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TGYY / ToC   /   Trace from the Guan Ju of <1491 聽錄音 Listen here or on  / 首頁
06. Cry of the Ospreys
- Standard tuning:2 5 6 1 2 3 5 6 played as 1 2 4 5 6 1 2
 
關雎曲
Guan Ju Qu 1
An osprey in flight 3 (further illustration)              
The lyrics are the first five poems of the Shi Jing (Book of Songs). The melody is distantly related to most of those published under the title Guan Ju in at least 54 other surviving handbooks published between 1491 (Zheyin Shizi Qinpu, which has completely different lyrics) and 1894. 4

Most versions of Guan Ju have no lyrics. Here they begin by announcing the first title of the first section of the first poem in the Shi Jing. The lyrics of the first five Shi Jing poems are then paired to music, in order (without titles), then repeated once, about half of it to different music. The original tablature is continuous, the poems being separated only by a circle, usually written in the tablature column.

The original preface (see below) begins with the traditional Confucianist interpretation that the melody, rather than being a simple love song, celebrates the virtue of the consort of Wen Wang. It mentions Zhou Nan (Southern Zhou) and Shao Nan (Southern Shao). Zhou Nan is the first section of the Shi Jing (poems 1 to 11); these are supposedly poems collected in southern Zhou regions. Shao Nan is the second section, poems 22-25; these are poems supposedly collected in the southern Shao region, centered on the city Shao, ruled by Wu Wang's half brother the Duke of Shao.

 
Preface 5

According to (history), the poem Cry of the Ospreys concerns the virtue of the Royal Consort (of Wen Wang). Confucius said that this poem was joyful but not licentious and sad but not aggrieved, using correctness in expressing emotions and harmony in the spirit of its sound. He also said, "If people don't live as in Zhou Nan and Shao Nan, is this not a case of standing as if facing a wall (i.e., they can't see anything)?" Observing the words of this song, (besides Cry of the Ospreys) it completely records (#2 Cloth Plant), (#3) Cockleburs, (#4) Trees with Drooping Branches, (and #5) Locusts. It presents them as songs with strings. How could it be only for qin and se zithers with bells and drums?  
Music and Lyrics 6   (聽錄音 Listen)
The ten sections (in Taigu Yiyin marked off by circles) are a largely syllabic setting of the lyrics of the first five poems of the Shi Jing, played through then repeated. This setting, though affected by repeats as well as ornaments, largely follows the structure of the lyrics (with one odd exception).

The text, as shown below, begins by setting to music the title. For the first poem this includes the "zhi yi" ("#1"), but it does not do this for #2 to #5 or for the repeat, nor does it give the titles for any of the five individual poems. The music is largely paired one character (syllable) per right hand stroke, with no characters added for slides. Two main exceptions are indicated by _ _ _ and ...... The former is used where the tablature says to repeat the music but it is not clear whether the lyrics should also be repeated; .... means there are some added right hand strokes (e.g., a gunfu) not paired to lyrics.

國風一,周南一之一:_ _ _ , _ _ _ _ _ .
Guó Fēng yī, Zhōunán yī zhī yī; ... .....:
National Airs #1, Zhou South 1 #1

(1. Shi Jing Poem #1: Cry of the Ospreys [{4+4} x 2] x 5 )

關關雎鳩,在河之州。
Guān guān jū jiū, zài hé zhī zhōu.
"Guan, guan," trill the ospreys, upon the island in the creek.

窈窕淑女,君子好逑。
Yǎo tiǎo shū nǚ, jūnzǐ hǎo qiú. ......
Modest is the gentle lady, the gentlman thinks her fine to seek.

參差荇菜,左右流之。
Cēncī xìng cài, zuǒ yòu liú zhī.
Uneven are the floating water plants, they flow by left and right.

窈窕淑女,寤寐求之。
Yǎo tiǎo shū nǚ, wù mèi qiú zhī.
Modest is the gentle beauty, he seeks her day and night.

求之不得,寤寐思服。
Qiú zhī bù dé, wù mèi sī fú.
He seeks but cannot get her, he thinks of her day and night.

悠哉悠哉,輾轉反側。
You zai you zai, zhan zhuan fan ze. ....
Sad and anxious thoughts, twisting and turning in his plight.

參差荇菜,左右採之。
Cēncī xìng cài, zuǒ yòu cǎi zhī.
Uneven are the floating water plants, they can be picked left and right.

窈窕淑女,琴瑟友之。
Yǎo tiǎo shū nǚ, qín sè yǒu zhī.
Modest is the gentle beauty, qin and se zithers
7 her friendship invite.

參差荇菜,左右芼之。
Cēncī xìng cài, zuǒ yòu mào zhī.
Uneven are the floating water plants, they can be gathered left and right.

窈窕淑女,鐘鼓樂之。
Yǎo tiǎo shū nǚ, zhōng gǔ lè zhī.
Modest is the gentle beauty, with bells and drums we bring her delight.

(2. Shi Jing Poem Poem #2: Cloth Plant [{4+4+4} x 2] x 2 then [{4+4} x 3] x 1 )

葛之覃兮,施於中谷,維葉萋萋。
Gé zhī tán xī, shī yú zhōng gǔ, wéi yè qī qī.
The cloth-plant's spread, extends to the middle of the valley, the leaves are luxuriant.

黃鳥于飛,集於灌木,其鳴喈喈。
Huáng niǎo yú fēi, jí yú guàn mù, qí míng jiē jiē. ........
The oriole is in its flight; Perching on the densely foliated trees, its song is sweet.

葛之覃兮,施於中谷,維葉莫莫。
Gé zhī tán xī, shī yú zhōng gǔ, wéi yè mò mò.
The cloth-plant's spread, extends to the middle of the valley, its leaves are extensive.

是刈是濩,為絺為綌,服之無斁。
Shì yì shì huò, wèi chī wèi xì, fú zhī wú yì.
These I cut and steam, making fine linen and making course linen, for clothing that never becomes tiring.

言告師氏,言告言歸。
Yán gào shī shì, yán gào yán guī.
Speak to my nurse-tutor, tell her I'm going home.

薄污我私,薄浣我衣。
Báo wū wǒ sī, báo huàn wǒ yī.
Then I'll wash my private garments, and wash my outer clothing.

害浣害否,歸寧父母。
Hài huàn hài fǒu, guīníng fùmǔ. ........
But whether washed or not, I'll return to comfort my parents.

(3. Shi Jing Poem Poem #3: Cockleburs [4+4] x 2, then [4+4+6+5] x 2, then [4+4] x 2 )

採採卷耳,不盈傾筐。
Cǎi cǎi juǎn ěr, bù yíng qīng kuāng.
Variegated are the cockle-burs, but I could not fill a shallow bucket.

嗟我懷人,寘彼周行。
Jiē wǒ huái rén, zhì bǐ zhōu xíng.. ......
Lamenting for my beloved, I lay them on the road to Zhou.

陟彼崔嵬,我馬虺聵。
Zhì bǐ cuī wéi, wǒ mǎ huī kuì.
I am climbing those rocky peaks, my horse is worn out.

我姑酌彼金罍,維以不永懷。
Wǒ gū zhuó bǐ jīn léi, wéi yǐ bù yǒng huái.
I thereupon pour liquor into this golden cup, so that I won't be heartsick.

陟彼高崗,我馬玄黃。
Zhì bǐ gāo gǎng, wǒ mǎ xuán huáng.
I am climbing that high cliff, my horse is sick and worn out.

我姑酌彼兕觥,維以不永傷。
Wǒ gū zhuó bǐ sì gōng, wéi yǐ bù yǒng shāng.
I pour liquor into this (rhino-) horn cup, so that I won't be heartsick.

陟彼砠矣,我馬瘏矣。
Zhì bǐ jū yǐ, wǒ mǎ tú yǐ.
I am climbing that rocky hill, my horse becomes disabled.

我僕痡矣,云何吁矣。
Wǒ pú fū yǐ, yún hé xū yǐ.
My groom becomes sick; I cry, Alas! How wretched!

(4. Shi Jing Poem Poem #4: Trees with Drooping Branches [{4+4} x 2] x 3] )

南有樛木,葛藟累之。
Nán yǒu jiū mù, gé lěi lèi zhī.
The south has trees with drooping branches, cloth-creeper brambles bind them.

樂只君子,福履綏之。
Lè zhǐ jūnzǐ, fú lǚ suī zhī. ......
Pleasure to our lord! Fortunate actions soothe him.

南有樛木,葛藟荒之。 _ _ _ _ , _ _ _ _ .
Nán yǒu jiū mù, gé lěi huāng zhī. ....,....
The south has trees with drooping branches, cloth-creeper brambles cover them.

樂只君子,福履將之。
Lè zhǐ jūnzǐ, fú lǚ jiāng zhī.
Pleasure to our lord! Fortunate actions protect him.

南有樛木,葛藟榮之。
Nán yǒu jiū mù, gé lěi róng zhī.
The south has trees with drooping branches, cloth-creeper brambles entwine them.

樂只君子,福履成之。
Lè zhǐ jūnzǐ, fú lǚ chéng zhī.
Pleasure to our lord! Fortunate actions fulfil him.

(5. Shi Jing Poem Poem #5: Locusts [3+3+4+3] x 3)

螽斯羽,詵詵兮。宜爾子孫,振振兮。
Zhōng sī yǔ, shēn shēn xī. Yí ěr zǐ sūn, zhèn zhèn xī.
Locust wings are humming, May your descendants be numerous.

螽斯羽,薨薨兮。宜爾子孫,繩繩兮。
Zhōng sī yǔ, hōng hōng xī. Yí ěr zǐ sūn, shéng shéng xī.
Locust wings are whirring. May your descendents form an endless line.

螽斯羽,揖揖兮。宜爾子孫,蟄蟄兮。
Zhōng sī yǔ, yī yī xī. Yí ěr zǐ sūn, zhé zhé xī.
Locust wings are buzzing. May your descendents remain together.

(6. Repeats lyrics of #1, new music; [{4+4} x 2] x 5 but does not repeat "Guo Feng yi, Zhou Nan yi zhi yi")

(7. Repeats lyrics of #2, new music in first 2 of 3 stanzas (lyric structure is [{4+4+4} x 2] x 2 then [{4+4} x 3] x 1 )
(Poem Two of the Shi Jing has three stanzas of six lines each. According to the meaning of the lyrics the character (syllable) count should be [{4+4+4} x 2] x 2 then [{4+4} x 3] x 1. However, the musical settings in Sections 2 and 7 of Guan Ju Qu do not follow this.

All this makes one suspect that perhaps after the five poems had been set to music in five sections someone decided to repeat the lyrics of these five sections, adding new music, but when they got two thirds of the way through Section 7 they realized they were doing it incorrectly; so then, instead of going back and re-doing these parts, they just gave up and repeated the earlier music. On the other hand, this might also just be considered as evidence that the music was written down from a live performance in an oral tradition, rather than written as a conscious composition.)

(8. Repeats lyrics and music of #3 [4+4] x 2, then [4+4+6+5] x 2, then [4+4] x 2 )

(9. Repeats lyrics and music of #4 [{4+4} x 2] x 3 ])

(10. Repeats lyrics of #5; new music in last 1½ sections [3+3+4+3] x 3 )

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a
separate page)

1. Guan Ju Qu 關雎曲
42402.191 關雎 Guan Ju begins by saying it is the name of a bird, same as 魚鷹 yuying (fish hawk, etc.). It then mentions the Shi Jing poem; although the poem's lyrics have been set to qin melodies such as Guan Ju Qu, the entry does not mention qin or music.
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2. Tuning and mode of Guan Ju Qu: 徴調 zhi mode?
Taigu Yiyin does not group melodies by tuning or mode. However, the modal structure here suggests it could be considered as a zhi mode melody: with the tuning considered as 1 2 4 5 6 1 2, the primary tonal center is 5 (zhi, equivalent to the open 4th string, also called zhi), and the secondary tonal center is 2. In addition the 1491 version of Guan Ju, which is vaguely related, is said to be in zhi mode. However, the closing note of Guan Ju Qu is a diad on 5 over 1 instead of the expected 5 over 2. The significance of this modal change is unclear, unless perhaps based on the idea that 1 should be the most important note.
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3. Image: osprey flying
This image is from the website of Mayo Park in North Carolina.
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4. Tracing Guan Ju Qu
Zha Guide includes a tracing chart under Guan Ju.
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5. Original preface
The original Chinese text is as follows:
按關睢之詩,后妃之德也。孔子謂此詩樂而不淫,哀而不傷,以其情性之正,聲氣之和也。又曰,「人而不為周南召南,其猶正牆而立也歟?」觀此曲之文,於卷耳、樛木、螽斯無不備載,播之弦歌,凱獨琴瑟鐘鼓之樂而巳耶?
Not yet translated
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6. Music and lyrics The Chinese lyrics by themselves are as follows:

    國風一,周南一之一:
  1. 關關雎鳩,在河之州。窈窕淑女,君子好逑。
    參差荇菜,左右流之。窈窕淑女,寤寐求之。
    求之不得,寤寐思服。悠哉悠哉,輾轉反側。
    參差荇菜,左右採之。窈窕淑女,琴瑟友之。
    參差荇菜,左右芼之。窈窕淑女,鐘鼓樂之。

  2. 葛之覃兮,施於中谷,維葉萋萋。
    黃鳥于飛,集於灌木,其鳴喈喈。
     
    葛之覃兮,施於中谷,維葉莫莫。
    是刈是濩,為絺為綌,服之無斁。
     
    言告師氏,言告言歸。
    薄污我私,薄浣我衣。
    害浣害否,歸寧父母。

  3. 採採卷耳,不盈傾筐。嗟我懷人,寘彼周行。
    陟彼崔嵬,我馬虺聵。我姑酌彼金罍,維以不永懷。
    陟彼高崗,我馬玄黃。我姑酌彼兕觥,維以不永傷。
    陟彼砠矣,我馬瘏矣。我僕痡矣,雲云何吁矣。

  4. 南有樛木,葛藟累之。樂只君子,福履綏之。
    南有樛木,葛藟荒之。樂只君子,福履將之。
    南有樛木,葛藟榮之。樂只君子,福履成之。

  5. 螽斯羽,詵詵兮。宜爾子孫,振振兮。
    螽斯羽,薨薨兮。宜爾子孫,繩繩兮。
    螽斯羽,揖揖兮。宜爾子孫,蟄蟄兮。

同前二疊。  
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7. Qin and se zithers
Although the 25-string se zither is no longer played, qin and se together remain today a symbol of marital harmony. Thus my wedding announcement included the calligraphy Qin Se He Ming (Qin and se resound together).
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