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43. Invocation of Wind and Thunder  
- (Shang mode,2 standard tuning: 5 6 1 2 3 5 6, but played as 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 )
風雷引 1
Feng Lei Yin  
  Ancient stone relief: Zhou Gong assists Cheng Wang 3      
The main commentary for versions of this melody has been moved to that with the
Feng Lei in Xilutang Qintong (1525).4 Versions of Feng Lei Yin survive in at least 39 handbooks from 1539 to 1910.5

The present version, in Fengxuan Xuanpin (1539), has no preface or section titles to suggest its theme. Fengxuan Xuanpin also does not include preludes for melodies. It is thus difficult to say what if any specific theme as attached to this version. After this, though, these earlier handbooks relate through their commentaries at least four different introductions to this version of the melody. All of these are related with the 1525 Feng Lei.

A musical analysis of the surviving early versions of Feng Lei Yin shows that, although clearly related, they are all quite different. This suggests that the melody was actively played during the Ming dynasty.

Original Preface
None in Fengxuan Xuanpin;

Music 6
8 sections, untitled (compare the recording from 1525)
Timings are based on my recording 聽錄音

00.00   1.  
00.55   2.  
01.54   3.  
02.22   4.  
02.42   5.  
03.11   6. (Harmonics)
03.33   7.  
04.12   8.  
04.46 Closing harmonics
05.05 Melody ends

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Feng Lei Yin 風雷引
Fenglei Yin is the 43rd piece in Fengxuan Xuanpin (風宣玄品, 1539), compiled by Zhu Houjiao (朱厚爝), (Prince of the) Hui Region, central Henan province. Zhu's general preface mentions his collecting his pieces from various schools. However, the handbook has no prefaces to individual melodies.

Regarding references, 44734.403 has only fenglei, with the following definitions.

  1. The Yi Jing hexagrams 巽 xun (doubled feng trigram) and 震 zhen (doubled lei trigram). The 益 yi hexagram commentary says, 象曰,風雷,益。君子以見善則遷。有過則改。 The translation of this in Alfred Huang, The Complete I Ching (p.342) is:

    Wind and thunder support each other,
    An image of Increasing.
    In correspondence with this,
    The superior person follows the good when he sees it,
    And corrects his fault when he finds it.

  2. 烈風迅雷也。 Strong wind and swift thunder.
  3. Refers to loud sounds.
  4. Great fear.
  5. 勢盛 situation flourishes (?)
The first two definitions use some of the vocabulary in the preface given below for Taiyin Chuanxi, but I am not sure of the significance.

2. Shang mode (商調)
For further information on shang mode see Shenpin Shang Yi and Modality in Early Ming Qin Tablature.

3. Ancient stone relief: 周公輔成王 Zhou Gong assists Cheng Wang
This and similar images can be found in various places on the internet (example), but I have not figured out the location of the originals.

4. Main commentary for Feng Lei Yin
My intention is always to reconstruct the earliest known version of any particular melody. When I worked on Feng Lei Yin the version from 1539 was thought to be earliest. Only later did I find out that the version in Xilutang Qintong was apparently published in 1525, not 1549 (details).

5. Tracing Feng Lei Yin
Zha's Guide 16/164/-- (see appendix under the 1525 Feng Lei).

6. Music
To my knowledge the only recording of this earlier melody is my own. Recorded in 2006, it is available only as an MP3 (see link at top).

Return to the annotated handbook list or to the Guqin ToC.