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Taiyin Daquanji  ToC   Folio 4 ToC   /   Next   /   "Folio 6"   /   End, with tablature" 網站目錄
Taiyin Daquanji 1
Folio 5, General Comments on Qin Tablature: Annotated List of Contents
Explanations provided by the translator are put either in brackets ( ) or in footnotes.2
太音大全集
卷五,目錄

Folio 5 originally had no Table of Contents; one is added here for convenience. Page 1 of Folio 5 in Taigu Yiyin; compare Taiyin Daquanji  

  1. (Miscellaneous comments without separate headings) (QQJC I/89)

    Begins, "家語云,子路鼓琴,孔子聞之,曰...."

  2. 指法 Fingering (QQJC I/89)

    Begins, "傳云,琴瑟雖有妙音,而無妙指,終不能發...."

  3. 手訣 Mnemonic Formulae for the Hands (QQJC I/89)

    First of the six entries is, "凡取聲不可造作,搖身作勢"

  4. 右手指法 Right Hand Finger Techniques (QQJC I/89)
    Comment says, 劉籍琴議(?)諸家不同隨指疏之

    75 explanations. First 22 have shorthand forms, later are often repeats.

  5. 左手指法 Left Hand Finger Techniques (QQJC I/90)
    Continues the previous?

    49 entries, no shorthand forms

  6. 左手指法譜 Tablature for Left Hand Techniques (QQJC I/91)

    35 shorthand forms plus their full forms

  7. 字譜 Shorthand Forms (QQJC I/91)
    Opens with a short commentary beginning, "Making tablature began with Yongmen Zhou....(see
    complete passage).

    76 shorthand forms plus their full forms

  8. 唐陳拙居士聽聲數應指法並注譜訣 Chen Zhuo Finger Technique Explanations (QQJC I/91)

    A. Full name, shorthand form, then explanation for 30 right hand techniques
    B. Same for 20 left hand techniques (左手訣法)
    C. Same for 4 general instructions (雜調寄意)

  9. 外調轉絃 Changing the Tuning for Non-standard Modes (QQJC I/93)
    No indication of source: could it be the same as previous?

    A. 19 tunings
    B. More: 20 tunings

  10. 轉絃宗派 Heritage of Tunings (QQJC I/93)

    A chart with each succeeding level having one additional string re-tuned

    (The Taigu Yiyin in the National Central Library, Taiwan ends here)
     


    Folio 6?: Because the part of QFTGYY from the National Central Library ended here, it added the following from Taiyin Daquanji.
                    Only the Zhu volume seems to divide this folio into two parts.

  11. Untitled section of 24 entries with a variety of themes (QQJC I/94 - 101)
    Finger techniques and rules that should be followed

    1. 名數發端 Concrete steps for getting started (I/94)
      Begins "置琴者鳳嗉在右,龍鬚在左.... Extend the qin with
      phoenix crop at right and dragon's beard at left...."
    2. 右手指法 Right hand finger techniques (I/94)
      8 short forms, 45 explanations, then 47 short forms; no indication of source; compare
      above and below
    3. 左手指法 Left hand finger techniques (I/97)
      20 explanations then 38 short forms; also no indication of source; compare
      below
    4. (上)絃法 Rules of (putting on) the strings (I/98)
      宮絃先上,急則下小絃自絕。宮為君之象,為衆音之主。切宜寬緩。
    5. 軫絃 Tuning pegs for the strings (I/98)
      How to tighten and loosen the tuning pegs
    6. 彈琴法 Playing qin method (I/98)
      Where to pluck, press down hard, etc.
    7. 彈琴之要有五 Five requirements of playing qin (I/98)
      1. Attitude: severe; 2. Fingering: orderly; etc.
    8. 指象 Appearance of the fingers (I/98)
      Left middle finger is like head of a phoenix; etc.
    9. 對琴法 Method of facing the qin (I/99)
      Where to sit, etc.
    10. 品絃法 Fixing the strings (I/99)
      Details on tuning the strings using stopped sounds
    11. 調琴指要 Essential points for qin play (I/99)
      Ten 4 character phrases, beginning 一:心不散亂 1. The mind should be focused....(
      Shilin Guangji #1)
    12. 彈琴五切 Five precisions when playing qin (I/99)
      Five 4 character phrases, beginning 一:指法合宜 1. The fingering must be appropriate....(
      Shilin Guangji #2)
    13. 十善 Ten positive things (I/99)
      Ten 4 character phrases commenting on 欲 needs. beginning 淡欲合古 1. Lightly must be in accord with antiquity....(
      Shilin Guangji #3)
    14. 五能 Five skills (I/99)
      Five 3 character phases with 欲 in middle, beginning 坐欲安 1. When sitting must be peaceful....(
      Shilin Guangji #4)
    15. 九不詳 Nine (methods) lacking precision (I/99)
      Eight 4 character phrases then 1 of six, beginning 不撫正聲 1. Not playing the correct tones....(
      Shilin Guangji #5)
    16. 五病 Five ills (I/99)
      Five 4 character phrases, beginning 布指拙恓 1. Arrange fingers awkward troublesome (?)....(
      Shilin Guangji #6)
    17. 十疵 Ten flaws (I/99)
      Ten 4 character phrases, beginning 太淡而拙 1. Too light are awkward....(
      Shilin Guangji #7)
    18. 五謬 Five gross errors (I/99)
      Five 4 character phrases, beginning 頭足搖動 1. Head and feet twisting around....(
      Shilin Guangji #8)
    19. 五不彈 Five times not to play (Shilin Guangji #9 [original]; later lists are longer and paired with good times3; I/99) 1. 疾風甚雨不彈 In a strong wind or heavy rain don't play;
      2. 廛市不彈 In a marketplace don't play;
      3. 對俗子不彈 In front of common people don't play;
      4. 不坐不彈 When not seated don't play;
      5. 不衣冠不彈 When not in formal dress don't play.
      (There is a closing comment saying that these five rules are there so that people will act correctly with regard to the qin.)
    20. 彈琴大病有七 There are seven major flaws when playing qin (I/99)
      These more detailed descriptions begin with, When seated don't look around and fidget....(
      Shilin Guangji #10)
    21. 彈琴小病有五 There are five minor flaws when playing qin (I/100)
      As previous, rather detailed descriptions of flaws (
      Shilin Guangji #11).
    22. 蘇翰林易簡論十二病總括 Discussion of 12 flaws (I/100)
      Shilin Guangji #12
    23. 調絃 Tuning the strings (I/100)
      Describes open string - stopped string correspondences
    24. 知音端緒 Clues to understanding music (I/100)
      A six-line essay beginning 夫始學之士尤貴審音 Whenever a gentleman begins to study he especially examines the sounds....

    This is followed by what might be part of #24, or could be one or three new entries:

    1. 五音:宮為君,商為臣,角為民,徵為事,羽為物。
      This is followed by a table showing things like 宮屬土 gong belongs to earth....
    2. 內調 Inner (i.e., standard) tuning
      Lists five melody names (亞聖,梅花,雙清,鶴鳴九皋,猗蘭) then seems to describe tuning method
    3. 外調 Outer (i.e., non-standard) tuning
      昭君 Zhao Jun: describes tuning for it

  12. 右手指法 Right Hand Finger Techniques (QQJC I/101)
    Compare with
    above; again no indication of source

    23 simplified forms with explanations

  13. 左手指法 Left Hand Finger Techniques (QQJC I/101 - 102)
    Compare with
    above; again no indication of source

    25 simplified forms with explanations

  14. 琴操辨議 Qin Cao Bian Yi (Discerning the Significance of Qin Melodies; QQJC I/102)
    By Yuan Junzhe

    Begins, "琴操傳于世者有江操、閩操、浙操之不一...."

  15. Five short modal preludes, each with an attached Melody List (QQJC I/102 - 103):

    1. Gong Yi   (compare Shenpin Gong Yi)
    2. Shang Yi  (compare Shenpin Shang Yi)
    3. Jiao Yi     (compare Shenpin Jiao Yi)
    4. Zhi Yi      (compare Shenpin Zhi Yi)
    5. Yu Yi       (compare Shenpin Yu Yi)
  16. 序 Preface (used as a final afterword)
    Attributed to
    Zhu Quan. The original text is:

    孰謂大道在天而人遠 孰不知道之於人者尤近矣 且夫人生兩間 稟乾坤之氣 得陰陽之精 可以奪造化摶陰陽 故聖人制琴以養性 琴之為物 得天地之正者 可以感神明而合造化之妙 是以有道之士 得之於心應之於手 發乎絲桐 律為音聲 以合神明之德 猶是達人高士 俛仰宇宙 含情寄意 慨古感今 釋懷伸志者 皆不形於語言 而付之絲桐者 何也蓋不謂人知而高神達矣 何其大哉 於是乎 乃抱三尺之桐 神遊於千古之上 回淳風於指下 發遐想於胸中 是以放浪形骸 怡悅性情 故不為世之所隘 飄飄然出於造化之外 俯八弦而游蒼茫 吸元氣而飲沆瀣 縱神轡於太虛 弭蹫節於天府 此則心與道契 氣與神合者 也豈非道之在人為近者 歟然是書也乃芝翁田君所纂 目曰太古遺音 集為三卷 至嘉定間 祖雲楊君目為琴苑須知 表而進之於朝 以為一代之佳制也 於今僅二百餘載矣 今罕得其傳 予昔得於塗陽 多有脫落 後至江右 數見有之 皆未盡善 亦非舊本也 故常為之嘆息 於是從考校正 無益者損之 脫落者補之 定為二卷 仍名曰太古遺音 俾好事者有所助焉 時永樂癸巳十一月望日序 

    There is then a seal saying "臞仙 Qu Xian", i.e., Zhu Quan. (Copied from www.douban.com.)

End of Taiyin Daquanji, Folio 5

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Taiyin Daquanji: various editions
See the Comment on the different editions: the original of this chapter is in the Taiyin Daquanji reprinted in QQJC Vol. I, pp. 79 - 93. It is nearly identical to the same passages as reprinted in QFTGYY, pp. 85 - 107 (the original of which had a number of pages missing, so these missing pages are copied from Taiyin Daquanji); the latter divided this folio in two; it also has punctuation (perhaps added by TKW).
(Return)

2. Explanations by translator
See comments concerning the structure of the original text.
(Return)

3. Rules regarding when, where and for whom to play and not to play the qin
Perhaps the earliest list of such rules is the one above, there copied from the Song dynasty Shilin Guangji.

Such prescriptions seem to have become more detailed later. Here for example are two lists from Fengxuan Xuanpin (1539; QQJC II/24). The translations here are modified when necessary from the corresponding passages in Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu, Folio 2 (1585; IV/288-9), as translated in R. H. Van Gulik, Lore, pp. 61-2 (the order there is slightly different).

    14 Appropriate times for playing the qin

  1. Meeting someone who understands music.
  2. Meeting a suitable person.
  3. For a Daoist recluse.
  4. In a high hall.
  5. Having ascended a storied pavilion.
  6. In a Daoist cloister.
  7. Having climbed a mountain.
  8. Resting in a valley.
  9. Sitting on a stone.
  10. Roaming along the waterside.
  11. In a boat.
  12. Resting in the shadow of a forest.
  13. When the two essences of nature are bright and clear.
  14. In a cool breeze and when there is a bright moon.
    14 Inappropriate times for playing the qin

  1. When there is wind and thunder, and in rainy weather.
  2. When there is a sun or moon eclipse.
  3. In a court room (other versions say In a prison).
  4. In a market or shop.
  5. For a barbarian (夷狄 yidi; Van Gulik says this is often especially emphasized).
  6. For a vulgar person.
  7. For a merchant.
  8. For courtesans or actors (對娼優; 1585 only says "對娼妓 For courtesans").
  9. After inebriation.
  10. After fierce anger (惡怒後; 1585 has "鼓動喧嚷 In loud and noisy surroundings").
  11. After having had sexual intercourse.
  12. When formal dress is not in order (衣冠不肅; 1585: "不盥手揧漱口 Not having washed one's hands and rinsed ones mouth").
  13. In dishevelled and strange clothes.
  14. When flushed and covered with persperation.

In addition to the variations of this in other handbooks, there are also arguments on such points as drinking and playing for merchants. And Van Gulik points out that some apparently wished even to prohibit Buddhists from playing (see further).
(Return)

 
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