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Zheyin ToC   /   Compare Guan Ju Qu (1511) From my CD listen to a recording 聽錄音   /   首頁
01. Cry of the Ospreys
- Zhi mode, standard tuning: 2   1 2 4 5 6 1 2
 
關雎 1
Guan Ju
An osprey 3          
The title of this melody comes from the title of the first poem in the over 2,500 year-old Book of Songs (Shi Jing), but whereas the Guan Ju Qu in Taigu Yiyin (1511) sets the whole poem (and the next four poems) word for word, here the lyrics are quite different. Here they form not so much the love song of the original first poem as they do as a political commentary, with the marriage of Wen Wang and his queen symbolizing the harmony of society under his rule.4

Here only section six directly quotes the Shi Jing poem, but it actually sets to music less than half the original (compare 1511, which sets the entire poem).5 What the present version includes is only as follows:

"Guan, guan," trill the ospreys,
On the island in the creek.
Modest is the gentle beauty,
Fine for the gentleman to seek.

He seeks but cannot get her,
he thinks of her day and night.
Twisting and turning in his plight.   (not "Sad and anxious thoughts")
Twisting and turning in his plight.

Other than these four-character phrases the lyrics are in phrases of irregular length.

It was common within the qin tradition to attribute Guan Ju to Zhou Gong, son of Wen Wang and younger brother of Wu Wang, first ruler of the Zhou dynasty (1122-255). However, this title does not seem to appear on early qin melody lists, and it is not at all clear from where the melody came when it started appearing in qin handbooks around 1500.

On the other hand, during the rest of the Ming and throughout the Qing dynasty Guan Ju was one of the most popular of all qin pieces, found in at least 54 handbooks from 1491 to 1894. If heard today, though, it will not be from lineal descent but through a modern reconstruction such as by own.6

 
Zheyin Shizi Qinpu Preface7

The Beyond-Sounds Immortal says,

as for this melody, it began with Zhou Gong; later people often added to it, making the current version. The Royal Ancestor's Handbook does not have this melody. It uses Guan Ju, as the first section of the Shi Jing, (from) the southern kingdoms influenced by the culture of Wen Wang, to allude to the enjoyment of peace in the happy marriage and happy relationship of Wen Wang and his queen, since (marriage is), in fact, the first among human relationships, and is essential to the fundamentals of society.

Ah! His happiness - could anything be so great!

 
Music
Nine titled sections, all with lyrics:
8

00.00   1. The prince-like osprey finds a good marriage
01.06   2. Very gentle are (the wives of the royal family of) Zhou and Zhao
02.09   3. Using (a birdcall) as a metaphor for (the queen's virtue)
02.40   4. Praise (her) virtue and acclaim (her) conduct
03.26   5. (Like) the wind (, the queen) guides the world
04.00   6. They mutually call out in harmony to each other (in harmonics; has the original lyrics)
04.19   7. The correct (wedding) ceremony (leads to) a successful marriage
05.19   8. (The king and queen's) virtue (is) as great as heaven and earth
05.59   9.(The king and queen have) eternal worship in the Zhou family temple
06.37     closing harmonics
06.54     end

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Guan Ju references
42402.191 關雎 Guan Ju begins by saying it is the name of a bird, same as 魚鷹 yuying (fish hawk, etc.). It then mentions the Shi Jing poem; although the poems lyrics have been set to qin melodies such as Guan Ju Qu, the entry does not mention qin or music.
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2. Zhi mode
Standard tuning is also considered as 5 6 1 2 3 5 6 , but 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 seems to work better here. The music of this version of Guan Ju is more diatonic than pentatonic. The accompanying transcription, by treating the open first string as 1 (C) makes the tonal center here 5 (G), the equivalent of the open fourth string; the secondary tonal center is then 2 (D), the equivalent of the open second string. It is tempting instead to consider the open fourth string as 1 (transposing the tuning to 4 5 7 1 2 4 5). In this case the secondary tonal center would generally be 5 (G). However, 4 (F) would be more prominent than is common in qin melodies. And in this case the scale generally used would then become 1 2 3 4 5 6 7b 1 , with 3 often changed to flatted 3 and flatted 7 sometimes changed to 7. For more information about zhi mode see Shenpin Zhi Yi. For modes in general see Modality in Early Ming Qin Tablature. (Return)

3. Image
See full image with further information
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4. Significance of the lyrics (the complete lyrics are below)
Most versions with lyrics (listed below) focus on the virtues of Wen Wang and his wife. Likewise all the versions with commentary discuss these virtues. This was typical of classical Chinese commentary on the poems in general; it has only been in modern times that commentary has turned to the original romantic themes of many Shi Jing poems.
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5. Present Shi Jing lyrics compared to the original
The original Shi Jing poem has 20 four-character phrases arranged as five verses of four phrases (or two couplets) each each ([{4+4}x2] x 5). Here lines from this original poem can be found only in Section 6, as follows:

關關睢鳩,在何之洲。窈窕淑女,君子好逑。   (= verse 1 complete)
求之不得,寤寐思服。展轉返側,展轉反側。   (would be = verse 3 if the first 展轉返側 were 悠哉悠哉)
The repeated phrase is puzzling.
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6. Tracing Guan Ju (tracing chart)
The chart below is based largely on Zha Guide 11/109/179 關雎曲 Guan Ju Qu. In all, at least 54 handbooks from 1491 to 1894 include Guan Ju or a related title.

Of these, nine early handbooks include lyrics:

Zheyin Shizi Qinpu (1491; present version)
Taigu Yiyin (1511), lyrics are Shi Jing poems 1-5
Faming Qinpu (1530); different new lyrics, but related to ZYSZQP
Xilutang Qintong (1539); Section 5 is set to the opening 4x4 verse
Longhu Qinpu (1571); like 1511, but sectioning is different
Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu (1585): lyrics quite similar to those in ZYSZQP
Lixing Yuanya (1618): two versions, #1 like 1585, #2 like 1511 but only poem 1 and only for 5 strings (one of 13)
Lixuezhai Qinpu (1730): again new lyrics but still focused on virtues of Wen Wang's queen
Lüyin Huigai (1835); like 1618, #2

No later versions seem to have lyrics.
(Return)

7. Original preface
The original Chinese preface can be seen under 關雎.
(Return)

8. Music and lyrics (compare 1511)
The original Chinese section titles and lyrics are as follows,

  1. 王睢善匹
    江沱汝漢河洲,赤沙碧草地偏幽。看並立王鳩,雌雄聲應也氣求,關關相友和柔。雙宿食,雙並游,鳩無相狎愛姿優那游。水禽鳥,難為儔,鳧鷖狀類,德不相侔。摯而那有別,關睢冠於毛傳首,思憶憶,周文王后妃有聖德,宜相好逑。
  2. 大閒周召
    大閒那周召,睢鳩與有定偶,那死生同命,詩人托物的那於以起賦比興。周南召南的那諷誦弦歌之聲,相應和鳴。后妃聖德,纓閒貞靜也,有以宜配文王。亦若那睢鳩的那陰陽定偶,關關然相應如寶友。思憶憶也,周文王后妃有聖德,宜相好求。
  3. 即物興人
    即鳥聲之和,與女德之和。致貞淑,南北弦歌。美成內治,普德而多,善匹善處而如何,而如何。宗廟之主,綱紀而呵,統理天下萬物而呵,被之管弦,房中之樂。
  4. 興德稱行
    關睢后妃,德舉全體。貴而勤,葛覃志行在己,樛木螽斯德惠及人,福履綏之矣。合太和,致中和,茂德音呵,關睢流水之河,相與和樂,相與和樂,和樂。於是德化大成,於內相從,汝漢江沱。被之管弦,而為房中之樂。
  5. 風化天下
    女德在貞淑,女行在昭德。慎固纓深,太姒也風化天下,正位於後宮,其儀不忒。關睢風化南而北,民俗歌謠,的那閨門鄉黨而邦國。上天作合非偶然,誦詩三百。 
  6. 相與和鳴 
    關關睢鳩,在何之洲。窈窕淑女,君子好逑。求之不得,寤寐思服。展轉返側,展轉反側。
  7. 禮正婚姻 禮正婚姻,禮正婚姻,優哉游哉,配匹之際,生民之始,萬福之原,萬福原,宜配君子焉。感於性,以發於情,而宰於心。成為詩,形於聲,響諸音樂,皆得乎和平。婚禮也宜其時,興於桃夭,形於江漢,其為誰,其為誰。
  8. 德侔天地
    賢其賢,賦性而全乎天。太姒體坤承乾,至靜至健,賢其賢。文王也,后妃也,德侔天地,開分萬化之原。三綱以正,六紀俱全,賢賢,張理上下,整齊人道,你那倫理綿綿。思無邪也,詩冠乎三百篇。
  9. 配享宗周
    王政呵,閨門始,身化天下,文王所致。關睢之詩,內系賢助相維之,內系賢助相維之。玉葉繼金枝,樂享宗周傳世系,好合那兮,得其那宜也,萬古名垂。

Not yet translated.
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Appendix: Chart Tracing 關雎 Guan Ju
Further comment
above; based mainly on Zha Fuxi's Guide, 11/109/179.

      琴譜
    (year; QQJC Vol/page)
Further information
(QQJC = 琴曲集成 Qinqu Jicheng; QF = 琴府 Qin Fu)
  1.  浙音釋字琴譜
      (<1491; I/203 [here])
8+1; lyrics throughout paired in standard way
Section 5 (I/205): "關關雎鳩,在河之州。 窈窕淑女,君子好逑。"
  2. 謝琳太古遺音
      (1511; I/277)
Guan Ju Qu; not divided; different lyrics and music
 
    . 黃士達太古遺音
      (1515; ___)
Same as 1511
 
  3. 西麓堂琴統
      (1525; III/152)
8; related; for lyrics compare 1491
Lyrics here only in S5 (III/153): 關關雎鳩,在河之州。 窈窕淑女,君子好逑。
  4. 發明琴譜
      (1530; I/366)
8L; similar music, again different lyrics
 
  5. 風宣玄品
      (1539; II/261)
10; related mostly to 1491 but no lyrics
 
  6. 梧岡琴譜
      (1546; I/430)
8; related to 1491 but no lyrics
Copied in 1561#2
  7. 步虛僊琴譜
      (1556; III/285)
9; related
 
  8. 太音傳習
      (1552; IV/134)
10; related
 
  9. 太音補遺
      (1557; III/376)
8; related
 
10a. 琴譜正傳
      (1561; II/494)
7; "yu mode"; related but quite different (compare next)
 
10b. 琴譜正傳
      (1561; II/503)
8; same as 1546
 
11. 龍湖琴譜
      (1571; 琴府/255)
9TL; lyrics = 1491 but music seems simpler
 
    . 新刊正文對音捷要
      (1573; #53)
Same as 1585?
 
12. 五音琴譜
      (1579; IV/231)
10
 
13. 重修真傳琴譜
      (1585; IV/438)
20; related melody; lyrics of S1-S9 are like 1491
 
14. 玉梧琴譜
      (1589; VI/56)
8
 
    . 真傳正宗琴譜
      (1589; VII/205)
10+1; not in 1589 edition
 
15 真傳正宗琴譜
      (1609; VII/205)
10+1; many differences but still related
 
16. 琴書大全
      (1590; V/504)
14+1; quite different but still related
 
17. 文會堂琴譜
      (1596; VI/237)
8
 
18. 藏春塢琴譜
      (1602; VI/397)
Same as 1589?
 
19. 陽春堂琴譜
      (1611; VII/401)
10
太古正音欽佩
20. 松絃館琴譜
      (1614; VIII/134)
10
 
21. 理性元雅
      (1618; VIII/246)
10; lyrics like 1585 but different section titles
 
    . 理性元雅
      (1618; VIII/309)
3; lyrics are Shi Jing #1;
New melody using only five strings
22. 樂仙琴譜
      (1623; VIII/382)
Guanju Qu; 10; related
 
23. 古音正宗
      (1634; IX/340)
9
 
24. 義軒琴經
      (late Ming; IX/432)
10 (#1 is missing)
 
25. 徽言秘旨
      (1647; X/145)
10
 
    . 徽言秘旨訂
      (1692; fac/)
Same as 1647?
 
26. 友聲社琴譜
      (early Qing; XI/184)
10"章"
嚴譜; afterword
27. 琴苑新傳全編
      (1670; XI/376)
10; compare previous
 
28. 大還閣琴譜
      (1673; X/397)
10
 
29. 澄鑒堂琴譜
      (1689; XIV/259)
10
 
30. 蓼懷堂琴譜
      (1702; XIII/249)
10; zhi yin
 
31. 誠一堂琴譜
      (1705; XIII/384)
10
 
32. 五知齋琴譜
      (1722; XIV/480)
10+1
 
33. 存古堂琴譜
      (1726; XV/255)
10
 
34. 光裕堂琴譜
      (~1726; XV/334)
10
 
35. 立雪齋琴譜
      (1730; XVIII/28)
關雎傳 Guanju Chuan; "古譜新詞 old music new words" (music is related);
Lyrics begin, 美哉,關雎之詩,其言文王后妃之德乎詩....
36. 琴學練要
      (1739; XVIII/138)
(治心齋琴譜); 3; gong yin; "元白伯新譜"
another new melody; lyrics = Shi Jing #1
37. 春草堂琴譜
      (1744; XVIII/252)
中呂均商音 ("4th string is shang"); 10;
Afterword by 晴峯先生
    . 大樂元音
      (1745; XVI/370)
Guan Ju Zhang; 3; Shi Jing lyrics;
Note names, no tablature
38. 琴香堂琴譜
      (1760; XVII/87)
10
 
39. 自遠堂琴譜
      (1802; XVII/373)
10; shang yin
 
40. 裛露軒琴譜
      (>1802; XIX/266)
10; "from 1722"
 
41. 響雪山房琴譜
      (>1802; XIX/390)
10
 
42. 琴譜諧聲
      (1820; XX/154)
10; "角商 jiao shang"; "S9 = S4 but change its ending";
Afterword: "from 將雲章l; also mentions 1614 and 1673
43. 峰抱樓琴譜
      (1825; XX/331)
10
 
44. 鄰鶴齋琴譜
      (1830; XXI/52)
10; #9 from #4; no mode indication but related
 
    . 律音彙攷
      (1835; XXII/204)
Shi Jing lyrics and note names only
 
45. 悟雪山房琴譜
      (1836; XXII/327)
10; 中呂均商音
 
46. 張鞠田琴譜
      (1844; XXIII/332)
10; tablature + note names in popular notation
 
47. 稚雲琴譜
      (1849; XXIII/453)
10; includes phrase count
 
48. 蕉庵琴譜
      (1868; XXVI/55)
10; shangyin
Preface
49a. 天聞閣琴譜
      (1876; XXV/221)
10; shangyin yu diao; " = 1744"
 
49b. 天聞閣琴譜
      (1876; XXV/224)
10; shangyin; " = "1702"
 
50. 天籟閣琴譜
      (1876; XXI/160)
10
 
51. 響雪齋琴譜
      (1876; ???)
 originally part of 1807?
10; zhi yin (not in QQJC: info from Zha Guide)
52. 綠綺清韻
      (1884; XXVII/393)
10, but QQJC edition cuts off in middle of 7
 
53. 枯木禪琴譜
      (1893; XXVIII/90)
10
 
54a. 琴學初津
      (1894; XXVIII/276)
10; huangzhong jun shang yin
Long afterword
54b. 琴學初津
      (1894; XXVIII/340)
10; 關雎,復古譜 Guan Ju Fugu Pu ; "黃太調宮音 Huangtaidiao gongyin";
standard tuning; another long afterword

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