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QSCB : Song/Yuan    Essays    /     previous   /   next     首頁
Chapter Six: Song and Yuan dynasties 1
Xu Jian, Introductory History of the Qin, p. 120
第六章﹕宋,元
許健,琴史初編,第120頁

6.C. Qin Essays 2

7. Cheng Yujian,3 Lun Qin (Discussing Qin) 4

琴論  

成玉磵,論琴  

This (essay) is seen in Qinshu Daquan (Folio 10). The author, during the Zhenghe period (1111-1117) of the Northern Song, for the circumstances of the qin world carried out a broad critical essay, pointing out that at that time,5

In the capital (Kaifeng), Double Zhe (Zhejiang and part of southeast Jiangsu) and Jiangxi (the modern province and somewhat east) the number of people skilled at the qin is very great; moreover each has its own finger techniques. In Kaifeng most of it is vigorous, in Jiangnan they err on the side of playfulness; it is only in Double Zhe that it is hidden and not wild, literary but not historical.

This paragraph makes an outline of the different styles of each of the northern and southern schools, regarding with special approval the Double Zhe qin school. From this one can see that the ascent of the Zhe School certainly had long tradition. As early as the Northern Song it already had a leading position.6

The same as with Zequan, (Cheng) paid a lot of attention to the differences between diaozi and caonong, saying,7

Caonong value wave-like fluttering, and are more likely to get lost in excess;
Diaozi value calm and quiet, and are more likely to sink into obscurity.

This points out that the two (types of melodies) had different styles of play, and also the tendencies they could easily produce. He also laid out a list of the popular diaozi of his day, dividing them into different styles and adding commentary.8

(Cheng) opposed just blindly following old tablature, saying,9

"Old melodies are rarely achieved. The ones now commonly transmitted never have clear modality/melodies, the intonation has dissonance, the sounds are chaotic, there naturally are omissions: how can one be blinded by such a melody?"

(Instead) he advocated,10

"Examine all the experts, select the good ones, and follow them."

Regarding peoples' bearing during performance, for all such aspects as every sort of finger technique and dynamic process he put forward detailed explanations and advocated strict and concrete requirements. However, he stressed even more comprehension of melodies, saying,11

"Temper yourself over a long period of time, then suddenly you will achieve comprehension, and then there will be nothing you cannot do."

If towards musical concepts one has no deeply ingrained structural knowledge, this will only be a bitter experience, and one will not be able to attain a beautiful space.12

"As for this lack of comprehension, although one may use a lot of effort seeking it, in the end there will be no beautiful space."
 

(Continue with next, Zhao Xikuang, Lun Tan Qin)

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Chapter 6 covers these dynasties (dates, capital city [modern name]):

Northern Song (960-1126; Dongjing [Kaifeng])
Liao (907-1125; Dading Fu [Daning?])
Southern Song (1127-1280; Linan Fu [Hangzhou])
Jin (1115-1260; Zhongdu [Beijing])
Yuan (1206-1280-1368; Dadu [Beijing]) (Return)

2. Translation by JT
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3. Cheng Yujian 成玉磵
Cheng Yujian (11820.xxx lived during (1111-1117), but there seems to be no information about him other what what is written in the sources mentioned here. There is also a collection of his explanations of finger techniques (Zhi Fa, Qinshu Cunmu #128), included in Qinshu Daquan, Folio 8 (Qinqu Jicheng, V/155 apparently to 158).
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4. Discussing Qin (論琴 Lun Qin) (QQJC V/206-209)
This essay is quite lengthy: over six folio-pages in Folio 10 of the original Qinshu Daquan, which organizes it into three sections, of 5, 10 and 142 lines respectively. Qinshu Daquan calls it Qin Lun; in QSCB it is one of nine such discussions in a section of QSCB called Qin Lun, so perhaps Xu Jian reversed Cheng Yujian's title to Lun Qin to distinguish the title from this overall title.

In addition to the phrases from this essay that Xu Jian commented on above, other phrases in it worthy of note include the following:

Selected phrases from this essay have been translated by Pei-You Chang on this webpage. Based on the text in Qinqu Jicheng, copied below, she seems to paraphrase a few of the original quotes (the first few are underlined here).

The original text of Qin Lun by Cheng Yujian begins as follows (copied mostly from a punctuated version found on this Facebook page):

I.
宮、商、角、徵、羽謂之五音。過此則慢商、慢角、黃鍾凡十九,名曰轉絃外調。其聲清濁高下不同,而有自然之妙。若一聲差互,則五音不正。古曲歷代浸久,後人妄意加减,漏相傳授,遂至五音雜亂,欲其動天地,感鬼神,不亦遠乎。然非知音者不可語此。

II
指法遒勁,則失於大過;懦弱則失於不及,是皆未探古人真意。惟優游自得,不為來去所窘,乃為合道。取聲忌用意太過,太過則失真,操者亦不覺,惟旁觀者乃知。然俗耳有人全不可取,率意自任,號為天然,不識者亦從嗟美,嘗竊笑之,是指風真漢喚為道人。由來此病,卒難醫也。京師、兩浙、江西能琴者極多,然指法各有不同。京師過於剛勁,江南失於輕浮,惟兩浙質而不野、文而不史。此法人多不知,惟三人對彈,可較優劣。所謂「彈欲斷絃,按欲入木」,貴其持重,然亦要輕重、去就,皆當乎理,乃盡其妙。不然,但兢乎音響,非能琴者也。

III
操琴之法大都以得意為主,雖寝食不忘,故操弄不過一、二曲,則其奥窮。至於調雖十數,而意愈妙。蓋調子貴淡而有味,如食橄欖。若夫操弄如飄風驟雨,一發則中,使人神魄飛動。然作家者多以調子自娛。設或操弄太綱,要輕重起伏有節,首尾中貫,不求小過,如人作長韻詩。至若調子要吟猱親切,下指簡靜,如人作五言詩。後之作者,不易此論。子瞻謂「和缓之醫,不别老少;曹吳之畫,不擇人物。」一切理當如此,非為醫、畫而然。善知琴者,不拘操、弄、調、引,自然有勝入處。蓋指下任運,自與造化相合,操弄者亦莫知其然也。

長鎖、短鎖,其實一也,然意趣各别。短鎖彈不過三四,長鎖不定,以意为主,醉鎖似而非。長鎖、短涓、慢撥、刺涓、醉涓,凡六,名人多不一。若悟是理,則無適而不通,其要在下指耳。

琴中巧拙,在於用工,至於風韻,則出入氣宇,要知其優劣,政如鄭都官、李太白作詩。學琴如學古畫,初雖無味,至於用工深遠,自成一家精妙,造次逢源,不藉力也。所以操而倦,敦猱聲貴圓靜,外虛中實,如綿裏稱鎚,此聲最要取,縱能者十亦失其一二。至於未至敦而指先下,謂之折腰敦。中徽而無力,謂之醉敦,此最不佳。有來去無跡,謂之藏頭敦,最妙。有從上直下,謂之硬敦,得此鮮有,但比藏頭敦差麄耳。多以能琴相高,是蓋未諳琴中之趣。凡不攻者取聲則不問軟。要得指下有無窮之意,非軟則不可取。余平生最好彈琴。操弄貴飄揚而多失手無度,調子貴淡靜而多陷于僻澀,惟淡靜有淡,飄揚合節乃妙,人多罕有兩全。人皆慕指法齊整、動作拘硬,政如小兒學書欲得風韻潇洒,出於规矩準繩之外,不亦難乎!此類蓋未達古人妙處耳。余嘗謂琴者非十年不可成功,惟其至精至熟,乃有新奇聲,亦須参考諸家,擇其善者從之可也。至於胸中自得,殆不可言傳。或者謂琴曲古人所製,不可去取。余曰不然。且琴曲始自神農氏,流及堯、舜、文、武、周、孔,後蔡邕、稽中散、柳文暢等,皆規模古意為新曲,迄今千載矣。古曲罕得,世俗所傳,杳無明調,至律有不協,聲譜繁亂,自當删除,豈可蔽於一曲哉!是猶盲人騎瞎馬而望千里之遠,計亦疏矣。攻琴如參禪,歲月磨煉,瞥然省悟则無所不通,縱橫妙用而嘗若有餘。至於未悟,雖用力尋求,終無妙處。琴無好惡,在彈者工拙。不善取聲,縱曲本佳,愈覺生硬,如醜婦珠翠徒自多耳。善取聲者,縱曲本不佳,亦自美聽,如西施淡妝,自有不凡氣韻。若施粉黛,研易量哉!大匠無棄材,信有之矣。

下指要逼岳,則聲鏗鏘。至於微细之處,當四徽之下,不然,是琴筝也。或云細聲麄彈,麄聲細彈,此皆好奇之過,元無旨趣。蓋天地陰陽之理,聲韻起伏之節,若麄声細彈,豈能宣和暢之情?若細聲麄彈,是麄細同列耳。下指要圓如珠走柈,莹無留跡,乃極其妙。今人但得其清圓無礙,已自可觀,固難造此。坐次偏斜,調絃無度,指法輕亂,曲未終而力先乏,謂之瞬夢彈,後人多類此。

鼓琴最要嚴毅,謂虎距按劍者是也。坐止不正,非但取用無準,且自醜。不得佳思不可彈,又不可摘撮好聲,為一時戲弄,遂慣了人。人多懶彈大曲,始由此病。稽中散臨刑索琴彈《廣陵散》,曲終曰「《廣陵》自此絕矣」。不知何代得知何人。

手指潤則取聲圓,手燥者縱有功亦自一般矣。是皆系天,不由人力。彈難,聽者亦難,鍾子期没,伯牙絕絃,良有以也。今人非惟不知音,又且闔坐喧語不輟口,俗物乃爾,敗人佳思。琴中巧拙,非作家者則不知。大凡事至妙處,多不合俗,所謂「調彌高,和彌寡」。凡俗之人,輒望風輕重,人是亦是,人非亦非,此乃際帘聽琵琶,殆不可與較長量短。夫正音雅淡,非俗耳所知也。慢角調中曲多是。今人所製,如《江上聞角》、《沙塞晚晴》、《宋玉悲秋》、《蓬萊春晚》,聞其聲則驗非古也。然則亦有鍾期風韻可喜,料亦非凡人所為。慢商調十數調亦皆清和,不蹈襲群曲,一聲聲如瓊林瑶樹,無一枝雜。未鼓其聲,使人如在云外,得非上古之遺風也耶?宫調亦可彈,近有黃鐘亦佳,但上下改一絃耳。《履霜》最多好聲,以易入俗耳,故彈者眾、議者寡。至於《秋思》、《悲風》,巍然如泰山,仰不可越,常人豈得致語哉!宫調十調子,其聲大都相通。初雖互為意思,終亦同歸。苟能洞曉《賀若》一曲,則無適而非也。《賀若》外虛中實,似淡而實甘,故子瞻詩云「清風終日自開帘,明月今霄獨挂檐。琴裏若能知《賀若》,詩中應合愛陶潛。」此曲本因賀若,因以為名,書傳不載。《清江引》、《孔子哭顏回》、《風入松》、《仙鹤舞》最是古曲,今人多將設容壓良为賤,理猶不工,但未見好本。近有一種指法,謂之「舞手」,雖伶人賤役,亦不肯為也。向見一道士言自能琴,眾往聽之,坐定,道士取琴品絃,良久曰:「絃雖未調,且彈一曲《清江引》,」至今為笑。

彈琴最多病,或頭動,甚者身摇動。蓋因始不自禁,久摜則不可易。取聲貴來云無跡,則混成。然須初學可到,若辭昔人寫字法,則近之矣。泛聲,左手低平,去来不覺。若左手高,兩手互相上下,政如碓杵,不可不戒。指法雖身貴簡靜,要須氣韻生動,如寒松吹風,積雪映月是也。若僻於簡靜,則亦不可,有如隆冬枯木槎朽而終無屈伸者也。大都不可偏執,所謂得之於心,應之於手。至于造微入玄,則心手俱忘,豈容有苦意思,得者终不及自然冲融爾。莊子云「機心存於胸中,則純白不備。」故彈琴者至於忘機,乃能通神明也。伯牙鼓琴,六馬仰秣,瓠巴鼓瑟,鳥舞魚躍。今來去古遠矣,機巧滋多,欲其「仰秣」、「舞躍」,豈可得哉!《蔡琰傳》曰:「父夜鼓琴,絃斷。琰曰:『一絃也。』邕故斷一絃而問之。琰曰:『四絃也。』邕曰:『偶得之耳。』」余試之,無足奇。且夫絃之高下不等,聲隨絃斷,顯然可驗。

蔡邕琴賦曰:「指嘗反覆,抑按藏摧。」余....
(last quarter of the text not yet copied)

More could be said about this text.
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5. 京師、兩浙、江西能琴者極多然指法各有不同。京師過於剛勁,江南失於輕浮,惟兩浙質而不野,文而不史。
See in above text and QQJC V/206, upper right quadrant, beginning near bottom of the last line.
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6. Origins of the Zhe School
Elsewhere (see comment) it seems to be suggested that the Zhe school actually began more than a century later than the present article.
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7. 操弄貴飄揚而多失於無度,調子貴淡靜而多陷於僻澀
See in above text and QSDQ, Folio 10 (QQJC, V/206 lower left lines 5-6).
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8. Cheng Yujian naming and analyzing diaozi
This seems to refer to at least two parts of his Qin Lun. QSCB, Chapter 6b3, has four of his quotes analyzing diaozi. As for naming them, this seems to come in Qin Lun (in QSDQ Folio 10; see in the above text and in QQJC V/207 lower right quadrant). This includes (see line 5) phrases like this,

"慢角調中曲多,是今人所製,如「江上聞角」、「沙塞晚晴」、「宋玉悲秋」、「蓬萊春晚」....
Manjiao mode melodies are numerous, made by contemporary people, such as Jiangshang Wenjiao, Shasai Wanqing, Song Yu Bei Qiu and Penglai Chun Wan...."

Of these four titles, one (Song Yu Bei Qiu is mentioned as a manjiao mode diaozi in QSDQ Folio 13, while Xu Jian mentions the first two under Zequan Heshang in Chapter 6b3.
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9. 古曲罕得,世俗所傳杳無明調,至律有不協,聲韻繁亂,自當刪除,豈可蔽於一曲哉?
See in above text and in QSDQ, Folio 10 (QQJC, V/207 upper right lines 3-4). This is a very good description of a poorly done reconstruction (dapu),
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10. 参考諸家,擇其善者
See in above text and in QSDQ, Folio 10 (QQJC, V/207 upper right lines 3-4). This is a very good recommendation for the tradition oral method of learning.
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11. 歲月磨煉,瞥然省悟,則無所不通
See in above text and in QSDQ, Folio 10 (QQJC, V/207 upper right lines 5-6).
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12. 至於未悟,雖用力尋求,終無妙處
See in above text and in QSDQ, Folio 10 (QQJC, V/207, upper right lines 6-7).

In his article on Song dynasty music, Yuan Jung-Ping explained this as follows,

"Cheng Yujian wrote....that playing the qin is like practicing meditation: after years of practice, there can be sudden enlightenment. Enlightenment allows one to discover the purpose of life and understand the greatness of nature. While we know that Buddhist philosophy influenced qin theory, at the same time playing the qin must also have helped Buddhist monks achieve their religious goals."
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Return to the top or to Song-Yuan in the Qinshi Chubian outline.