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- Qin Shi #2
琴史 #2 2
Shrine honoring Shun at Jiuyi Shan 3
Shun has a number of associations with the qin (as well as at least one with the se5). As his entry below indicates, he is said to have created two qin songs. Since Shun is said to have played a five-string qin these melodies all use only five strings.6
In addition, the commentary on at least four other melodies connects them with Shun. These use the standard seven strings:
Passages in Qinshu Daquan connected to Shun include the following.
Folio 16, #4 has the account in the Book of Rites of him playing the five-string qin
Folio 16, #8 has an account of this story from The Records of the Grand Historian;
this passage is quoted in full in a footnote to Nanxun Ge, and in part with Nanfeng Ge
Folio 16, #14 has two stories from Mencius of Shun playing the qin, including the one,
referred to here, of him playing the qin on a couch after his parents had tried to kill him.
Qin illustration 4 in Taiyin Daquanji claims to be a depiction of his 虞舜 Yu Shun qin, quoting Qin Qing Ying (by Yang Xiong). It adds the stories that he played the five string qin and the world was well ordered, and that Wen Wang added two strings.9 Illustration 5 is his Music Official's (伶官 Ling Guan) qin.
The Qin Shi entry is as follows, 10
Mencius said, Shun had a qin by his bed even through the difficulties with (his father) Gusou and (his brother) Xiang; in this way he could continue to play and sing, and not be troubled in his mind, and his filial nature would continue to improve. An old tradition says that the melody Si Qin Cao concerns this.
When the time came for him to be emperor he played the five-string qin and accompanied himself by singing Nanfeng Ge, and as a result the world was well-regulated. The words of this song are as follows,
At that time a harmonious spirit filled heaven and earth, and covered its plants and animals. Thus (Shang) Shu (The Venerated Documents) said, Panpipes Play Shao Nine Times, and Phoenixes Attend.) This is the greatest extreme of harmony.
Shun or Yu Shun 舜、虞舜
31025/5 舜 Shun says to see 33531.126 虞舜 Yu Shun, which has an illustration. He is often called simply "Yu", so don't confuse this 虞 Yu with 禹 Yu. Another name is the praise name 重華 Chonghua. Anne Birrell, Chinese Mythology, discusses him in detail, translating his name as Hibiscus. See also Wikipedia.
|3. Shrine to Emperor Shun at Jiuyi/Cangwu||Shun plays the qin|
The image above was downloaded in 2010 from a website called Changing Trip. The image at right is from the same area; see further at Nanfeng Ge. This seems to be the area closest to Hong Kong with a connection to the title of an old qin melody. (To find it on Google maps try searching either for 九嶷山舜帝陵 or Jiuyishanyaozuxiang.
There is also a Shun Memorial Temple
(Emperor Shun Temple) in Shaoxing, near Hangzhou.
See Nienhauser, The Grand Scribe's Records, I, p. 8ff.
A story from Lüshi Chunqiu, translated in Knoblock and Riegel, is related in a footnote to Origins of the Qin.
A footnote under the earliest Nan Feng Ge traces various melodies with a similar theme.
Xiaoshao Jiucheng, Fenghuang Laiyi:
Panpipes Play Shao Nine Times, and Phoenixes Attend
This phrase is first mentioned in Shang Shu, where it might also be translated, "When all nine parts of Xiaoshao have been completed, the male and female phoenix arrive appropriately." As a qin melody it survives first from Qinpu Zhengchuan (1547), which has the first of five qin pu with this title. See Zha Guide 18/177/-- . Alternate titles used for it are:
中文大辭典 references for 簫韶九成 Xiaoshao Jiucheng mostly quote the full title:
Shi Ji says that when Music Master 夔 Kui played music for Shun to honor Yu, (GSR I, p.35) "the deceased ancestors all arrived (to enjoy the sacrifices), the lords all yielded to each other, the birds and beasts all began to soar and dance." And when he played Xiaoshao Jiucheng, Fenghuang Laiyi, the beasts danced and the officials were all in harmony. Because of this Shun wrote a song. Shi Ji adds lyrics he and others wrote and sang for this.
However, neither the surviving qin melody nor the YFSJ entry mention Shun or these lyrics. They all refer to a later event, in which Cheng Wang celebrates his success with this melody and some new lyrics. The YFSJ entry also does not mention the Qin Cao reference to Yi Feng, although it also says it is by Cheng Wang and it includes the same lyrics, plus an extra line.
The YFSJ entry for "Shenfeng Cao, also called Fenghuang Laiyi" is as follows.
Xie Xiyi's Qin Lun says, "Cheng Wang wrote Shenfeng Cao 言德化之感也 to speak of the feelings of its making things virtuous."
Qin Ji says, "Fenghuang Laiyi" was written by Cheng Wang."
Kui was the music master of Shun. James Legge, The Chinese Classics, Vol.III. The Shoo King (bi-lingual; SMC Taipei reprint, pp. 47-8) first translates a passage mentioning Kui as follows:
Legge then adds the following comment:
All of this is quoted from Qin Qing Ying?
The Qin Shi biography of 帝舜 Emperor Shun is as follows:
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