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琴史 1
朱長文 2
Qin Shi (History of the Qin)
By Zhu Changwen (1041-1100)

Qin Shi, by Zhu Changwen, has six folios. The first five folios should have 146 biographical essays (in the modern edition three have been garbled into one: see contents outline3). Eleven of the entries concern women.4 In addition, the final folio has 11 theoretical and practical treatises.5 Very little of this work has been translated anywhere, and most of my own translations here were done in rough form some years ago.6


      卷一 Folio 1

  1. 帝堯 Emperor Yao (traditional dates 2356-2255)
    See
    separate entry; 七行 帝堯宅天下,其聖神之妙用則蕩蕩乎民無能名者也,其事業之餘跡則巍巍乎其有成功者也。揚子嘗云:法始乎伏,成乎堯。匪伏匪堯,禮義哨哨。夫琴者,法之一也,當大章之作也,琴聲固已和矣。舊傳堯有神人暢古之琴曲和樂,而作者命之曰暢,達則兼濟天下之謂也。憂愁而作者命之曰操,窮則獨善其身之謂也。夫聖而不可知謂之神,非堯孰能當之?

  2. 帝舜 Emperor Shun (traditional dates 2317-2208)
    See
    separate entry; 8行

    舜繼堯位。刑、政日以明,禮、樂日以僃。孔子敘、書,斷自唐、虞言,天下之治。前此則未僃,後此則無以加也。帝之在側微也,以琴自樂。

    孟子曰:舜在牀琴,蓋雖更(瞽)瞍、象之難,而弦歌不絕。所以能不動其心,孝益聇也。舊傳有《思親操》,此之謂乎。

    及有天下,彈五弦之琴,以歌《南風》,而天下治。其辭曰:

    南風之熏兮,可以解吾民之慍兮。
    南風之時兮,可以阜吾民之材兮。

    當是時,至和之氣充塞上下,覆被動植。《(尚)書》曰: 簫韶九成,鳳凰來儀。和之極也。

  3. 大禹 Da Yu (Great Yu; traditional d. 2197 BCE)
    See
    separate entry; 4行

    大禹悼鯀績之不成,而哀堯民之墊危。於是乘四載,歷九州,過家不入,以平水土。觀洪水襄陵泛丘,乃援琴作操。其聲清以溢,潺潺志在深河也,名曰《禹操》,或曰《襄陵操》。及嗣舜之業,當作大夏。夏大也,言治水之功為大也。

  4. 成湯 Cheng Tang (ca. 18th c. BCE)
    See
    separate entry; 4行

    成湯承契之基,逢夏之亂,修仁行義以率諸侯。嘗出野見張綱四面祝曰:自天下四面皆入吾綱。湯曰:嘻,盡之矣。乃去其三面。舊云有訓畋操。其謂此乎?或曰畎畝操也。蓋湯聘伊尹於畎畝而作也。

  5. 太王 Tai Wang, Supreme King (d. 12th c. BCE)
    See
    separate entry; also called 古公亶父 Gugong Danfu; 16行

    太王嗣後稷、公劉之烈,

    居於邠。狄人侵之,事之以皮幣,不得免焉,事之以犬馬,不得免焉,事之以珠玉不得免焉。乃屬其耆老而告之曰:狄人之所欲者,吾土地也。吾聞之也,君子不以其所養人者害人。二三子何患乎無君?我將(去之,)去邠,逾梁山,邑去岐山之下居焉。邠人曰:仁人也,不可失也。從之者如歸市。

    舊說雖如此,不云乎。

    古公亶父來朝走馬,率西水滸至於岐山下。
    爰及姜女,聿來胥宇。

    又曰

    周原膴膴,堇荼如貽,
    爰始爰謀,爰契我龜。

    蓋岐山之地美於豳。其遷於岐也,非苟然也,謀之素也。余作詩說嘗言之矣。

    太王於是作《岐山之操》,蓋以思積累之艱難,而悼戎狄之猾也。退之謂《岐山操》為周公之作。

    然據琴操云:太王「自傷德,劣不能化,為夷狄之所侵。喟然嘆息,援琴而鼓之,」則宜為太王自作也。其辭曰:

    戎狄侵兮,土地移。
    遷邦邑兮,適於岐。
    烝民可憂兮,誰可知?
    嗟嗟奈何,余命遭斯。

    太王能責己而附其民,是以肇基王跡不亦美哉!

  6. 王季 King Ji (12th/11th c. BCE)
    See
    separate entry; 10行

    王季,太王之子。太王有長子曰太伯,次子虞仲。太姜生少子季歷,季歷娶太任,祇迪厥德。生昌有聖瑞。古公曰:

    「我世當有興者,其在昌乎!」

    太伯虞仲知古公欲立季歷以傳昌。二人乃亡如荊蠻。文身斷髮,以讓季歷。古公卒,王季既立。

    思太伯不得見,於是作哀慕之歌,見於《琴操》。其首云:

    「先王既徂,長霣異都。哀喪傷心,未寫中懷。」

    又曰:

    「瞻望荊越,涕淚雙流。伯兮仲兮,逝肯來游,自非二人,誰寫我憂?」

    嗚呼!太伯王季,孝友純至。周室席是以王,其積德可謂深厚矣。

    《詩》云,「帝作邦作對,自太伯王季」。

    其此之謂乎!

  7. 文王 Wen Wang (d. ca. 1073 BCE)
    See
    separate entry; 15行

    文王當紂之時,獨行仁政,養老慈少,禮下賢者,日中不暇食以待士。伯夷、叔齊、太顛、閎夭、散宜生之徒皆往歸之。崇侯虎譖於紂曰:西伯積善累德,諸侯皆鄉之,將不利於帝。紂乃囚西伯於羑里。閎夭之徒患之,乃求莘氏之姜女、驪戎之文馬、有熊之九駟,他奇怪物,因嬖臣費仲而獻之紂,紂大悅,乃赦西伯。西伯之在羑里也,演益易之八卦為六十四卦。及其出也,作《拘幽操》或曰《離憂操》,所以傷己之不幸而不敢怨也。琴操載,其辭惡紂而欲誅之,後人之所述也,豈文王之心哉?三分天下以服事商,文王之心也。韓愈作羑里之操,卒句云「臣罪當誅兮,天王聖明」,此知之矣。然則紂不赦,則文王如之何?曰揚子云:龍不以制為龍,聖人以不(缺)為聖人。聖人既受天命,雖紂如文王何?昔孔子嘗學文王操於師襄,蓋文王所制操非一,後人不能盡得其傳也。琴操有云,文王既得太公,作思士曲,此殆是歟。

  8. 武王 Wu Wang, the Martial King (r. 1073 - 1068)
    See
    separate entry; 4行

    武王既承文考之緒,終其伐功。一戎衣而天下完。還至於周,中夜不寐。周公即王所曰:「曷為不寐?」王曰:「我未足天保,何暇寐?」舊傳有《克商操》,蓋雖集大統而未忘天下之憂也。非幸紂之亡而矜其武功也。

  9. 成王 Cheng Wang (r. 1115 - 1078)
    See
    separate entry; 4行

    成王即位,年在幼沖,能任周公以政。七年有成。禮樂僃大。囹圄空虛,於是周公歸政天子。天子垂拱守成,而頌聲洋溢。瑞物愡至。乃作《神鳳之操》。召《康公詩》云:

    鳳凰嗚矣,于彼高岡。
    梧桐生矣,于彼朝陽。

    此之謂也.

  10. 周公 Zhou Gong (Duke of Zhou; also called 魯周公 Duke Zhou of Lu)
    See
    separate entry; 10行

    周公以聖人之才。佐文武、定王業、相成王、致太平,於是四海和會。

    越裳氏重九譯而來貢,周公曰:「此非旦之力也,文王之德也。」廼援琴而鼓之,故曰《越裳操》,喜遠人之服而歸美於先王也。

    或云又有《臨深操》,蓋言當天下之任而益加恭慎也。

    當周公之制禮也,詩之二南、雅頌,皆奏之於歌詠,播之管弦,然則二南、雅頌者亦為琴之曲也。

    是故作之朝廷則君臣和而治本成。作之鄉黨則仁義修而人倫厚。作之閨門則父子親而家道正。作之庠序則師友惇而學藝成,

    琴之所補豈小哉?是以君子重之。

  11. 孔子 Confucius (551-479)
    See
    separate entry; 43行

    孔子生周之季,逢魯之亂,轍環天下而不遇於世。當定公十四年,孔子年五十六,由大司寇攝相事。齊人聞而懼,謀間魯以疏孔子,於是盛飾女樂以遺魯君。時季桓子專政,亦不悅孔子之用也,乃受女樂,君臣游觀三日不朝。孔子以謂魯君:「臣之志荒不在於治,不足與有為。」遂去之他邦。歌曰:「彼婦之口,可以出走。彼婦之謁,可以死敗。蓋優哉游哉聊以卒歲。」然猶裵回不忍去,復望魯國,而龜山蔽之,乃嘆曰:「季氏之蔽吾君,猶龜山之蔽魯也。」故作《龜山操》。其辭云:「無斧無柯,奈龜山何?」斧以喻斷,柯以喻柄,無斷割之柄,則不能去季氏也。

    自魯適衛,過曹、鄭、遂至陳,久之,復適衛。既不得用,將西見趙簡子,而聞竇鳴犢、舜華之死也。臨河而嘆曰:「美哉!水洋洋乎!丘之不濟,此命矣夫?」竇鳴犢、舜華,晉國之賢大夫也。刳胎殺夭則麒麟不至,竭澤涸魚則蛟龍不游,覆巢毀卵則鳳凰不翔。何則?君子諱傷其類也。乃還息乎陬鄉,作《陬操》以哀之。《陬操》者,蓋琴操所謂《將歸》也。其辭曰:「秋水深兮風揚波,船楫顛倒更相和,歸來歸來歸為期。」秋水深者,險難也,風揚波者,威暴也,船楫顛倒者,行不以道也。遭時如此,不歸何以哉?又曰「周道衰危,禮樂陵遲,文武既墜,吾將焉師?周遊天下,靡邦可依。鳳鳥不識,珍寶梟鴟。眷然顧之,慘然心悲。巾車命駕,將適唐都。黃河洋洋,攸攸之魚。臨津不濟,還轅息鄹。傷予道窮,哀彼無辜。翱翔於衛,復我舊廬。從吾所好,其樂只且。」

    及孔子厄於陳蔡之間,講誦弦歌不輟。後自衛反魯,過隱谷,有幽蘭獨茂,子喟然曰:「蘭,香草也,而與眾卉為伍,如聖賢倫於鄙夫也。」乃作《猗蘭操》,其辭有云:「如何蒼天,不得其所;逍遙九州,無所定處。」感憤之深切也,又作《丘陵之歌》曰:「登彼丘陵,峛崺其阪,仁道則邇,求之若遠。遂迷不復,自嬰屯蹇。喟然回慮,題彼泰山。郁確其高,梁甫回連。枳棘充路,陟之無緣。將伐無柯,患茲蔓延。惟以永嘆,涕霣潺湲。」

    孔子去魯凡十四歲而後歸魯,魯終不能用孔子。孔子亦不復求仕,於是刪《詩》、定《書》、論《禮》、正《樂》、作《春秋》、贊《易》道,而六經之道燦然大備矣。其刪《詩》三百也,孔子皆弦歌之,合於雅而後取也。莊子云:「孔子游乎緇帷之林,休坐乎杏墰之上。弟子讀書,孔子弦歌鼓琴。奏曲未半,有漁父者,下船而來此。」因夫子之好琴而寓言也。孔子以魯哀公六年四月己醜卒,年七十三。

    余嘗讀《龜山》之辭而哀至聖之不得位;聽將歸之歌而傷濁世之多險難;聞猗蘭之名而嘆盛德之不遇時也。然則使孔子見用,則魯將復興乎?曰夫子之為司寇也,外沮齊侯以壯邦君之威,內墮三都以削大夫之勢,可謂勇於有為矣。使其得志之久,則將興魯尊周以復文武之治。故曰「有用我者三年有成。」豈過論哉?

  12. 許由 Xu You (ca. 2000 BCE)
    See
    separate entry; 6行

    許由,堯時隱人也。舊說云,堯嘗遜天下於許由,許不受,且恥之,逃去,隱於箕山。故傳有《箕山操》。今山上有冢存焉。太史公嘗疑之,謂其不概見於六藝也。雖然,說者傳之尚矣,庸得略耶!古聖人之清者,固有不以天下易其樂。揚子謂由無求於世,信矣。凡琴操之名於後者,或其自作之,或後人述而歌之耳。

  13. 夷、齊 Yi Qi (伯夷、叔齊 Bo Yi and Shu Qi)
    See
    separate entry; 9行

    夷、齊者,孤竹君之二子也。伯夷以國讓其弟。聞文王作,興曰:「盍歸乎來?吾聞西伯善養老者。」於是與叔齊偕歸之。及武王伐紂,獨二人者以為不可,武王不聽。遂不食周粟,隱於首陽山,採薇而食之。作歌曰: 「登彼西山兮,採其薇矣。
    以暴易暴兮,不知其非矣。
    神農、虞、夏忽焉沒兮,我安適歸矣?
    于嗟徂兮,命之衰矣!」
    此所謂《採薇操》也。遂餓死於首陽山。蓋恥商周干戈之事,而思堯舜揖讓之節。萬世之下聞其風者,亂臣為之竦懼。孔子以謂求仁得仁,孟子以為聖之清者。

  14. 箕子 Jizi, Viscount of Ji
    See
    separate entry; 10行

    箕子者,紂之族也。太史公云,「紂為淫佚,箕子諫,不聽。人或曰,『可以去矣,』箕子曰,『為人臣,諫不聽,是彰君之惡,而自說於民,吾不忍為也。』乃被發佯狂而為奴。」遂隱而鼓琴以自悲,故傳之曰《箕子操》也。予嘗考之。箕子事紂,為太師,王子比干為少師。箕子先諫,紂怒而囚奴之。比乾干又諫,紂怒而殺之。微子知其必亡,遂去。孔子曰:「微子去之,箕子為之奴,比干諫而死,商有三仁焉。」所謂為之奴者,紂使為之耳。武王數紂之罪曰:「囚奴正士。」及其克商也。釋箕子之囚,非佯狂也,離拘之作,蓋自痛悼罹於拘囚也。《易》曰,「內難而能正其志」,此之謂也。

  15. 微子 Weizi (Viscount of Wei)
    See
    separate entry; 4行

    微子者,紂之庶兄也。紂淫亂,微子數諫,不聽。欲死之,則懼商祀遂滅。於是去而歸周。孔子稱仁焉。嘗作《傷殷操》,蓋見其暴亂以至於顛隮,所以寓哀於絲桐也。成王既誅三監,命微子以嗣成湯之後,為周室所賓禮云。 云

  16. 伯奇 Bo Qi, i.e., 尹伯奇 Yin Boqi (9th c. BCE)
    See
    English summary; 9行

    伯奇者,尹吉甫之子也。吉甫以詩顯於周宣王之時。吉甫長子曰伯奇,次曰伯封。伯封繼室之子也,故欲立之。紿吉甫曰:「伯奇好妾,若不信,君登台觀之。」乃寘蜂領中,顧伯奇曰:「蜂蠆我,趣為我掇之。」吉甫望見,以其妻之言為信,於是放伯奇。伯奇自傷無辜見疑,作《履霜操》以寓其哀。其辭有云: 「孤息離別兮摧肺肝,
        何辜皇天兮遭斯愆。」
    余每聞其音,未始不為之嗟惻也。其父始非不賢,而卒蔽於讒,以滅天性,命也。夫莊子所謂, 「人莫不欲其子之孝,而孝未必愛,故孝己憂而曾參悲。」 信夫!

  17. 介之推 Jiezhi Tui (also called 介子推 Jiezi Tui); 7th c. BCE
    See
    separate entry; 13行 介之推者,事晉公子重耳。重耳被讒,得罪於獻公,奔亡在外十九年。子推從行,備歷勤苦。及公子即位,是為文公。推不言祿,祿亦不及推。且曰:

    「獻公之子九人,惟君在矣。 惠、懷無親,外內棄之。 天未絕晉,必將有主。 主晉祀者,非君而誰。 天實置之,而二三子 以為己力,不亦誣乎? 竊人之財,猶謂之盜, 況貪天之功,以為己力乎?」 遂隱而死。嘗作《龍蛇之歌》曰:

    「有龍矯矯,遭天譴怒。
        卷排角甲,來遁於下。
        志願不與,他得同伍。
        龍蛇俱行,身辭山墅。
        龍得升天,安厥房戶。
        蛇獨抑摧,沈滯泥土。
        仰天怨望,綢繆悲苦。
        非樂龍伍,惔不眄顧。」
    蓋既有此辭,則時人當播之絲桐之間矣。之推節士也,晉侯方與群卿圖霸中原,故未遑賞,而之推秉志高厲,遁而去之,風烈凜凜足以激貪而矯浮矣。

  18. 史魚 Shi Yu (Historian Yu 3334.143);
    See
    English summary; 8行

    史魚者,衛靈公之大夫也。孔子嘗稱其直。靈公之時,蘧伯玉賢而不用,彌子瑕不肖而任事。史魚患之,以諫公,公不聽。史魚病且死,戒其子曰:「我即死,治喪於北堂。我不能進蘧伯玉而退彌子暇,是不能正君也。生不能正君者,死不當成禮,置屍北堂於我足矣。」史魚死,其子不敢違。靈公吊之,問其故,知以屍諫也。有諫不違之歌見於《琴操》。然《琴操》言其飲藥以死,殆非也,《家語》、《劉向新序》俱云病耳。

    (N.B. Shi Ji #67 [GSR VII p.63ff] discusses all of the following disciples of Confucius, but does not have the qin stories)

  19. 顏子 Yanzi, Master Yan (514 - 483)
    See
    separate entry; nickname of 顏回 Yan Hui; 10 行

    顏回,字子渊,道德充茂,去夫子一間耳。孔子(缺)之門人,蓋未有不知樂者,況子淵乎?故一簞食,一瓢飲,在陋巷,人不堪其憂,而回也不改其樂。知樂之致也。仲尼閑居,子貢入侍,而有憂色。子貢不敢問,出告顏回,顏回援琴而歌。孔子聞之,果召回入,問曰:「若奚獨樂?」回曰:「樂天知命故不憂。」回所以樂也。孔子曰,「汝徒知樂天知命之無憂,未知樂天知命有憂之大也。夫樂而知者非古人之所謂樂知也,無樂無知是真樂真知;故無所不樂,無所不知, 無所不憂,無所不為。」顏回拜手曰:「回亦得之矣!」弦歌誦書終身不輟。

  20. 子張 Zizhang (503 - 447 BCE)
    See
    English summary; 3行

    顓孫師,字子張,聖門之高弟也。既除喪而見夫子。子之琴,和之而和,彈之而成聲。作而曰:「先王制禮,不敢不至也,禮、經稱焉。」

  21. 子夏 Zixia (507-425).
    See
    separate entry; nickname of 卜商 Bu Shang; 8行

    卜商字子夏,以文學見稱大君子之門。嘗受《書》於夫子,志之於心,弗敢忘。雖退居河濟之間,深山之中,作壤室,編蓬戶,常於此彈琴,以歌先王之道。有人亦樂,無人亦樂,忽不知憂患與死也。子夏既除喪而見夫子,予之琴,和之而不和,彈之而不成聲。作而曰:「哀未忘也,先王制禮而弗敢過也。」古者喪既除,必鼓素琴示民有終也。子夏之志,所以使民企而及之者也。子張之志,所以使民俯而就之者也。其行雖不同,同歸於正而已。

  22. 閔子 Minzi (born 535 BCE)
    See
    separate entry; nickname of 閔損 Min Sun; 10行

    閔子騫名損,以孝見稱。三年之喪畢,見於孔子,子與之琴使之弦,切切而悲。作而曰:「先王制禮弗敢過也。」子曰:「君子也。」謂其哀未盡而能斷之以禮也。 孔子晝息於室而鼓瑟焉,閔子自外聞之,以告曾子曰:「向也,夫子之音清澈以和,淪入至道。今也更為幽沈之聲,幽則利慾之所為發,沈則貪得之所為施,夫子何所感若是乎?」

    曾子曰:「諾。」二子入問孔子,孔子曰:「然!汝言是也。我向見貓方捕鼠,欲其得之,故為之音也。汝二人者孰識諸?」曾子曰是閔子。夫子曰:「可與聽音矣。」

    然則登孔氏之堂者,孰非知樂者乎?

  23. 子路 Zilu (542-480)
    See
    separate entry; nickname of 仲由 Zhong You; 27行

    仲由字子路,以政事才勇著名。嘗鼓琴,孔子聞之,謂冉有曰:

    「甚矣,由之不才也!夫先王之制音也,奏中聲以為節,流入於南不歸於北。夫南者生育之鄉,北者殺伐之域。故君子之音,溫柔居中以養生育之氣,憂愁之感不加於心,暴厲之動不在於體,夫然者乃所謂治安之風也;小人之音則不然,亢厲微末以象殺伐之氣,中和之感不載於心,溫和之動不存於體,夫然者乃所以為危亂之風也。昔者舜彈五弦之琴,造南風之詩,故其興也勃焉,德如泉流,至於今,王公大人述而不忘。商紂好為北鄙之聲,其亡也忽焉,至於今,王公大人舉以為誡。夫舜起布衣,種德含和而終昌帝。紂為天子,荒淫暴亂,而終以亡,非各所修之致乎?今由也匹夫,曾無意於先王之制,而習亡國之聲,豈能保其六七尺之軀哉?」

    冉有以告子路,子路懼而自悔,靜思不食以至骨立。夫子曰:「過而能改,其進矣乎。」夫子雖稱其改,而子路卒不得其死。豈其禍難之萌,先見於音聲,夫子知而戒之乎?夫子遭厄陳蔡之間,絕糧七日,弟子病,莫能與孔子弦歌。子路入見曰:「夫子之歌,禮乎?」孔子不應,曲終而曰:「由來!我語汝。君子好樂為無驕也,小人好樂為無懾也,其誰之子不我知而從我者乎?」子路悅,援戚而舞,三終而出。明日,孔子止之曰:「惡有修仁義而不免俗乎?夫詩書之不講,禮樂之不習,是丘之過也。若以述先王好古法而為咎者,是非丘之罪也,命矣夫!歌,予和汝。」子路彈琴而歌,孔子和之曲,三終,圍者解甲而罷。蓋孔子之門,雖造次顛沛,不捨弦歌,是以處窮而彌泰,獨立而不懼,終致於無事也。

  24. 曾子 Zengzi (505-436)
    See
    separate entry; nickname of 曾參 Zeng Shen, style name 子輿 Ziyu (compare another Ziyu below); 16行

    曾參,字子輿,少孔子四十六歲,晚事孔子。當孔子之在陳、蔡也,曾子少,未及從行。故孔子論德行,不及曾子。孔子還魯,而曾子行益高,故為之作《孝經》。 曾子嘗耘瓜,誤斷其根。曾皙怒,擊之幾死。有頃乃蘇。欣然而起,進於曾皙曰:「向也,參得罪於大人,大人用力教參,得無疾乎!」退而就房,援琴而歌,欲令曾皙聞之,知其體康也。然孔子聞之而怒,曰,「舜之事瞽瞍,小捶則待,大杖則走,故瞽瞍不犯不父之罪。今參委身以待暴怒,殆而不避,既死則陷父於不義矣。」曾子造孔子而謝過。曾子嘗夢狸,不見其首,以為不祥,援琴而鼓之,作《殘形操》。有立於戶外而

    曾子嘗夢貍,不見其首,以為不祥,援琴而鼓之。作「殘形操」。有立於戶外而聽之者。曲終而入曰:「善哉,鼓琴乎!身已成矣,而惜未見其首也。」蓋夢狸而無首,此為怪祥。君子居正以俟命,福至不喜,禍至不怵,故鼓琴以寫其意。而曾子卒無禍,後之君子可以監矣。 又有「歸耕」之曲。曰,往而不返者年也。不可得而再事者親也。見於「琴操」。

    萬世之下,言孝者必稱子輿美夫。

  25. 原思 Yuan Si (born 525 BCE)
    See
    separate entry; nickname (also 子思 Zisi) of 原憲 Yuan Xian; 7行

    原憲,字子思,清靜守節。貧而樂道,居環堵之室。子貢乘肥馬,衣輕裘,往見之,憲褚冠藜杖而應門。正冠則纓絕,捉襟則肘見,納履則踵決。子貢曰:「嘻!先生何病也?」原憲曰,「無財之謂貧。學而不能行之謂病。憲貧也。非貧也。子貢有慙色。原憲乃徐步曳杖,歌《商頌》,聲滿天地,若出金石。舊傳有《商頌操》,此之謂也。余嘗於語觀原思之問,夫子之答,知其道甚高、志甚完,未嘗不歎慕其賢也。

  26. 子賤 Zijian (宓子賤 Fu Zijian, born 521 BCE)
    See
    separate entry; nickname of 宓不齊 Fu Buqi; 6行

    宓子賤,名不齊,為單父宰。彈鳴琴聲,不下堂而單父治。巫馬期以星(出,以星)入,日夜不處,而單父亦治。子賤任人,子期任力。任力者勞,任人者逸。故異也。然子賤豈徒鼓琴而已哉?固能作樂以平心氣,審音以知政教。心氣既平,政教既得,有不治哉?孔子稱之曰:「君子哉!若人,賢之深也!」單父至今有子賤祠及琴臺存焉。

     
    卷二 Folio 2

  27. 涓子 Juanzi (of 齊 Qi)
    See
    separate entry.

  28. 琴高 Qin Gao (21570.40)
    See
    separate entry.

  29. 冠先 Guan Xian (Lie Xian Zhuan has 寇先 Kou Xian)
    See English summary

  30. 楚商梁 Chu Shang Liang ()
    See
    separate entry; sometimes called 莊王 King Zhuang

  31. 師曠 Shi Kuang (Master Kuang), style name 子野 Ziye, a man of 晉 Jin
    See
    separate entry

  32. 師襄子 Shi Xiangzi (9129.189); qin teacher of Confucius
    See
    separate entry.

  33. 瓠巴 Hu Ba (21890.5)
    See
    English summary

  34. 師文 Shi Wen (9129.20); music master discussed in Liezi
    See
    separate entry.

  35. 鍾儀 Zhong Yi
    See
    English summary

  36. 師經 Shi Jing (5th c. CE)
    See
    English summary

  37. 榮啟期 Rong Qiqi (5th c. BCE)
    See
    separate entry

  38. 伯牙 Bo Ya (full name 俞伯牙 Yu Boya)
    See
    separate entry

  39. 鐘子期 Zhong Ziqi
    See
    separate entry

  40. 鄒忌子 Master Zou Ji
    See
    English summary

  41. 雍門周 Yongmen Zhou (plus *** 韓娥 Han E and Sun Xi)
    See English summary

  42. 子桑 Zisang
    See
    English summary

  43. 屈原 Qu Yuan (ca. 340 - 278)
    See
    separate entry

  44. 宋玉 Song Yu (ca. 290 - ca. 223)
    See
    separate entry

  45. 卞和 Bian He (2825.15 - .7)
    See
    English summary

  46. 牧犢子 Mu Duzi
    See
    English summary

  47. 商陵牧子 Shangling Muzi (3834.xxx/ Bio/2204)
    See
    English summary

  48. 霍里子高 Huoli Zigao (43291.32 Han dynasty)
    See
    English summary

    * 屠門高 Tumen Gao (7927.28/2xx) appended
    See
    English summary

  49. 龍丘高 Longqiu Gao
    See
    English summary

  50. 樗里牧恭 Shuli Mugong and *聶政 Nie Zheng appended
    See
    English summary

  51. 三士 Three Gentlemen (其思革子 Qisi Gezi, 石文子 Shi Wenzi and 叔愆子 Shu Qianzi)
    See
    separate entry

    * 離須 Li Xu appended
    See separate entry

    * (楚)明光 (Chu) Mingguang also appended
    See separate entry

  52. 衛女 Woman of Wei
    See
    English summary

  53. 百里奚妻 Wife of Baili Xi
    See
    English summary

  54. 伯姬保母 The Governess of Boji
    See
    English summary

  55. 樊姬 Fan Ji (ca. 600 BCE)
    A consort of King Zhuang of Chu; see
    separate entry

  56. 魯女 Lu Nü (Woman of Lu)
    See
    English summary

  57. 毛女 Mao Nü (17141.9)
    See
    separate entry

     
    卷三 Folio 3

  58. 漢高祖 Han Gaozu (劉邦 Liu Bang 247-194; r.206-194)
    See
    English summary

  59. 漢元帝 Han emperor Yuandi (劉奭 Liu Shi, 75-32; r.48-32)
    See
    English summary

  60. 元后 Empress Yuan (Wiki; 71 BCE-13CE)
    See English summary

  61. 四皓 Si Hao (Four Hoaryheads, 3rd c. BCE)
    See
    separate entry.

  62. 竇公 Dou Gong (26273.8)
    See
    English summary

  63. 周太賓 Zhou Taibin
    See
    English summary

  64. 稷丘君 Master Jiqiu
    See
    separate entry

  65. 淮南王安 Prince An of Huai Nan; proper name 劉安 Liu An (d. 122 BCE)
    See
    separate entry

  66. 司馬相如 Sima Xiangru (179 - 117)
    See
    separate entry

  67. 張安世 Zhang Anshi (d. 62 BCE)
    See
    English summary

  68. 師中 Shi Zhong (3rd/2nd c. BCE)
    See
    English summary

  69. 趙定 Zhao Ding (1st c. BCE)
    See
    English summary

  70. 劉向 Liu Xiang (77-6 BCE)
    See
    separate entry

    *** 揚雄 Yang Xiong (53 BCE-18 CE)
    See his
    separate entry in Qin Shi Bu. He is mentioned only briefly in Qin Shi.

  71. 王昭君 Wang Zhaojun (1st c. BCE)
    Nickname of 王嬙 Wang Qiang; see
    separate entry

  72. 宋勝之 Song Shengzhi (7230.288); d.45 BCE
    See
    English summary

  73. 桓譚 Huan Tan (ca.43 BCE - 28 CE)
    See
    separate entry

  74. 劉昆 Liu Kun, d.57 CE (compare #90)
    See English summary

  75. 梁鴻 Liang Hong, style name 伯鸞 Boluan (1st c. CE; 15135.295)
    See
    English summary

  76. 馬融 Ma Rong (79-166)
    See
    English summary

  77. 蔡邕 Cai Yong (133-192), style name 伯喈 Bojie
    See separate entry.

  78. 蔡琰 Cai Yan, daughter of #77 Cai Yong
    See separate entry.

    * 陳脩明 Chen Xiuming (42618.xxx) appended; compare Chen Xiu
    See separate details added after Cao Wenji.

  79. 杜夔 Du Kui (<188 - after 220)
    See
    English summary

  80. 孫登 Sun Deng (no certain dates)
    Style name 公和 Gonghe (see
    separate entry)

  81. 阮瑀 Ruan Yu (d. 212)
    See
    separate entry

  82. 阮籍 Ruan Ji (210 - 263)
    See
    separate entry

    阮咸 Ruan Xian (3rd c.)
    See separate entry; nephew of Ruan Ji.

    阮瞻 Ruan Zhan (ca. 281 - ca. 310)
    See separate entry; son of Ruan Xian.

  83. 季流子 Ji Liuzi (7115.xxx)
    See
    English summary

  84. 嵇康 Xi Kang (or Ji Kang), style name 叔夜 (223-262)
    See
    separate entry

  85. 嵇紹 Xi Shao (253-304 CE)
    See
    English summary

  86. 顧雍 Gu Yong (168 - 243)
    See
    English summary

  87. 顧榮 Gu Rong (270-322 CE)
    See
    English summary

  88. 張翰 Zhang Han (c. 258 - 319)
    See
    English summary

     
    卷四 Folio 4

  89. 謝安石 Xie Anshi; style name of 謝安 Xie An (320-385; 36661.57/2)
    See
    separate entry.

  90. 劉琨 Liu Kun (d. 317 CE; compare #74)
    See English summary

  91. 袁準 Yuan Zhun (3rd c. CE)
    See
    English summary

  92. 王徽之 Wang Huizhi (d.388 CE; 21295.1950)
    Style name 王子猷 Wang Ziyou; see
    separate entry.

  93. 三戴 San Dai: The three Dai (four?): 戴逵 Dai Kui, 戴述 Dai Shu, 戴勃 Dai Bo and 戴顒 Dai Yong
    See
    separate entry.

  94. 陶淵明 Tao Yuanming
    Style name of 陶潛 Tao Qian (365-427); see
    separate entry.

  95. 賀韜 He Tao (37569.xxx)
    See
    English summary

  96. 公孫鳳 Gongsun Feng (1480.447)
    See
    English summary

  97. 段豐妻 Wife of Duan Feng (16987.xxx; Bio. xxx)
    See
    English summary

  98. 王微 Wang Wei, style name 景玄 Jingxuan (415 - 453; also 王僧祐 Wang Sengyou, style name 嗣宗 Sizong
    See
    English summary

  99. 王僧虔 Wang Sengqian (425-485)
    See
    English summary

  100. 謝莊 Xie Zhuang (421-466)
    See
    separate entry; style name 謝希逸 Xie Xiyi

  101. 沈道虔 Shen Daoqian (368 - 449; 17528.xxx)
    See
    English summary

  102. 宗炳 Zong Bing (375-443)
    Style name 宗少文 Zong Shaowen; see
    separate entry

  103. 蕭思話 Xiao Sihua (406-455; 32667.218)
    See
    English summary

  104. 二柳 The two Lius: 柳世隆 Liu Shilong (442 - 491) and his son 柳惲 Liu Yun (465 - 517)
    Also mentions another son, 柳惔 Liu Yan (462 - 507); see
    separate entry

  105. 柳遠 Liu Yuan (509 - 539)
    And his younger brother 柳諧 Liu Xie (503 - 528); see
    separate entry

  106. 鄭述祖 Zheng Shuzu, style name 恭文 Gongwen (485 - 565)
    See
    English summary

  107. Chu Yanhui (435 - 483)
    See
    English summary

  108. 沈麟士 Shen Linshi, style name 雲禎 Yunzhen (419 - 503)
    See
    English summary

  109. 杜棲 Du Qi, style name 孟山 Mengshan (464 - 499)
    See
    English summary

  110. 陶弘景 Tao Hongjing (452 or 456 - 536)
    See
    separate entry

  111. 王彥 Wang Yan (21295.780xxx; Bio/116xxx; 彥 10209.xxx)
    See
    English summary

  112. 文中子 Wen Zhongzi (583 - 616)
    Nickname of 王通 Wang Tong; see
    separate entry

  113. 王績 Wang Ji (585 - 644)
    Listed by his nickname, 東皋子 Donggaozi; see
    separate entry

  114. 呂方 Lü Fang (3474.xxx)
    See
    English summary

  115. 趙耶利 Zhao Yeli (563 - 639)
    See
    separate entry.

  116. 司馬子微 Sima Ziwei, i.e., 司馬承正 Sima Chengzheng (647 - 735)
    See
    separate entry; his name is also written as 司馬承禎 Chengzhen

  117. 盧藏用 Lu Cangyong (ca. 660 - ca. 714)
    See
    separate entry

  118. 趙元 Zhao Yuan, style name Zigu 子固 (38015.72/2?)
    See
    English summary

  119. 元紫芝 Yuan Zizhi, style name of 元德秀 Yuan Dexiu (696 - 754)
    See
    English summary

  120. 房公 Fang Gong, nickname of 房琯 Fang Guan (697 - 763)
    See
    English summary

  121. 張鎬 Zhang Gao (died 764 CE; ToC calls him 張丞相鎬 Prime Minister Zhang Gao)
    See
    English summary

  122. 李勉 Li Mian (717 - 788; ToC calls him 李丞相勉 Prime Minister Li Mian)
    See
    separate entry, which is mostly from
    See English summary

  123. 韓滉 Han Huang, style name 太沖 Taichong (723 - 787)
    See
    separate entry

    * 韓皋 Han Gao, style name 仲聞 Zhongwen (746 - 824), his son
    See separate entry

  124. 獨孤及 Dugu Ji (725 - 777)
    See
    separate entry

  125. 白居易 Bai Juyi (772 - 846)
    See
    separate entry; style name 樂天 Letian; name also written Bo Juyi, Po Chü-I.

  126. 崔玄亮 Cui Xuanliang, style name 晦叔 Huishu (768 - 833)
    See
    English summary

  127. 衛次公 Wei Cigong, style name 從周 Congzhou (752 - 818)
    See
    English summary

  128. 郭虛舟 Guo Xuzhou
    See
    English summary

  129. 蕭祐 Xiao You (also Xiao Hu 蕭祜; d. 828)
    See
    English summary

  130. 董庭蘭 Dong Tinglan (695 - ca. 765)
    See
    separate entry

  131. 李氏、王氏女 Women of the Li and Wang families
    See
    English summary

  132. 薛易簡 Xue Yijian (ca. 725 - ca.800)
    See
    separate entry.

  133. 陳康士 Chen Kangshi, style name 安道 Andao (874 - 888)
    See English summary

  134. 宋霽 Song Ji and 賀祐存 He Youcun (?; also called 夷 Yi) appended
    See
    English summary

  135. 甘讜 Gan Dang, style name 正詞 Zhengci (xxx)
    See
    English summary

  136. 孫希裕 Sun Xiyu, style name 偉卿 Weiqing (?)
    See
    English summary

  137. 陳拙 Chen Zhuo (late Tang)
    See the
    separate entry.

     
    卷五 Folio 5

  138. (宋)太宗 Song Taizong (趙匡儀 Zhao Kuangyi, 939 - 997)
    See the
    separate entry

  139. 竇儼 Dou Yan, style name 望之 Wang Zhi (919 - 960)
    See
    English summary

  140. 崔遵度 Cui Zundu; also 崔論德 Cui Lunde
    See
    separate entry
    See English summary

  141. (朱億 Zhu Yi, style name 延年 Yannian)
    See
    English summary

  142. 朱文濟、趙裔 Zhu Wenji and Zhao Yi
    See
    separate entry and English summary

  143. 唐異 Tang Yi (ca. 1100?)
    See
    English summary

  144. 範仲淹 Fan Zhongyan (989 - 1052)
    See
    separate entry

  145. 歐陽修 Ouyang Xiu, style name 永叔 Yongshu (1007 - 1072)
    See
    separate entry

  146. 趙抃 Zhao Bian, style name 閱道 Yuedao (1008 - 1084)
    See
    English summary

     
    卷六 Folio 6 (Theory)

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a
separate page)

1. Qin History (Qin Shi 琴史)
See footnote on the English page. This Chinese page began because of problems at zh.wikisource.org (incomplete), ctext (unreliable optical scanning of unpunctuated version), other online sources that are scattered and often have annoying pop-ups. It became possible with the publication of an edition punctuated by Wang Mengshu.
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2. Zhu Changwen 朱長文 (1041 - 1100)
In addition to his Qinshi Xu biography see the discussion of Qin Shi in QSCB, Chapter 6c1.
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3. Contents Outline for Qin Shi
Qin Shi has no general Table of Contents, instead having one for each folio. Here there are a total of 146 biographical entries followed by 11 essays on musical theory, as follows:

Folio 1: 26 entries (  1 - 26)
Folio 2: 31 entries (27 - 57)
Folio 3: 31 entries (58 - 88)
Folio 4: 49 entries (88 - 137; see comment)
Folio 5:   9 entries (138-146)
Folio 6: 11 essays on musical theory.

In addition, the titles of some entries indicate they concern two (in one case three) people. Most of these are indicated by appending a name, as in the following nine entries (marked here by *): 48, 50, 51 (two names appended), 60, 69, 78, 98, 123 and 134. These are presumably the "nine in attachments" mentioned in the Qinshi Xu entry for Zhu Changwen (q.v.).

In addition, two entries have two names in the actual title itself (marked here by **): 131 and 142. And at least three more could have appended one or two names but for some reason did not (marked here by ***): 41, 63, 70, and 82 (two additional).

Note that in the actual text of the modern published edition there is some missing material in Folio 4, entries #120 - 122, cutting off the end of 120 (Fang Gong), all of 121 (Zhang Gao) and the beginning of 122 (Li Mian), resulting in only 47 entries for that folio. I have here re-separated them, providing the missing material from the same entries in Qinshu Daquan, Folio 15, Entry 17, Entry 20, then Entry 18. Thus the 146 numbered biographical essays here correspond with the listing in the Qin Shi Table of Contents.
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4. The following are about women qin players (also: mother of #135).
    #52-57,   #60 A & B,   #71,   #78 A & B,   #97,   #131 A & B.
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5. These I have not carefully examined.
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6. My comments on this are in Qin History, Footnote 1.
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