調 Shang Diao)
In this melody the tonal center is do (gong; open first string), but a strong secondary tonal center is re (shang): many phrases end on shang, and hearing such endings prepares one for following phrases ending on gong. For further information on shang mode see Shenpin Shang Yi and Modality in Early Ming Qin Tablature.
This calligraphy, by 劉嘉雄 Liu Jiasong, was found on the Taiwan website http://www.jwt.url.tw/bus1-ruuchasyau.htm. It consists of Liu's calligraphy for the complete text of the Cheng Hao poem quoted below.
Tracing 靜觀吟 Jingguan Yin
Zha Fuxi's Guide 25/210/-- lists it in 35 handbooks from the present one to 1899, none has lyrics. The first 16 are as follows:
Melodic connection to Ting Qin Yin
This is easily seen in the opening of my transcriptions of the 1579 edition, but when I wrote this I had not completed my reconstruction of Jing Guan Yin and I have not yet carefully compared the latter parts.
程顥 Cheng Hao and 程子 Chengzi
As discussed under the melodies Ming De Yin and Kongsheng Jing, 子程子 Zi Chengzi actually refers there to two brothers:
The two brothers lived in 洛陽 Luoyang (Henan).
The 1609 preface quotes Cheng Hao as follows:
With Jing Guan Yin it seems that the reference is only to Cheng Hao, as the poem quoted below has been attributed to him.
Couplet from the poem 秋日偶成 Stray Thoughts on an Autumn Day, by 程顥 Cheng Hao
As mentioned, the original text of the entire poem serves as lyrics for the melody 偶成 Stray Thoughts. Here only the second line is quoted, as follows:
This translation is from www.quora.com; there have also been others online.
(see the differences).
Li Mian 李勉
See separate entry
Quote from 1722
The original Chinese is:
Recording of Jing Guan Yin by 夏一峰
The note to this recording (#9) says only that it comes from a 抄本 handcopy, but the actual music is almost the same as in 1722 and 1868. There is a transcription of Xia Yifeng's performance in Guqinqu Huibian.
Later popularity of Jing Guan Yin
I have not carefully searched the later handbooks, but have noted that #31 on the list, dated 1868, is very similar to #15, dated 1722.
Recording of Jing Guan Yin by 汪鐸 Wang Duo
In addition to his CD recording, mentioned above, a performance by Wang Duo of Jing Guan Yin has also been posted on YouTube.
Recording of Jing Guan Yin by 伏見无家 Muka Fushimi
This recording is available on YouTube.
See comments in the text above.
The above recording was made in April 2019 using a guqin made by He Mingwei in the 1990s.
16. Three other recordings of the 1579 Jing Guan Yin
I originally worked on reconstructing this piece before doing Ting Qin Yin, but did not complete it. It was noticing the connection between the two which provided an important key to my understanding of the 1579 Jing Guan Yin. I first recorded my Jing Guan Yin in September 2015 using the three guqins that had belonged to Professor Alan Berkowitz (1950-2015). These recordings are linked below: timings follow these three recordings
1. made by 張建華 Zhang Jianhua (listen)
2. made by 王鵬 Wang Peng (listen).
3. (with metal strings) made by Li Mingzhong (listen).
Alan was a good friend who would have appreciated the sentiment of this melody. Further regarding the three qins recorded here:
For both silk string instruments the strings were a bit too close to the top surface of the qin; on the Zhang Jianhua I alleviated this by putting a thick silk string along the top of the bridge, under the lower four or five strings, then tried to play gently.
Return to the annotated handbook list or to the Guqin ToC.