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Fengxuan Xuanpin
Profound Airs Spread Like the Wind 1

Qinqu Jicheng, Vol. 2
by Zha Fuxi

(This qin handbook is) in the collection of the Music Research Department of the Art Research Institute in the Bureau of Culture;3 printed in ten folios during the Ming dynasty by Huifan4 Zhu Houjiao.5 In front is Zhu Houjiao's own preface and a prefatory essay, dated 1539, by Zhang Kun,6 a commissioner responsible for disseminating governmental policies in Shanxi province.

(N.B., This makes Zhu Houjiao one of several Ming princes to have published qin handbooks.)

The first folio records most of the material concerning the qin in Song dynasty Tian Zhiweng's Taigu Yiyin. (See the material concerning the qin in Taigu Yiyin and Taigu Daquanji, found in Qinqu Jicheng, Volume 1. "Taiyin Daquan" is in fact "Taigu Yiyin Daquan", with over 154 illustrations added). Folios two through 10 are qin tablature, altogether 101 pieces.

Zhu Houjiao's own preface says, "I collected tablature from all the schools and examined them. Some had mistakes in tablature so the text was confused; in others the text was wrong so the tablature didn't make sense.... So I consulted specialists to make cross references and examine the editions so that the music and text would fit...."

This explains clearly that this book was a collation of the current qin pieces of that day. The original book was printed with very high quality, and it is a very valuable tablature collection; it is also a basic source for qin tablature special collections and traditional qin essays.

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. 風宣玄品

2. 查阜西 Zha Fuxi, edited by 吳釗 Wu Zhao.

3. 文化部藝術研究院音樂研究所; still there?

4. 徽藩 Huifan 10505.xxx (Prince? of the) Hui Frontier (also no 徽王 Hui Wang; no apparent connection with 安徽 Anhui).
According to Ming Shi 119, in 1467 朱見沛 Zhu Jianpei (Bio/xxx; grandfather of Zhu Houjiao), ninth son of the Yingzong emperor (1436-54), was declared Prince Zhuang of Hui (徽莊王 10503.xxx), then in 1482 was sent to the area of 鈞州 Junzhou, the modern 禹州 Yuzhou, 70 km south of the Yellow River in central Henan, and 75 km southeast of 嵩山 Songshan, one of China's "Five Sacred Peaks.

5. 朱厚爝 Zhu Houjiao (or: Zhu Houjue; Bio/567; 1506 - 1550)
Zhu Houjiao was originally enfeoffed as 安邑王 Prince of Anyi (in southwest 山西 Shanxi). In 1526 his enfeoffment was moved to 鈞州 Junzhou (now 禹州 Yuzhou in Henan) and he was bestowed with the title 徽恭王 Prince Gong of Hui (his grandfather Zhu Jianpei had also been a Prince of Hui [徽王 Hui Wang]: see previous footnote). In this position he is said to have usurped authority (Hucker, Official Titles, p.71, says that "the nobility in general was an ornament on the Ming social scene, not a factor in government", suggesting Zhu was not intended to have any particular power.) Nevertheless, he was said to have been particularly favored by the Jiajing emperor.

Zhu Houjiao was particularly noted for being a Daoist (Wang, p.53). Ming Shi 119 says that Zhu Houjiao was responsible for Junzhou in Henan from 1526 to 1551, and relates two stories. First, he defended an unnamed qin maker criticized by officials -- the Jiajing emperor (1522-67) had the officials punished, causing "some observers to think badly of Zhu Houjiao." Second, he made friends with 陶仲文 Tao Zhongwen (Bio/2055; d. 1560; from Hubei but serving in the palace), a Taoist master highly regarded by the Jiajing emperor, 朱厚熜 Zhu Houzong. As a result the Jiajing emperor gave Zhu Houjiao the Taoist title 太清輔元宣化真人 Taiqing Fuyuan Xuanhua Zhenren.

(Zhu Houzong was the adopted son of his paternal second cousin 朱厚照 Zhu Houzhao, the Zhengde Emperor, 1506-22. In the same period Qinshi Xu lists 朱厚燆 Zhu Houqiao, Prince of 衡 Heng, as having ordered a qin called Taigu Yiyin; and 朱厚炫 Zhu Houxuan, Prince of 益 Yi, as a "good qin player". Van Gulik mentions the two princes briefly in Lore, pp. 214ff).

In his own preface to Fengxuan Xuanpin, Zhu Houjiao says there were two types of qin melodies at that time, the 浙操徐門 Zhe melodies of Xu tradition, and the 江操劉門 Jiang melodies of the Liu tradition. The Xu tradition is discussed in various places. See, for example, Xu Shen. For Liu see a discussion of the Jiang tradition.

6. 張鯤 Zhang Kun (10026.xxx; Bio/xxx)
Qinshu Cunmu #206 names him editor of a Fengxuan Yuanpin, but gives no further information, nor have I found any. He signs himself 山西右布政使 Shanxi You Buzheng-shi (Shanxi Right Provincial Administration Commissioner).

Return to the annotated handbook list or to the Guqin ToC.