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Qin in Sa Zhenren Ye Duan Bi Taohua 1
(Daoist Master Sa at night cuts an emerald peach flower2, an opera)
古琴與薩真人夜斷碧桃花
Zhang Daonan (above);3 Sa Zhenren4 (below)  

Sa Zhenren Ye Duan Bi Taohua is an anonymous Yuan Qu (Yuan music, also called Northern Opera). It has, at the beginning of Act 1, a story that has been given the separate title Zhang Daonan Drunkenly Writes in the form of Qingyu An.5 The scene features Zhang playing the qin, as at right.

The play opens with the county magistrate Zhang Gui from Dongjing identifying himself as the father of the scholar Zhang Daonan. Also from Dongjing is county magistrate Xu Duan, who has two daughters Bitao and Yulan; Daonan and Bitao are betrothed. Zhang Gui says that on the following day, the 15th of the third lunar month, he will invite friends and relatives to appreciate the peonies. Xu Duan then introduces himself and says he also looks forward to the marriage. However, while viewing flowers the next day Zhang Daonan and Xu Bitao meet in a manner considered inappropriate by their parents. The parents are very angry, Bitao dies of mortification, and is interred in a part of the garden used for burials. Later Zhang, having passed the examinations and returned as an official, picks an emerald peach flower off her grave. Then, when he plays qin, her spirit appears, but in the body of her sister Yulan. They see each other regularly, but now Daonan becomes ill.

The scene in which Zhang Daonan plays qin for Bitao's spirit, near the beginning of Act 1, is the only segment of the play that involves qin. Later in the same act he writes the calligraphy for Qingyu An.6

The whole drama has a prelude and then four acts. Sa Zhenren himself is mentioned only in acts 3 and 4. As I do not yet fully understand the relevant stories, in particular how Sa Zhenren fits in, for the time being I have put here, as an appendix, the part of the Chinese original text that seems most connected to the mention of qin. This includes the entire Prelude and Act One, plus the beginning of Act 2.7

Assistance is of course welcomed from anyone with knowledge of this or who is comfortable reading Yuan drama.

 

 

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Sa Zhenren Ye Duan Bi Taohua 薩真人夜斷碧桃花
33005.xxx; Bio/2119xxx. LXS, p.105, discusses it under its short name, 碧桃花 Bitao Hua (Emerald Peach Flower? See Zeitlin, Phantom Heroine, in Google books). Bitao is the name of the leading lady; see further below. According to Zeitlin, p. 137, this play was the basis for the southern drama Intoxicating Dream of Flowers (夢花酣 Menghua Han), by 范文若 Fan Wenruo (1588-1638).

As for Sa Zhenren, he was (see Jeremy Roberts, Chinese Mythology, A to Z),

"a mythic Daoist doctor and magician said to have lived in Shu (Sichuan). He had the power to bring lightning. According to one legend, he ascended to become an immortal while his body was being carried in a coffin. His mourners noticed that the coffin was very light and opened it to discover that he was gone."

Sa introduces himself in Act 3 as 薩守堅 Sa Shoujian, a Daoist physician.
(Return)

2. Daoist Master Sa at night cuts an emerald peach flower
As yet I do not understand the title. Bitao is the name of the lead lady, but in the first occurence of the phrase 碧桃花 it seems to refer to a kind of taohua: bi taohua. Altogether the phrase 碧桃花 appears five times in the play: once in Act 2, then twice each in Acts 3 and 4.
(Return)

3. Upper image: Zhang Daonan
This woodblock print has the full title Zhang Daonan drunkenly writes in the form of Qingyu An (張道南醉題青玉案 Zhang Daonan zui ti Qingyu An). It is from 元曲選 Selections of Yuan Drama by 陶宗儀 wer right 調素琴書生寫恨 . The original print is from 元曲論 Yuan Qu Lu by 陶宗儀 Tao Zongyi (Ming) as reproded in 續修四庫全書 Xuxiu Siku Quanshu, Vol. 1760, p. 280. The woman with Zhang should be 徐碧桃 Xu Bitao.

The writing to the left says 倣蔡規筆 Drawn in the style of Cai Gui.
(Return)

4. Lower image: Sa Zhenren
This woodblock print was also copied from 元曲選 Selections of Yuan Drama as reproduced in 續修四庫全書 Xuxiu Siku Quanshu, Vol. 1760, p. 280; there it was placed directly to the left of what is here the upper illustration. It is entitled 薩真人夜斷碧桃花 Sa Zhenren Ye Duan Bi Taohua.
(Return)

5. 青玉案 Qingyu An
11/518 青玉案 first defines it as a short legged plate/pan made of green jade, expensive but used for eating. It then says 泛指古詩 a general reference to old poetry, and 詞牌名 the name of a cipai that has 67 characters in two parts of six phrases each. The poem below seems intended to fit this structure, even though versions I have found, while all having 12 lines, seem only to have 66 characters.

43517.46 has only 青玉 qingyu, defined as a type of jade, another name for bamboo, another name for tong wood, and a gorge in Jiangxi.
(Return)

6.
There does not seem to be mention of any particular melody.
(Return)

7. Original text
Copied from www.chinapoesy.com/yuanqu459.html, but converted here from simplified characters and broken up from the original long paragraphs.
(Return)

 
Appendix
薩真人夜斷碧桃花
(from
www.chinapoesy.com/yuanqu459.html)

楔子

(衝末扮張珪同老旦夫人引淨張千上,云)小官姓張名珪,字庭玉,東京人氏,叨中進士,除授廣東潮陽縣縣丞。嫡親的三口儿家屬,夫人趙氏,孩儿張道南,此子廣覽經書,精通文史,眾人皆許他卿相之器,此吾家積德所致也。俺此處知縣徐端,也是東京人氏,他有一女,小名碧桃,曾許俺孩儿為妻,至今不曾婚聘。夫人,明日是三月十五日,我待請親家來慶賞牡丹,你意下如何?

(夫人云)相公,你主的是。

(張珪云)既然如此,張千,你請徐親家去。只等許允,早來回話。

(張千云)理會的。
(下)

(張珪云)張千去了,夫人,俺和你須索躬親治具,休得簡慢者。

(詩云)
同官異地惜春殘,治酒相邀賞牡丹,
何必沈香亭子比,更教傾國倚闌乾。
(下)

(外扮徐端同貼旦夫人引醜李萬上,詩云)
一作潮陽令,俄驚數載過。
大都秋雁少,只是夜猿多。
僻地逢迎簡,南天瘴萬和。
聖思饒雨露,慎勿嘆嗟跎。

小官姓徐名端,宇章甫,東京人氏,小官自幼登科,曾為錢塘簿。今升廣東潮陽縣知縣。嫡親的四口儿家屬,夫人李氏,生有兩個女孩,大的女孩儿喚作碧桃,今年一十八歲,小的女孩儿喚做玉蘭,年一十五歲,有此處縣丞張珪,也是東京人氏,他有一子,喚做道南,年方二十歲。那孩儿好生聰俊,覷著他那內才外才,久已後必然發跡。一來張珪與小官同鄉,二來又是同任,以此將我大的女孩儿許了張道南為妻。雖然定了盟約,尚未就親。今日無甚事,李萬門道覷者,有甚麼人來,報復我知道。

(李萬云)理會的。

(張千上,云)自家張千。奉相公的命,請徐親家去。門上的報復去,道有張親家差人下請書哩。

(李萬做報,云)報的相公得知,有張親家遣張千來下請書,在於門首。

(徐端云)著他過來。

(張千做入科)

(徐端云)張千,此一來有何事?

(張千云)小人奉相公的嚴命,時過春景,牡丹盛開,專請相公和夫人賞玩。

(徐端云)量俺有何德能,煩親家如此費心。夫人,我待辭了這酒,你意下如何?

(夫人云)既然是親家專意來請,如何辭的?咱和你同賞牡丹去走一遭。

(徐端云)既是夫人要賞牡丹,便去吃酒,亦無妨礙。張千你先回去,俺與夫人隨後來也。

(張千云)小人就去回話。
(下)

(徐端云)分付嬤嬤和梅香,繡房中好生服待兩個小姐,我與夫人去賞牡丹便回來也。
(同下)

(正旦扮碧桃領梅香上,云)妾身是徐知縣的女儿,小名碧桃,年長一十八歲,俺爹爹將我配與張縣丞的孩儿張道南為妻。今日爹娘到俺公婆家賞牡丹去了,妹子玉蘭在繡房中做女工生活。梅香,咱後花園中散心去來。

(梅香云)姐姐要耍去,怕相公知道,可不打梅香也。

(正旦云)我與你略去看看便回,相公那裡知道?

(梅香云)這等俺就去來。

(做行科,云)姐姐,你看這花園中白的是梨花,紅的是桃花,紫的是牡丹,黃的是薔薇,好賞心也。

(副末扮張道南引淨興儿上,云)小生姓張名道南,俺爹爹觀為此處縣丞。今日衙內因賞牡丹,酒筵中賓客笑樂,不期籠內走了白鸚鵡,遠遠的望見飛過這花園中去了。興儿,快隨俺跟尋去來。

(做跳牆科,興儿云)相公,那鸚鵡知他在那裡?休大驚小怪的。他若拿住俺呵,則說是賊,不要打出我屁來。

(正旦云)梅香,你看那薔薇架邊,不有人來也!

(梅香云)姐姐,你敢是眼花?這是風弄的花影動,那裡得人來!

(做見張科,云)呀,真有個人。兀的兩個男子。你是甚麼人?白日裡跳過牆,來俺花園中,待做賊那?

(興儿云)咱家不是賊,只做的兩遭強盜。

(梅香云)可不是賊?

(張道南做慌科,云)小生不是歹人,是隔壁縣丞衙裡的捨人張道南,因家中玩賞牡丹,不期籠內走了白鸚鵡,看見飛在花園中,因見這角門儿關著,不能得入,以此跳過牆來。委實不是歹人,只望饒過俺咱。

(梅香云)你說是張縣丞的捨人,知他是也不是?我索和姐姐說去。姐姐,真個有兩個人跳過牆來,不知是甚麼人?我報的姐姐知道。

(正旦云)梅香,你且喚他過來,待我問他。

(梅香云)姐姐著你過來。

(張道南做見科)

(正旦云)兀那君子,你是那裡人氏?姓甚名誰?為甚麼到這花園中?你從實的說來!

(張道南云)小生姓張名道南,俺父親現為此處縣丞。今日因家中玩賞牡丹,不期籠中走了白鸚鵡,飛到這花園裡面。小生一時間不是了,錯跳過牆來。不知那壁小姐,誰氏人家?望饒過小生之罪,放我出去罷!

(正旦做低頭科,云)妾身是徐知縣的女孩儿,小名碧桃,俺父親往俺公婆家賞牡丹去了。妾身偶因悶倦,同梅香在這花園中散心咱。

(張道南云)原來是碧桃小姐,曾許小生為妻,誰想今日能勾相見,豈非天假其便也。

(做施禮科)

(正旦唱)
【仙呂】
【賞花時】我擎著個笑臉儿將他廝問候,

(張道南云)小生陪侍小姐同看花咱。

(正旦唱)他陪著個小意儿和咱相趁逐。

(徐端同夫人上,云)恰才賞牡丹花回繡房中,怎不見大女孩儿?敢是同梅香在後園中看花去了?夫人俺兩個看女孩儿去來。

(正旦唱)卻被這鶯聲喚猛叫頭,

(徐端云)叫梅香。

(張道南,興儿驚,云)兀的是有人來也。我與你快走。
(同下)

(正旦唱)呀,不提防雙親在背後,我可也怎遮得這場羞。

(徐端做喝科云)口退!你這小賤人,做的好勾當也。

(正旦、梅香跪科)

(徐端云)兀那辱門敗戶的小賤人,你是好人家女孩儿,怎生做這等禽獸的勾當?我待打你來,恐傷了父子情腸,兀的不氣殺我也。

(夫人云)碧桃,我抬舉的你成人長大,不去習女工針指,剗的做這等勾當來。我看你怎生見人?呸!兀的不羞殺老身也。

(正旦唱)
【幺篇】他那裡惱亂春風卒未休,

(梅香云)姐姐,這場事怎生結果也?

(正旦唱)則著我獨立花前黯自愁,淚不住點儿流。

(做背科,唱)他須是我天緣配偶,常言道女大不中留。

(同梅香下)

(徐端云)夫人。不想有如此之事,兀的不氣殺老夫也。

(夫人云)老相公且息怒,只是老身平日欠教訓之過。

(梅香做慌上科,云)不想姐姐被老相公埋怨了幾句,到臥房內一口氣死了,如何是好!須索報復老相公知道。

(見科)

(徐端云)梅香,你慌張做甚麼?

(梅香云)恰才小姐被老相公埋怨了幾句,向臥房內一口氣就氣死了,特來報與相公知道。

(徐端驚科,云)是真個?

(做悲科,云)我的儿阿!

(夫人云)事既如此,只索一面報與親家知道,則說是個急病證死了,一面就在此花園中,撿一塊田地,將孩儿屍首埋葬了,省得出醜。儿也,則被你痛殺我也。
(同下)

 
第一折



(張道南同興儿上,詩云)
獨對丹墀日尚中,君恩賜出錦袍紅。
世人不識文章力,只說家門積善功。

小官張道南是也。俺父親曾為潮陽縣縣丞。三年任滿回來,東京閒住。小官應舉,聿得狀元及第,除授潮陽知縣,現今官衙安下。一壁廂去取父親、母親,未曾來到,止有興儿服侍。天色已晚,我與眾衙官飲了幾杯酒,心中則是悶倦,不免乘著月色,向花園中和興儿閒散心咱。

(興儿云)相公,這後園盡也齊整。

(張道南云)興儿。你覷波。夜靜更深,風清月朗,古詩有云:花有清香月有陰,此景是也。但可惜春光將暮,眾花都己零落。剛那海棠軒側畔土堆儿上,一樹碧桃正開。興儿,你隨俺去看咱?

(興儿做看科,云)相公,興儿想起來,還記的那時走了白鸚鵡,相公與興儿來尋,跳過花園來。和那徐知縣的小姐相見。誰想今日與相公又來到花園裡閒玩,不知相公心儿裡,可也還念那小姐麼?

(張道南云)興儿,你不提起來,我也忘了。記的那時在花園裡共那小姐相會,不久便病死了。正是人面不知何處去,桃花依舊笑春風,徒增一番傷感而己。夜深了,且回去罷。興儿,你將這碧桃撿那開的盛的折一枝來。膽瓶裡插著,等我看咱。

(興儿云)理會的。

(做折花科)

(張道南云)同我到書房中去。興儿,將琴來,待我來彈一曲釋悶者。 (First mention of qin.)

(興儿做取琴科,云)琴在此,請相公自彈,興儿睡去了。
(下)

(張道南做彈琴科)

(正旦上,云)這裡也無人。我本是徐碧桃,不幸辭世,為陽壽未盡,一靈真性不散。聽知張道南得了官,在此宅中居住,今夜書房撫琴,不免假做鄰家之女,聽琴走一遭去呵。

(唱)
【仙呂】
【點絳唇】則我這杏臉藏春,柳眉標恨,縈方寸。無奈東君。花落春將盡。

【混江龍】消不的一天愁悶,清明時節雨紛紛。慵施粉黛,倦點朱唇。恰便似薄命照君青冢恨,少年倩女綠窗魂。這其間可正是我愁時分,則見那巢空翡翠,冢臥麒麟。

【油葫蘆】為甚麼我一上青山便化身?端的愁殺人,常只是安排腸斷又黃昏,害了個懨漸漸的鬼病儿,積趲下重重疊疊恨。做了個虛飄飄的惡夢儿,捱不出淒淒涼涼運。一會家急急煎煎腹內焦,一會家尋尋思思心內忍。閃的我悲悲切切孤儿寡儿無投奔,因此上淒淒慘慘,無語暗消魂。

【天下樂】可憐見夢裡形容病裡身,則今春,憔悴損,比著這花枝更添瘦幾分。也無心對鏡鸞。也無心整鬢雲,我只怕韶光也妒人。

【那吒令】趁碧桃樹儿,映纖纖月痕;繞蒼苔徑儿,步微微露痕;濕香羅袖儿,搵行行淚痕。這其間夜正深,更將盡,

(做聽科,唱) 那琴聲卻在何處相聞?

(張道南云)正是春色惱人眠不得,你看那月移花影上闌乾。小官且出書房外看那月色咱。

(做開門,正旦做避科,唱)

【鵲踏枝】俺只待看是何人?他那裡呀的開門。

(張道南做見科,云)花陰下好一個女子也!看他那雲鬟霧鬢,杏臉桃腮,柳眉星眼,不由咱不動心也。俺試問他咱:那壁小娘子,誰氏人家?夤夜到此何故?

(正旦唱)哎,你個題詩的相如,休問我聽琴的文君

(張道南云)小生只為春色困人,閒觀月色,不期遇著小娘子。

(正旦唱)元來是惱春色孤眠不穩,早難道為賤妾斷夢勞魂。

(張道南云)敢問小娘子誰氏之家?何方居住?因甚到此?

(正旦云)妾身乃鄰家之女。因月明人靜,來此花園中聽琴來。 (Last mention of qin.)

(張道南做掛科,云)早知小娘子前來,只合遠接。接待不著,勿令見罪。

(正旦唱)

【寄生草】他把那寒溫敘,禮數勤。

(張道南云)此一會小官三生有圭也。

(正旦唱)則見他曲躬躬笑把言詞問,好著我羞答答忙把身軀褪。我只索悄冥冥俞把容顏認。

(云)敢問相公高姓?

(張道南云)小生姓張,雙名道南。

(正旦唱)可正是月明千里故人來,慚愧你東風一夜傳芳訊。

(云)相公因何到此?

(張道南)小官現在此縣為理。幸得與小娘子相會,小官有句話可敢說麼?

(正旦云)相公試說咱!

(張道南云)小官獨居旅邸,若小娘子不嫌,就書院中略敘片時何如?

(正旦云)既然公子有留戀之心,妾身同到書房中與相公共話咱。

(張道南云)小娘子請坐。看了這女子美貌端莊,豈不是天生就的,不由我不動情。敢問小娘子家住何處?

(正旦唱)

【醉中天】妾身抱天地無窮恨,蒙雨露有深思。

(張道南云)住處有甚鄰捨?

(正旦唱)常則和野草閒花作比鄰。

(張道南云)小娘子家有多遠?

(正旦唱)俺住處路接天台近。

(張道南云)你那裡還有何人?

(正旦唱)俺那裡有的是秦人晉人,你可也休將咱盤問,則管裡絮叨叨拔樹尋根。

(張道南云)難得小娘子到此,小生有句話儿,只是不好啓齒。

(正旦云)有何言語,相公但說不妨。

(張道南云)小官未曾婚娶,小娘子又守空房,咱兩個成合一處,可也好麼?

(正旦唱)

【金盞儿】他將我廝溫存,我將他索殷勤。口儿未說早心儿順,俺兩個正是那不因親者強來親。

(張道南云)趁此月色,共飲幾杯,、豈不美乎?

(正旦唱)你待要花前同酌酒,燈細論文。

(張道南云)如此好天良夜,只合早成就了洞房花燭,有甚心情還論文哩?

(正旦唱)你則待風清明月夜,成就了花燭洞房春。

(云)相公,賤妾千金之體,一旦委之足下,只願你他日休負了人者。

(張道南云)小娘子放心,我若負了心呵,天不蓋,地不載,日月不照臨。我著你穩取五花官誥,駟馬香車,永為秦晉之匹也。

(正旦云)妾身與相公成此親事,或詩或詞,求一首珠玉,以為後會張本。

(張道南云)只是小官學問短淺,焉敢在小娘子跟前賣弄手作!

(正旦云)願求珠玉。

(張道南做寫科)

(詞云) (Qingyu An)
縞衣仙子來何處?
咫尺近桃源路。
說是武陵溪畔住,
玉纖微露,
金蓮穩步,
只恐鶯花妒。

邂逅劉郎垂一顧,
何事匆匆便歸去。
臨別叮嚀囑咐。
柳亭花館,
月窗云戶,
休把春辜負。
    右調寄「青玉案」。張道南作。

(正旦云)相公是好高才也。

(張道南云)蕪詞拙筆,徒污仙眼耳。

(正旦唱)

【後庭花】寫的來銀鈎般字字真,珠璣般句句新。端的是筆落驚風雨,詩成泣鬼神。不是我意相親,聽了這一篇談淪。他能書如王右軍,能文似揚子云。現如今擁雙鳧做宰臣,許下我五花誥為縣君。

(正旦云)相公,妾身收下這詞,永為家寶。

(張道南云)量小生之詞,有何才能,蒙小娘子如此珍重?

(正旦唱)

【柳葉儿】則要的言而有信,不索你唬鬼瞞神。端的個十分才更有十分俊,休使我心儿困。常將這腳儿勤,咱兩個拚則在夢儿中暮雨朝云。

(云)相公,天色將明瞭也,妾身則索回去,明日晚間,再來相會

(張道南云)小官明夜晚間,專等待小娘子,是必早些儿來,你休要失了信也。

(正旦唱)

【賺煞尾】從今後將紅葉不題濟,準備著青鳥先傳信。

(張道南云)小官焉敢負小娘子,但有負心,神明鑒察。

(正旦唱)則要你說下言詞有准,休著我為你個薄幸王魁告海神。

(張道南云)小官見小娘子千嬌百媚,早把俺那片魂靈儿勾引去了。

(正旦唱)則你這俏心儿引惹了三魂,今日托終身,和你待燕爾新婚。

(張道南云)此一宵歡愛,如錦鴛成對,似彩鳳成雙,豈不是一夜夫妻百夜恩?

(正旦唱)休忘了一夜夫妻百夜恩,

(張道南云)只願小娘子早諧 
連理,共效于飛,以足生平之願,

(正旦唱)則要你日親日近,俺可便相隨相趁,

(張道南云)小官感蒙小娘子厚情,我只願學那張敞,斷然不敢做王魁也。

(正旦唱)哎,你個畫眉人可休做了那負心人。
(下)

(張道南云)誰想今宵遇著小娘子,看了他千般淹潤,萬種清標,知他是睡裡也,是夢裡也。

(詩云)
多情引動惜花心,此夜歡娛抵萬金。
兩意相投情正美,知音端不負知音。
(下)

 
第二折

(徐端同夫人、李萬上,詩云)人有千年譽,花無百日紅。自家不修種,反去怨天公。老夫徐端是也,只因年華漸邁,致仕閑居,如今在洛陽城外莊上居住。自從碧桃孩兒死了。又早三年光景,老夫為無得力的兒男,心中甚是煩惱,止有次女玉蘭,今年一十八歲,未曾許配他人。去年張道南一舉成名,除授潮陽知縣,替了老夫之位。他來辭別老夫,此時心中就要將次女招他為婿,豈知他到任月余,耽著疾病,多應是少年的人,不禁瘴厲侵染之故。張親家與他上表辭官,蒙聖恩可憐,許他還鄉調理,待病痊之日,赴京別用,他知今到家了也,老夫本意要親自問病去,奈其中有許多不便處。不如先遣家中嬤嬤去,一來問病,二來就題這門親事,不知夫人意下如何?

(夫人云)老相公主的是。

(徐端云)左右那裡?傳著我的言語,教嬤嬤去張親家宅裡,問姑夫的症侯,近日安否,二來就題這門親事。小心在意,疾去早來。

(李萬云)理會的。
(同下)

(張道南做病,興兒扶上,詩云)
碧桃花下遇嬋娟,只得郵亭一夜眠, (First mention of Bitao hua.)
至今怕漏春消息,鸚鵡前頭不敢言。

....(cont)

 
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