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Zhang Zhihe 1   張志和
Zhang Zhihe amidst the waves2  
Zhang Zhihe (ca. 730 - ca. 810), style name Zitong, nickname Master of Obscure Reality (Xuanzhenzi) was from Jinhua, a town about 150 km south southwest and 200 km upriver from Hangzhou.
3 He served for a while at the Hanlin Academy in Chang'an, the capital, but as a result of some trouble was sent away to manage affairs in Nanpu, near Wanxian in the remote Yangzi river gorges.4

Soon after this he was pardoned and allowed to return,5 but he then quickly left the capital and became a recluse among rivers and lakes, calling himself Fishing Disciple Midst Mists and Waves, and (Master of) Obscure Reality.6 He was famous for using no bait when he fished, saying his aim was not to catch fish. As recounted in Giles,

When Lu Yu asked him why he roamed about, Zhang answered and said, "With the empyrean as my home, the bright moon my constant companion, and the four seas my inseparable friends, - what mean you by roaming?" And when a friend offered him a comfortable home instead of his poor boat, he replied, "I prefer to follow the gulls into cloudland, rather than to bury my ethereal self beneath the dust of the world."

Zhang Zhihe was a good lyricist, wrote about the leisurely life, and was a calligrapher, percussionist and flute player. His existing poems include five on the theme Old Fisherman.7

His connections to qin melodies include the following.

  1. He Wu Dongtian
    One story tells of Zhang Zhihe drunkenly riding off on a crane.8

  2. Zui Yu Chang Wan
    "As good as the poem by Zhang Zhihe mentioning Xisai mountains."

  3. Yu Ge
    He wrote poems on the theme of fishing.

  4. Chunjiang Wan Tiao (Zha Guide 19/183/--)
    "Zhang Zhihe fished without bait, saying his aims were not in the fish. He applied his oars on the Chun River (short for Fuchun River, not far from his birthplace?). 寓其悠然自適之趣云 He dwelt in his distant and detached interests."

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Zhang Zhihe 張志和 (ca. 730 - ca. 810)
張志和 Bio/1277 婺州金華人,字子同,號玄真子,初名龜齡 Zhang Zhihe, from Jinhua in Wuzhou (Zhejiang province; see below), style name Zitong, nickname Xuanzhenzi (Master of Obscure Reality), was originally called Guiling.... His poems include 漁父,五首 five called Old Fisherman. His biography is also in Giles.

2. Image
This image is from an illustrated Ming dynasty Liexian Quanzhuan, which developed out of the Han dynasty Liexian Zhuan.

3. 金華 Jinhua, home of Zhang Zhihe
Jinhua, in Zhejiang province about 150km south southwest of Hangzhou, is on a river that flows into Jinhua from 義烏 Yiwu City to the northeast, then continues northwest and north to near 梅城鎮 Meichengzhen, where it enters the 富春江 Fuchun ("Abundant Spring") River, which then flows north northeast, after about 10 km passing 嚴子陵釣魚臺 the Fishing Terrace of Yan Ziling and on to Hangzhou. Today the Google maps call the river flowing through Jinhua the 義烏江 Yiwu River, but it has been/is also called 金華江 Jinhua River, 浦陽 Puyang River, 武義江 Wuyi River and in antiquity presumably other names as well.

4. 坐事貶南浦尉 to manage affairs sent away (bian) to Nanpu Wei; near modern 萬縣 Wanxian

5. 赦還

6. 自號煙波釣徒,又號玄真 (玄真子)

7. Songs on the Old Fisherman
Zhang Zhihe's five 漁父歌 Yu Fu Ge are included in YFSJ, p. 1170; 1, 4 and 5 are translated in Sunflower Splendor, pp.155/6. Number 1 mentions 西塞山 Xisai Mountain below Taihu Lake; #2 mentions a 釣臺 fishing terrace and the Yangzi River; #2 mentions Zha Creek (霅溪 43238.6 水名,吳興縣治南), south of Taihu Lake; #4 mentions 宋江 Song River east of Taihu Lake; #5 mentions 巴陵 Baling (Yueyang, by Dongting lake in Hunan).

8. Zhang Zhihe riding a crane
Van Gulik, Lore, p.143, relates this story about Zhang Zhihe from the 青蓮舫琴雅 Qinglianfang Qinya by 林有麟 Lin Youlin.

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