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Qin Bibliography 1 琴書目錄學


I. Qin Handbooks
  A. English translations/transcriptions; includes,
Translations of handbooks
      b. Translations from handbooks
  B. Chinese
      a. Annotated List of Surviving Guqin Handbooks
      b. Qin handbook reprints
II. Books (including unpublished theses) primarily about guqin
  A. English books
  B. Chinese books
III. Qin-related articles
  A. English articles from books
  B. English articles from selected periodicals
  C. Chinese articles from books
  D. Chinese articles from selected periodicals
IV. Zhu Quan (compiler of Shen Qi Mi Pu)
  A. English
  B. Chinese
      a. Major works by Zhu Quan
      b. Works listed under his name in various collections
      c. About Zhu Quan
V. Some other books consulted in preparing this website.
  A. English
  B. Chinese
VI. Related online bibliographies

Qin Bibliography

I. Qin Handbooks

A. English translations/transcriptions

    a. Translations of handbooks

    b. Translations from handbooks
  1. Binkley, Jim, Abiding With Antiquity. Translations from Yuguzhai Qinpu (Qin Handbook from the Studio for Abiding with Antiquity, 1855; four folios): all of Folios II (qin construction; see online), IV (fingering), and most of III (miscellanea such as stringmaking, stringing, tuning, carrying, hanging, etc.). Amounts to almost a complete translation of Qinxue Rumen Folio I.
  2. Georges Goormaghtigh and Bell Yung, "Preface of Shenqi Mipu: Translation with Commentary", ACMR (Association for Chinese Music Research) Reports, Spring 1997, pp.1-7.
  3. Thompson, John. Music Beyond Sound: the Silk-string Zither. Hong Kong, Toadall Sound, 1997 (further information). CD with 13 melodies from Zheyin Shizi Qinpu (<1491), with annotated translations of the original prefaces.
  4. Thompson, John. Music Beyond Sound: Transcriptions of Music for the Chinese Silk-string Zither. Hong Kong, Toadall Sound, 1998 (further information). Transcriptions of music recorded on the CD Music Beyond Sound, with commentary.
  5. Yung, Bell, Celestial Airs of Antiquity, Music of the Seven String Zither of China. Madison, A-R editions, 1997. Translations, transcriptions and commentary on six pieces, all from Folio I.
    (Return to outline)
B. Chinese

    a. Annotated List of Surviving Guqin Handbooks
        For this list of about 150 books see Guqin Handbooks.
        (Return to outline)

    b. Qin handbook reprints
        Shen Qi Mi Pu editions are also listed elsewhere

  1. 唐健垣(編)﹕琴府。台北,1971 (reprinted 1981). Tong Kin-Woon, Qin Fu (Qin Treasury). Reprints 12 qin handbooks; it also includes numerous ancient and modern essays, transcriptions, commentary.
  2. 琴曲集成。北京,中華書局,1963. Qinqu Jicheng (Collection of Qin Music). Reprints 15 qin handbooks through 1559 Taiyin Xupu; called Vol. I, but the series was abandoned in favor of the more complete version begun 1983.
  3. 琴曲集成,北京古琴研究會,文化部文學藝術研究院音樂研究所(編)﹕ 北京 \ 上海,中華書局出版社,1981-1991. Qinqu Jicheng (Collection of Qin Music). Projected series of 30 volumes reprinting most known qin handbooks; this stopped in 1991 after about 70 handbooks through 1802 had been reprinted in volumes 1-14 and 16-17 (details).
  4. 琴曲集成,北京古琴研究會,文化部文學藝術研究院音樂研究所(編)﹕ 北京,中華書局出版社,2010. Qinqu Jicheng (Collection of Qin Music). Complete edition of all 30 volumes reprinting most known qin handbooks (details).
  5. 琴史,外十種 Qin Shi, Wai Shi Zhong (Qin History [as part of] 10 Additional Volumes). 上海古籍出版社 Shanghai Guji Chubanshe, 1991.
    A collection in one volume of 10 books copied from 四庫全書
    Siku Quanshu. The cover only mentions Qin Shi by name, but in all it includes the following:

    1. 琴史 Qin Shi
    2. 宋絃館琴譜 Songxianguan Qinpu
    3. 松風閣琴譜,附抒懷操 Songfengge Qinpu with Shuhuai Cao
    4. 琴譜合壁 Qinpu Hebi, together with a 譯 translation into Manchurian by 和素 He Su; the printing in this edition is better than that of the originals; this can especially be noted in images such as this one from the original
    5. 學古編 Xue Gu Bian (Essay on Studying Antiquity), compiled by (元)吾丘衍 Wu Qiuyan 1272—1311; includes a discussion of seal carving.


    6. 印典 Yin Dian (Imperial Seals), by (清)朱象賢 Zhu Xiangxian (17th c.)
    7. 羯鼓錄 Jie Gu Lu (Record of a Nomad Drum, compiled by [唐]南卓 Nan Zhuo [10th c.])
      "Jie" were nomads (also called 羯胡 Jiehu"); the drum had an hourglass shape and a deerskin head (
      Wiki; e.g., here and here)
    8. 樂府雜錄 Yuefu Zalu
    9. 棋經 Qi Jing (Classic of Chess [圍棋 weiqi]), by (宋)晏天章 Yan Tianzhang (Song dynasty)
    10. 棋訣 Qi Jue (Chess Strategies), by 劉仲甫 Liu Zhongfu (Song dynasty)

  6. Many handbooks are available in old and new facsimile reprints. The following is part of my personal collection - I have not been updating this since they are now all available in the 30-volume (alst) complete edition mentioned just above.

    1. 神奇秘譜,北京,音樂出版社,1956.
      Facsimile reprint of
      Shen Qi Mi Pu 3rd edition. Adds finger technique explanations by Zha Fuxi.
    2. 神奇秘譜,北京,中國書店,2001.
      Facsimile reprint of
      Shen Qi Mi Pu 3rd edition.
    3. 西麓堂琴統,北京,天津,1998 ("not for sale")
      Facsimile reprint of
      Xilutang Qintong; originals belonged to 李允中 Li Yunzhong
    4. 春草堂琴譜,北京,中國書店出版, 2003
      Facsimile reprint of
      Chuncaotang Qinpu
    5. 琴學練要,北京,中國書店出版, 1996
      Facsimile reprint of
      Qinxue Lianyao
    6. 琴學入門,中華圖書館,N.D.
      Facsimile reprint of
      Qinxue Rumen
    7. 十一絃館琴譜,
      Facsimile reprint of
      Shiyixianguan Qinpu
    8. 琴學叢書,北京,中國書店出版, 1995
      Facsimile reprint of
      Qinxue Congshu
    9. 愔愔室琴譜,香港,中文大學出版社,2000
      Facsimile reprint of
      Yinyinshi Qinpu
      (Return to outline)

II. Additional books (including unpublished theses) primarily about guqin

A. In English

  1. Addiss, Stephen, The Resonance of the Qin in East Asian Art. New York, China Institute, 1999. Includes:
            Clark, Mitchell, Two Histories, The Qin in Korea and Vietnam
            Kenneth DeWoskin, The Chinese Qin
            Stephen Addiss, The Qin in Japan
  2. Aguera-Arcas, Jose B. A Study of Threee Famous Compositions for the Chinese Long Zither. Ann Arbor, University Microfilms (Godard College, M.A. thesis, 1975).
  3. Bernoviz, Nimrod (Dr. Nimrod Baranovitch), The Chinese Diao: Modal Practice in 15th Century Qin Music. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh M.A. thesis, 1996. Examines the five standard tuning modes of Shen Qi Mi Pu Folio II.
  4. Cai Liangyu: Guqin Art, a Small Chinese English Dictionary (蔡良玉:古琴藝術,漢英雙語小辭典 Guqin Yishu, Han Ying Shuangyu Xiao Cidian; the title is only in Chinese), 上海音樂學院出版社 2007. Annotated translation of many terms, plus bilingual introductions to many melodies, handbooks and people. Quotes from her book on this website may have minor editing.
  5. Gulik, R.H. van, The Lore of the Chinese Lute. Tokyo, Sophia University Press, 1941; 2nd ed. Tokyo and Rutland, Tuttle, 1969; reprint of 2nd ed. Hong Kong/Bangkok, Orchid Books, 2011.
    An essential resource; the 2011 edition does not include the color prints from the 2nd ed.
  6. Gulik, R.H. van, Hsi K'ang and his Poetical Essay on the Lute. Tokyo, Sophia University Press, 1941; Tokyo and Rutland, Tuttle, 1969.
  7. Hsu, Wen-ying, The Ku-Ch'in. Los Angeles, Wen Ying Studios, 1978. 581 pages. Much information, but very disorganized and many mistakes, many perhaps due to poor English. (In Chinese her name is 徐聞韻, which should be Hsu Wenyün or Xu Wenyun)
  8. I Shou-Fan, Rita, A Diachronic Study of the Ch'in Composition "Mei Hua San Nung". Seattle, University of Washington M.A. thesis, 1977. Traces Meihua from 1425 through present, showing the increasing complexity of left hand ornamentation.
  9. Liang Mingyue (David), The Chinese Ch'in: Its History and Music, Taiwan, Chinese National Music Association, 1969. Includes a musical analysis of You Lan (further comment).
  10. Liang Mingyue (David), The Art of Yin-Jou Techniques for the Seven-Stringed Zither. Ann Arbor, University Microfilms, (Ph.D, UCLA, 1973).
  11. Lieberman, Fredric, The Chinese Long Zither Ch'in. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, (Seattle, University of Washington, Ph.D. 1977).
  12. Spining, Charles Martin. Ming Dynasty Handbooks for the Ch'in: an Examination of Tiao-i -- 'Idea of the Mode'. Boston University, M.A. thesis, 1975.
  13. Thompson, John. Music Beyond Sound: the Silk-string Zither. Hong Kong, Toadall Sound, 1997 (further information). 13 pieces from Zheyin Shizi Qinpu (<1491), with annotated translations of the original prefaces.
  14. Thompson, John. Music Beyond Sound: Transcriptions of Music for the Chinese Silk-string Zither. Hong Kong, Toadall Sound, 1998 (further information). Transcriptions of music recorded on the CD Music Beyond Sound, with commentary.
  15. Tse Chun Yan, From Chromaticism to Pentatonism: A Convergence of Ideology and Practice in Qin Music of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. PhD diss., The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2009.
  16. Wang Haoxian, The Ch'in: Its Role in Chinese Music. Binghamton University, M.A. thesis, 1992.
  17. Wen Fong and Rorex, Robert, Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, The Story of Lady Wen-Chi, A 14th century handscroll in the (Met) . New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1974. Scroll has 18 scenes, each accompanied by a verse (also translated) of the poem by Liu Shang.
  18. Wu Wenguang, Wu Jinglue's Qin Music in its Context. Ann Arbor, University Microfilms, (Ph.D., Wesleyan U., 1990). Wu Wenguang's father Wu Jinglue was a famous player who forms a bridge between the old regional styes and the new conservatory style.
  19. Wu Zeyuan, Playing Antiquity: Qin Musiking and Literati Culture in Late Imperial China. Master's Thesis at the Ohio State University, 2015. Concerns interplay between concepts of "gu" (old) and the rise of commerce.
  20. Wu Zeyuan, Becoming Sages: Qin Song and Self-Cultivation in Late Imperial China. PhD dissertation at the Ohio State University, 2020. Download from OSU. __
  21. Yeung, Juni, Standards of the Guqin, Toronto Guqin Society, 4th ed.; 2018. English language textbook for studying guqin.
  22. Yung, Bell, Celestial Airs of Antiquity, Music of the Seven String Zither of China. Madison, A-R editions, 1997. Translations, transcriptions and commentary for six pieces, all from Folio I.
  23. Yung, Bell, The Last of China's Literati, The Music, Poetry and Life of Ts'ar Teh-Yun. Hong Kong University Press, 2008.
    Return to outline)
  24. Zhang, Chen, Learning to Write Naturally: the Problem of Southern Song Poetry in the Late Twelfth Century. PhD dissertation at Harvard University, 2017. Online. __
B. In Chinese
(see also the Annotated List of Surviving Qin Handbooks)
  1. 蔡良玉:古琴藝術,漢英雙語小辭典, 2007. Cai Liangyu: Guqin Yishu, Han Ying Shuangyu Xiao Cidian (Bilingual dictionary; see under English)
  2. 蔡邕﹕琴操。3rd c. CE. Cai Yong: Qin Cao (Qin Melodies). Introductions to about 50 qin melodies; reprinted in several collections including 琴學叢書 Qinxue Congshu. Also attrib 孔衍 Kong Yan; cf. VG, Lore, p.177:
  3. 陳應時﹕琴律學。上海音樂學院,1984. Chen Yingshi, Study of Qin Temperament. Examines in particular the dissonances that result from mixing Pythagorean and natural tuning.
  4. 古琴曲集,第一集。北京,人民音樂出版社,1962 (Guqin Quji; often reprinted; see also 1983). Collected Guqin Melodies, Vol. 1. Transcriptions into staff notation of 62 qin recordings made during the 1950s research project led by Zha Fuxi.
  5. 古琴曲集,第二集。北京,人民音樂出版社,1983 (Guqin Quji, also reprinted; see also 1962). Collected Guqin Melodies, Vol. 2. Transcriptions into staff staff notation of a further 17 qin recordings made in the 1950s (and later?).
  6. 古琴曲集,十級。北京,人民音樂出版社,2009 (Guqin Quji, 10 levels. Beijing, People's Publishing)
    This the three volume set has the modern Chinese conservatory guqin syllabus in tablature with number notation (it is not clear why this set was given the same name as the
    above two volume Guqin Quji, from which it took or adapted a number of melodies). This syllabus includes 90 melodies organized into 10 levels (further details).
  7. 古吳汪孟舒先生琴學遺著 Valued Writings of Qin Studies by Mr. Wang Mengshu of Old Wu. Beijing, Zhonghua Shuju, 2013 (楊元錚 Yang Yuanzheng, editor).
    Has punctuated and/or edited versions of such works as 朱長文琴史 the
    Qin Shi of Zhu Changwen, 烏絲欄指法釋的校勘學 and 太音大全集校注.
  8. 孫玄齡、劉東升(編)﹕中國古代歌曲,1990. Sun Xuanling, Liu Dongsheng (ed): Ancient Chinese Songs. Staff notation includes 20 qin songs (original tablature omitted).
  9. 王迪(編)﹕琴歌。北京,文化藝術出版社,1982. Wang Di, Qin Songs (Qin Ge). Staff notation of 52 qin songs from old handbooks; the original qin tablature not included (see further details).
  10. 王迪﹕絃歌雅韻。北京,中華書局,2007. Wang Di, Xian'ge Yayun. Number notation for 100 qin songs, most from old handbooks; includes qin tablature and two CDs (see further details).
  11. 王光祈﹕翻譯琴譜之研究。中華書局,1931. Wang Guangqi: Fanyi Qinpu zhi Yanjiu (Research into Translating Qin Tablature). Originally published 1931 in Shanghai by Zhonghua Shuju; they reprinted it in Taiwan 1971. Devised a method for using Roman and Arabic numerals plus other symbols to indicate qin tablature together with staff notation. (See sample pages.)
  12. 汪孟舒(贈)﹕烏絲闌指法釋。北京,1955. Wang Mengshu: Explanation of Wusilan Finger Techiques (Wusilan Zhifa Shi). Explanation of ancient qin finger techniques, with particular regard to those in You Lan. (Mimeographed.)
  13. 吳門琴韻。蘇州,吳門琴社,1996. Qin Euphony of the Wu School. Collected essays in honor of Wu Zhaoji. (Includes 朱季海﹕話說古琴弦線 Zhu Jihai: "Some words on qin strings", pp. 35-36).
  14. 許光毅(編者)﹕怎樣彈古琴。北京,人民音樂出版社,1994. Xu Guangyi, How to Play the Guqin. Explanation of finger techniques, preliminary exercises, beginning pieces (tablature with number notation).
  15. 許健﹕琴史初編。北京,人民音樂出版社,1982. Xu Jian, Introductory History of the Qin. Organized by dynasty, each with a section on qin pieces, qin biographies and qin writings.
  16. 楊蔭瀏(編)﹕古琴曲彙編。北京,中央音樂學院,1956. Yang Yinliu (ed.): Guqin Qu Huibian (A Repertory of Guqin Melodies). Transcriptions into staff notation of 17 pieces as played by 夏一峰 Xia Yifeng (reprinted in 琴府 Qin Fu).
  17. 現在古琴曲傳譜解體彙編初稿(?)。北京,中央音樂學院,1956 (draft of the previous?)
  18. 楊蔭瀏:唐代音樂史的研究,台湾中華書局, 1973. A Study of the History of Music in the Tang Dynasty, Taibei: Taiwan Zhonghua Shuju
  19. 楊蔭瀏:中國古代音樂史稿, 北京,人民音樂,1980. Yang Yinliu, Outline History of Chinese Music, Beijing, 1980.
  20. 吳文光 Wu Wenguang, 虞山吳氏琴譜 The Qin Music Repertoire of the Wu Family. Beijing, Dongfang Chubanshe, 2000). Transcriptions of music as played by Wu Wenguang and his father Wu Jinglue.
  21. 葉明媚﹕古琴音樂藝術。香港,商務印書館,1991. Yip Ming-mei: The Art of Guqin Music. 42 articles by Ms. Yip, in four sections: aesthetics, style, cultural connotations, biographies.
  22. 查阜西﹕存見古琴曲譜輯覽。北京,音樂出版社,1958. Zha Fuxi : Guide to Existing Guqin Pieces in Tablature.
    Index of qin handbooks uncovered during the China-wide search of the early 1950s; copies out existing commentary and lyrics for most melodies.
  23. 查阜西﹕琴學文萃 (Zha Fuxi: Collected Essays; see next)
  24. 程源敏,黃旭東,伊鴻書,查克承(編)﹕查阜西,琴學問萃。 北京,中國美術院出版社,1995. Cheng Yuanmin, Huang Xudong, Yi Hongshu, Zha Kecheng (ed): Zha Fuxi, Qinxue Wencui (Collected Writings about the Qin).
  25. 周慶雲﹕琴史補。1919. Zhou Qingyun: Qin Shi Bu (Qin History Supplement). Covers same period as Qin History, adding about 110 further biographies; cf. VG, Lore, p.182.
  26. 周慶雲﹕琴史續。1919. Zhou Qingyun: Qin Shi Xu (Qin History Continuation). Has about 300 biographies of later qin players; cf. VG, Lore, p.182.
  27. 周慶雲﹕琴書存目。1915. Zhou Qingyun: Qinshu Cunmu (Catalogue of Qin Books). Annotated listing of 321 qin handbooks; the appended Qinshu Bielu has 206 music books that mention qin; not all still exist; see VG, Lore, p.182.
  28. 中國古代音樂書目。北京,中央音樂學院,1961. Zhongguo Gudai Yinyue Shumu (Bibliography of Ancient Chinese Music). Includes extensive bibliography of qin books arranged by: found, not yet found, missing, Japanese; revised and printed in Taiwan.
  29. 朱長文﹕琴史。1084 CE. Zhu Changwen: Qin Shi (Qin History). Biographies of about 150 qin players plus essays on several subjects. cf. VG, Lore, p.177);
    (Return to outline)
III. Qin-related articles/writings.

A. English articles from books

  1. Addiss, Stephen. 1987. "Music for the Seven-String Ch'in." In Stephen Addiss, Tall Mountains and Flowing Waters: The Arts of Uragami Gyokudo, pp. 29-48. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press. 浦上玉堂 Uragami Gyokudo was an 18th century painter and musician who loved the qin. VG, Lore, pp. 237-8, describes in detail his qin handbook 玉堂藏書琴譜 Gyokudo Zosho Kimpu (1791).
  2. Clark, Mitchell. 1996. "Zephyrs: Some Correspondences Between Bai Juyi's Qin and La Monte Young's Composition 1960 #5." In William Duckworth and Richard Fleming, eds., Sound and Light: La Monte Young and Marian Zazeela, pp. 132-151. Lewisburg, Bucknell University Press / London and Toronto, Associated University Presses (same as Bucknell Review 40 [1]). Concerning points of contacts between the aesthetics of the qin and the music of the 1960s of American composer La Monte Young.
  3. DeWoskin, Kenneth J. 1982. Chapter 7, "The Ch'in and its Way", and Chapter 8, "Critical Terminology, Notation and Ideology", in A Song for One or Two: Music and the Concept of Art in Early China. Michigan Papers in Chinese Studies, no.42, pp.101-154. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan.
  4. Jao Tsung-i (Rao Zongyi; Colin Huehns, translator), Harmoniousness: Essays in Chinese Musicology, Brill
    From Collected Works of Jao Tsung-i, Volume 1
  5. Jao Tsung-i (Rao Zongyi), Historical Account of the Qin from the close of the Song to the Jin and Yuan Dynasties)
    Translation of 宋季金元琴史考述 by 金秋雨 Jin Qiuyu and John Thompson here on this website.
  6. Kaufmann, Walter. 1967. Musical Notations of the Orient: Notational Systems of East, South and Central Asia. Bloomington: Indiana U. Press, 1967 (second edition, 1988). Part Three, Zither Tablatures, includes "Ch'in Tablature", pp.267-296 (?).
  7. Kuttner, Fritz. 1990. Appendix 9 "Remarks on the Sociology of Chinese Music", and Appendix 9A "The Cultivation of 'The Way of the Ch'in' (Ch'in Tao)", in The Archaeology of Music in Ancient China. New York, Paragon House, pp.232-238. "For several hundred years the history of the qin has been a phony affectation because it had become a false symbol of scholarship and high culture." Etc.
  8. Liang Ming-Yueh. 1980. "Ch'in", in New Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 6th edition, Vol.3, pp.264-9. London, MacMillan.
  9. Liang Ming-Yueh. 1984. "The Art of the Qin" in Music of the Billion, pp.197-211. Also passim. NY, Heinrichshofen Edition.
  10. Mitani, Yoko. 1981. "Some melodic features of Chinese qin music"; in D. Widdess and R. Wolpert, ed, Music and Tradition: Essays on Asian and other musics presented to Lawrence Picken, pp.123-142. Cambridge University Press.
  11. Pian, Rulan Chao. 1967. Sonq Dynasty Musical Sources and Their Interpretation. Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, Vol.16. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1967. For transcriptions from qin tablature see "The Chyn Tablature", pp.76-92; introduction, transcription and commentary for qin pieces in Shilin Guangji, pp.137-147; introduction, transcription (flawed) and commentary for Jiang Kui's song Gu Yuan, pp.147-154. See also "chyn" in the Index. Further details of her other transcriptions are included here. "Sonq" for "Song" is Harvard romanization.
  12. Thompson, John. "Some Issues in Historically Informed Qin Performance". Paper presented at the ACMR Conference, Detroit, 2001. Online here on my website, with later editing and additions placed in footnotes.
  13. Thompson, John. 1997. "Rhythm in Shen Qi Mi Pu", in Asian Music with special reference to China and India - Music Symposia of 34th ICANAS, Hong Kong (1993). HK University, Centre of Asian Studies, pp.40-72. (The Table of Contents says "Rhythm in the Shen Qi Mi Pu"; Rhythm in early Ming qin tablature is a revised online version.)
  14. Yung, Bell. 1985. "Da Pu: The Recreative Process for the Music of the Seven-string Zither" in Music and Context: Essays in Honor of John Ward, ed. Anne Dhu Shapiro. Music Department, Harvard University, pp. 370-384. (See Bell Yung on Dapu.)
  15. Yung, Bell. 2002, "Instruments: Qin", in East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea (Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 7), pp. 157-166.
    (Return to outline)
  16. Yung, Bell. 2010, "Music of Qin: From the Scholar’s Study to the Concert Stage" in Reading Chinese Music and Beyond, edited by Joys H.Y.Cheung and King Chung Wong, 9-28. Chinese Civilization Centre, City University of Hong Kong.
B. English articles from selected periodicals
  1. Clark, Mitchell. 1992. "The Art of the Qin in China and Japan." Society for Asian Art Newsletter 31 (4): 4 & 6. Concerning Chinese and Japanese paintings, in the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, depicting qin players.
  2. Clark, Mitchell. 1995. "A History of the Chinese Seven-string Zither in Korea and Vietnam." Nhac Viet: The Journal of Vietnamese Music 4(1): 25-55. A survey of the solo and ensemble use of the qin in Vietnam, according to surviving documents of the 14th to 19th centuries.
  3. Clark, Mitchell. 1995. "The Wind Enters the Strings: Poetry and Poetics of Aeolian Qin", Experimental Musical Instruments 10 (3): 16-19. Qin sounded by the wind, a theme in Chinese poetry; surveyed in poetry from the Three Kingdoms period to the Northern Song.
  4. Craig, Dale. 1971. "Lo Ka Ping -- Cantonese Musician." Arts of Asia (Hong Kong) 1.6: 23-29 (Nov-Dec). Reprinted in Qin Fu. Lo Ka Ping taught himself qin, composed a number of pieces (there is a recording) and had a qin collection including Tang and Song qin.
  5. Dai Xiaolian. 1991. "In Memory of a Great Guqin Player: Master Zhang Ziqian." Translated by Antoinette Schimmelpenninck. CHIME 3 (Spring), pp.76-87.
  6. Dai Xiaolian, 1992. "Robert van Gulik and the Guqin Scores of the Sinological Intitute, Leiden." CHIME 5 (Spring), pp.30-41.
    Her Chinese version, 戴曉蓮,荷蘭存見的古琴譜與高羅佩 has more detail, especially regarding Longyinguan Qinpu
  7. Dujunco, Mercedes. 1999. Review of Thompson, Music Beyond Sound: The Silk String Zither. Yearbook of Traditional Music, Vol. 31. (Book only.)
  8. Egan, Ronald. 1997. "The Controversy over Music and 'Sadness' and Changing Conceptions the Qin in Middle Period China". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 57, #1 (June 1997), pp.5-66 (JSTOR; further details)
  9. Gulik, R. H. van. 1986. "On Wings of Song: The Lute and the Crane in Chinese Tradition." The Courier (UNESCO) 39.4 (April): pp.18-20.
  10. Huang, Yi-Ping. 1998. "The Parting of the Way: Three Generations of Qin Performance Practice. ACMR Reports, Vol. 11, pp.15-44
  11. Huang, Yi-Ping. 1998. Review of Yung, Celestial Airts of Antiquity. ACMR Reports, Vol. 11, pp.133-116.
  12. Huang, Yi-Ping. 1999. Review of Thompson, Music Beyond Sound: The Silk String Zither. (Book and CD.) ACMR Reports, Vol. 12, pp. 133-138 (online).
  13. Kuo Shin-Wu. 1929. "A Ceramic Lute of the Song Dynasty." Chinese Journal of Science and Art, #11 (November), pp.29-31.
  14. Lam, Joseph. 1993. "Analyses and Interpretations of Chinese Seven-string Zither Music: The Case of the Lament of Empress Chen," Ethnomusicology, 37(3): 353-85 (Fall). Analysis of a modern version of Changmen Yuan.
  15. Liang Ming-Yueh. 1975. "A Study of Tiao-I, 'The Meaning of the Mode'". Asian Music 6.1-2, pp.173-88. Studies modal introductions from Taiyin Daquanji (Song dynasty?), Shen Qi Mi Pu (1425) and Sancai Tuhui (1607).
  16. Liang Ming-Yueh. 1992. "Transformation in 'T'ien-feng Huan-p'ei' (1425-1962) and Implications to Change in Ch'in Music." Tunghai Journal 33 (June), pp.87-103. Studies versions published in 1425, 1525 and 1539, plus the 1962 transcription of Guan Pinghu's dapu.
  17. Liang Ming-Yueh. 1969. "Neo-Taoist Implications in a Melody for the Chinese Seven-Stringed Zither." The World of Music 17.2, pp.19-28.
  18. Lui Tsunyuen. 1968. "A Short Guide to Ch'in", Selected Reports 1/2:179-204 (U.C.L.A.). Includes explanations of finger techniques. Reprinted in Tong Kin-Woon's Qin Fu.
  19. Picard, Francois. 1991. "Pu'an Zhou: The Musical Avatars of a Buddhist Spell". Chime 3 (Spring), pp.32-37. Shows the connection between the modern qin piece and its musical ancestor Shitan Zhang as well as with an actual Buddhist chant and a Pu'an Zhou in the nanguan repertoire.
  20. Picken, L.E.R. 1956. "Twelve Ritual Melodies of the T'ang Dynasty", Studia Memoriae Bela Bartok Sacra, Aedes Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Budapest (1966). pp.147-173. (.pdf)
  21. Picken, L.E.R. 1957. "Chiang K'uei's Nine Songs for Yūeh", The Musical Quarterly. Vol. 43 (1957), pp.201-219. Transcription and analysis from Jiang Kui's Baishi Daoren Gequ.
  22. Picken, L.E.R. 1966. "Secular Chinese Songs of the Twelfth Century", Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 8 (1966). pp.147-173 (Jiang Kui's ci songs)
  23. Picken, L.E.R. 1971. "A Twelfth-Century Secular Chinese Song in Zither Tablature", Asia Major, Vol. 16, pp.102-120. Transcription and analysis of Jiang Kui's Gu Yuan.
  24. Picken, L.E.R. and Mitani, Yoko. 1979. "Finger-techniques for the zithers so-no-koto and kin in Heian times." Musica Asiatica 2, pp.89-114.
  25. Tong Kin-Woon, "Shang Musical Instruments". Asian Music, Vols. XIV-2, XV-1, and XV-2 (1983-4). The qin is discussed in Chapter Seven, Stringed instruments and other wooden instruments (XV-2, pp. 68 - 82).
  26. Watt, James, "The Qin and the Chinese Literati," Orientation, #12, pp.38-49. Excellent introduction, with a much more reasoned argument than Kuttner 1990 for the change from an early "way of the qin" based on "simplicity and elegance", emphasizing the music, to the later "refined affluence", proclaiming the loftiness of the player.
  27. Yang Yinliu (楊蔭瀏; Isabel Wong, trans.), "A Preliminary Study of the 'Three Variations of Yang Guan', an Ancient Song." Asian Music 5 #1, pp.10-23. (Original was in Writings on Music Reconstruction, 1959.)
  28. Yip Ming-Mei. 1993-4, Review of Georges Goormaghtigh, ed. and trans., "L'art du qin: Deux textes d'esthetique musicale chinoise traduits et commentes par Georges Goormaghtigh". Original book was published in Bruxelles: Institute Belge des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, 1990.
  29. Yung, Bell. 1984. "Choreographic and Kinesthetic Elements in Performance of the Chinese Seven-String Zither." Ethnomusicology 28: 505-517.
  30. Yung, Bell. 1987. "Historical Interdependency of Music: A Case Study of the Chinese Seven-String Zither" in The Journal of the American Musicological Society, XL.1: 82-91 (Spring).
  31. Yung, Bell. 1989. "La musique du guqin: Du cabinet du lettre a la scene de concert," in Cahiers de musiques traditionnelles 2 (Geneva), pp.51-62. Written in English.
  32. Yung, Bell. 1993. "Bibliography on Guqin Music", ACMR Newsletter, Vol.6, No.2, pp.29-31 (summer). Includes some publications in French and German.
  33. Yung, Bell. 1994. "Not Notating the Notatable: Re-evaluating the Guqin Notational System," in Themes and Variations: Writings on Music in Honor of Rulan Chao Pian, pp. 45-58. Co-published by the Music Department, Harvard University and the Institute for Chinese Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
  34. Yung, Bell. "Unusual pitch material in a 15th century collection of zither notation." Paper read at the 29th annual meeting of the Society for Ethnomusicology, Los Angeles, 18-21 October 1984. (Listed in 1987, but apparently not yet published).
  35. Yung, Bell, "An Audience of One: The Private Music of the Chinese Literati", Ethnomusicology Vol. 61, No. 3, Fall 2017, pp.506-539
  36. Zhou Jinmin. 1991. "Timbre, Playing Technique and Structure: A Microscopic Analysis of Samples from Two works for the Qin." Progress Reports in Ethnomusicology 3.3, pp.1-34.
    (Return to outline)
C. Chinese articles from books
(Quotation marks indicate the title translation comes from the original publication)
  1. 孫兆時(編)﹕琴棋書畫雅趣。北京﹕北京出版社 2000 (also 琴棋書畫故事,金盾出版社?). Sun Zhaoshi (ed): Stories of qin, chess, calligraphy and painting. The first section (pp.2-124) has 71 articles related to the qin; chess is on pp.125-274.
  2. 陳之邁﹕荷蘭高羅佩。 文史新刊之 5 ;台灣﹕傳記文學社, 1969. Chen Chih-Mai, a fellow diplomat of R. H. van Gulik, writes several essays, including discussion of his qin play (English and Chinese).
    Return to outline)
D. Chinese articles from selected periodicals
(Quotation marks indicate the title translation comes from the original publication)

    a. 音樂藝術 (Art of Music [Ars Musicae]; 1979 - ; 上海音樂學院)

  1. 張子謙、龔一﹕七弦琴譜的沿革及發展。1980 #3, pp.50-54 & 74. Zhang Ziqian, Gong Yi: "Evolution of the Notation of Chinese Qin (Long Zither) Music".
  2. 龔一﹕七弦琴曲《潚湘水雲》及其作者郭楚望。1981 #1, pp.32-35. Gong Yi: The qin piece Xiaoxiang Shuiyun and its 12th c. composer Guo Chuwang.
  3. 姚丙炎﹕七弦琴曲《酒狂》打譜經過。1981 #5, pp.26-31. Yao Bingyan: "The Qin Tablature of 'Ravings While Drinking': Its Transcription for Modern Notation." (Concerns triple rhythms in Jiu Kuang)
  4. 林友仁﹕七弦琴與琴曲聲、韻發展的我見。1982 #8, pp.48-56. Lin Youren: "Evolution of Qin" (includes discussion of sheng and yun as musical terms).
  5. 李民雄﹕古琴打譜淺釋。1982 #4, pp.7-13 and 1983 #1, pp.42-53. Li Mingxiong: "On the Rhythmization of Qin Tablature, I and II."
  6. 陳應時﹕評管平湖演奏本《廣陵散》譜。1985 #3, pp.18-23 & p.33. Chen Yingshi: "Chinese Musical Classics 'Guangling San': On Guan Pinghu's Performance."
  7. 林友仁﹕琴樂考古枸想。1985 #4, pp.7-15. Lin Youren: "How to Reproduce the Spirit and Style of Qin Pieces through their Tablature's Rhythmization."
  8. 葉棟﹕唐傳箏曲和唐聲詩曲解譯—兼論唐樂中的節奏拍。1986 #3, pp.1-4. Ye Dong: "Zheng Music Tablature and Poetry Songs from Tang Dynasty -- A Discussion on the Rhythmic Structure of Tang Music." (Also mentions qin.)
  9. 劉明瀾﹕道家音樂觀與中國古琴音樂。1986 #4, pp.8-15 & 25. Liu Minglan: "The Taoist Concept of Music as Reflected in the Music for the Qin."
  10. 張清治(台灣)﹕琴境圖說—古琴藝術的美感境界。1988 #2, pp.36-39 & (27m). Zhang Qingzhi (Taiwan): "Aesthetics in the Art of Qin Playing -- A Graphic Analysis."
  11. 劉明瀾﹕中國古代琴歌的藝術特征。1989 #2, pp.29-34 & 64. Liu Minglan: "Qin Ge, the Zither Songs."
  12. 金明春﹕子期考究。1991 #1, pp.16-19. Jin Mingchun: "Zhong Ziqi: A Legend or Not?"
  13. 姚公白﹕姚炳炎的古琴打譜。1992 #1, pp.24-29 & 15. Yao Gongbai: "Da Pu: Yao Bingyan's Approach to the Transcription of Qin Tablature."
  14. 陳應時﹕再談琴律的曆史分期—兼答王迪同志。1992 #2, pp.16-21. Chen Yingshi: "A Further Discourse on the Different Historical Periods of the Evolution of Qin Temperament." (Further to 1983 #3?)
  15. 陳應時﹕三論琴律的曆史分期。1992 #4, pp.4-10. Chen Yingshi: "A Third Discourse on the Different Historical Periods of the Evolution of Qin Temperament." (See preceding item.)
  16. 王德塤﹕《碣石調‧幽蘭》卷子的抄寫年代。1993 #1, pp.36-40. Wang Dexuan: "Dating of the Handwritten Guqin Tablature You Lan in the Jieshi Mode."
  17. 謝孝苹﹕高閣雲 素琴橫樂—懷念梅庵派古琴家劉景韶。1993 #1, pp.53-55 and 49. Xie Xiaoping: "In Memory of Liu Jingshao, Master of Guqin of the Mei'an School."
  18. 唐朴林﹕大音希聲—音樂的最高境界。1996 #1, pp.7-10. Tang Pulin: "Great Music is in Silence (Xisheng) -- On Music's Ideal State." ("Xisheng" is the Chinese title of the CD Music Beyond Sound.) There are other articles with similar topic, but this one more concerns guqin.
  19. 周武彥﹕徽義四辨—兼談古琴“徽位”之緣起。1996 #2, pp.14-17 & 34. Zhou Wuyan: "On the Meanings of the Hui and its Origin as the Signs of String Positions on the Guqin."
  20. 龐秉璋﹕《幽蘭》調名考釋。 1996 #3, pp.9-12. Pang Bingzhang, "The Qin Piece You Lan: The Origin of its Tune Name."
  21. 陳應時﹕評《“琴律”研究》。1996 #4, pp.1-5 & 19. Chen Yingshi: "Comment on 'The Study of Qin Temperament'."

    b. 音樂研究(Music Study; 1980 - ; 北京,音樂研究編輯部)
(HKU is missing 1986-96)

  1. 劉玲﹕投劍功無補—與吳釗、許健同志商榷。1980 #2, pp.81-84. Liu Ling: In 'Throw away the knife' (Guangling San Section 27) the skill needs no improvement -- a discussion with Wu Zhao and Xu Jian.
  2. 王迪、雇國寶﹕漫談五弦琴和十弦琴。1981 #1, pp.91-94. Wang Di: "Remarks on the Five-Stringed and Ten-Stringed Qin." (Details about instruments found in Han dynasty burial sites.)
  3. 許健﹕《廣陵散》辨—答《投劍功無補》。1982 #2, pp.55-59. Xu Jian: "Analysis of Guangling San" -- A response to the article in 1980 #2.
  4. 吉聯抗﹕《琴操》考異。1982 #2, pp.60-67. Ji Liankang: "Qin Cao, the Mastery of a Chinese Musical Instrument."
  5. 王震亞﹕琴歌《胡笳十八拍》淺釋。1983 #3, pp.79-91. Wang Zhenya: "A Brief Interpretation of the Qin Song Hujia Shibapai (18 Stanzas of the Hujia)." Seems to concern a modern arrangement.
  6. 丁承運﹕清、平、瑟調考辨。1983 #4, pp. Ding Chengyun:
  7. 姚炳炎、林友仁、周子沐﹕琴曲鉤沈— 烏夜啼。1983 #4, pp.82-90. Yao Bingyan, Lin Youren, Zhou Zimu: "Old Qin Music -- Crow Caws at Night. Transcript of Yao Bingyan's Oral Account." (Bad translation: concerns his dapu.)
  8. 夏野﹕關於“瑟調”的調式及陳仲儒“奏議”的校勘問題。1984 #2, pp. . Xia Ye:
  9. 吳文光﹕論古琴音樂中的情感形象生理記錄法。1984 #3, pp.34-44. Wu Wenguang: "The Physiologic Notation of Emotional Images in Qin Music."
  10. 吳毓清﹕《溪山琴況》論旨的初步研究。1985 #1, pp.34-45. Wu Yuqing: "Preliminary Study of the Main Subject in 'Xishan Qinkuang'. Qinkuang (VG. p.107 has Ch'in-huang), by Xu Hung 徐谼 (Xu Shangying上瀛 ), was included in his Dahuan'ge Qipu (1673).
  11. 許健﹕相合歌與琴曲。1985 #3, pp.34-41. Xu Jian: "Xianghege and Qin Music." Xianghege was a Tang dynasty song form.
  12. 蔡仲德﹕《溪山琴況》試探。1986 #2, pp.69-82. Cai Zhongde: "A Preliminary Probe on the Xishang Qinkuang." (See 1985 #1 above).
  13. 陳應時﹕琴曲《側商調‧古怨》譜考辨。1986 #3, pp.61-72. Chen Yingshi: "Textual Study of the Qin Score Guyuan (Ancient Laments) in the Ceshang Mode."
  14. 梁銘越﹕楚調的律學與樂學—古琴《幽蘭》七弦琴曲的研究。1989 #1, pp.47-49. Liang Mingyue: "Temperament and Musicology of Ancient Hubei Tones: Study on Guqin 'You Lan' and Music of Seven Stringed Zither."
  15. 丁承運﹕清商三調音階調式。1989 #1, pp. . Ding Chengyun:
  16. 許健﹕難得的 知音—呂驥同志和古琴。1989 #2, pp.28-32. "L7UUML; Ji and Qin (an ancient Chinese zither), a Rare Friend." Lü Ji was a prominent musician and adminstrator in recent times.
  17. 謝孝苹﹕海外發現《龍吟館琴譜》孤本—為慶祝梅庵琴社創建60年而作。 1989 #2, pp.54-60. Xie Xiaoping: "The Discovery of the 'Longyinguan Qin Handbook' Abroad -- In Celebration of the 60th Anniversary of the Founding of Meian Qin Society."
  18. 黃禮儀﹕論琴樂—初探古琴演奏藝術的特征。1989 #2, pp.61-65. Huang Liyi: "On the Music of Qin in the Feature of the Performing Art of the Ancient Chinese Instrument."
  19. 梁銘越﹕。1991 #1, pp.47-59. Liang Mingyue: "Autonomous Structure of the Qin Score You Lan (Secluded Orchid) in the Jieshi Mode."
  20. 丁﹕。1991 #1, pp.60-69. Ding Jiyuan: "On the Particular Order of the 'Five Tones' in Qin Music."
  21. 查阜西(傳授)、黃禮儀整理﹕古琴音樂。1991 #2, pp.38-46. Zha Fuxi (imparted), Huang Liyi (organized): "Music for the Seven-Stringed Zither."
  22. 戴微﹕傳人‧傳譜‧傳派—廣陵琴派的歷史沿革和藝術風格。 1991 #2, pp.47-54. Dai Wei: "Historical Evolution and Aesthetic Style in Guangling School."
  23. 王迪﹕有關古琴律制的斷代問題—與陳應時同志商榷。1991 #4 pp.37-41. Wang Di: "Questions Concerning the Temperament System of Guqin Music" -- a colloquy with Comrade Chen Yingshi.
  24. 成公亮﹕打譜是什麼?1996 #1, pp.19-26. Cheng Gongliang, "What is Qin Music Notation Reproduction." Concerns dapu.
  25. 劉﹕。1996 #1, p.27. Liu Shenjiao: "One of Mr. Wan Yanqing's Essays on Qin."

    c. 中國音樂學 (Musicology in China, 1985- ; 北京,中國音研究所 )

  1. 饒宗頤﹕說琴徽—答馬順之教授書。1987 #3, pp.4-7. Rao Zongyi: "About Qin Hui, Stop Markers on the Chinese Zither -- In reply to a letter from Prof. Ma Shouzhi."
  2. 鄭祖襄﹕再談“徽”字與徽位。1988 #3, pp.13-16. Zheng Zuxiang: "Further Remarks on 'Hui'."
  3. 馮洁軒﹕說徽—兼議鄭、饒二文。1988 #4, pp.75-92. Feng Jixuan: "On 'Hui' -- the Stop Marks of the Qin."
  4. 饒宗頤﹕說 弓勺 兼論琴徽。1989 #3, pp.24-31. Rao Zongyi: Speaking of di (?) and discussing qin hui. Discusses di (an obsolete character not included in computerized Chinese character sets) as an old character meaning hui (studs).
  5. 吳釗﹕釋“徽”—與馮洁軒君商榷。1989 #3, pp.32-35. Wu Zhao: Explaining hui -- a discussion with Mr. Feng Jixuan.
  6. 鄧宗舒﹕《陽關三疊》唱法探微。1992 #2, pp.24-28. Deng Zongshu: "A Close Examination into the Performing Practice of (Yangguan Sandie,) the Song with Thrice Repeated Refrain."
  7. 成公亮﹕存見明代古琴譜中有純律調弦法嗎?1992 #2, pp.101-106. Cheng Gongliang: "(Are) There Any Tuning Modes (using) Just Intonation in Extrant Ming Dynasty Qin Music Books?"
  8. 王德塤﹕論楚、瑟、平三個調與公孫崇的七弦琴仲呂宮弦式 —琴曲“廣陵散”流變考之五。1992 #2, pp.107-121. Wang Dexuan: Discussing three modes -- chu, se and ping -- and the practice by Gongsun Chong (a 6th C music theorist ) of using the first string of the qin as the note zhonglü (treated as gong) -- Examination of transformation of the Qin Piece Guangling San, #5.
  9. 馮洁軒﹕評《釋徽》。1992 #3, pp.52-65. Feng Jixuan: "Some Comments on 'Elucidation of Qin Hui'."
  10. 陳應時﹕存見明代古琴譜中沒有純律調弦法嗎?。1992 #4, pp.22-30. Chen Yingshi: "(Are) There No Tuning Modes (using) Just Intonation in Extrant Ming Dynasty Qin Music Books?"
  11. 王德塤﹕東漢古琴佛曲《止息》研究與三節之 B2 譯譜。1993 #1, pp.100-108. Wang Dexun: Research into the Eastern Han Dynasty Buddhist piece Zhi Xi (take a break; hold breath) and
  12. 成公亮﹕琴曲《文王操》打譜後記。1994 #3, pp.36-45. Cheng Gongliang: "Postscript of a Notation of the qin Piece Wenwang Cao."
  13. 王德塤(點注)﹕《碣石調‧幽蘭》卷子譜點注。1995 #1, pp.48-56. Wang Dexuan (Annotater) : "Annotation on the Scrolled Score Jieshi Diao You Lan."
  14. 陳應時﹕朱載堉琴律若干問題之我見。1995 #1, pp.124-132. Chen Yingshi: "My Opinion about Zhu Zaiyu's Qin Temperament."
  15. 史弘﹕首揮五弦 心游太玄—古琴藝術與中國道家思想。1995 #2, pp.52-58. Shi Hong: "Chinese Taoist Ideas' Influence upon the Art of Qin."
  16. 李吉提﹕古琴曲《陽關三疊》的曲式結构特點 —兼談中國傳統音樂結枸的某些共性因素。1995 #2, pp.101-106. Li Jiti: "Musical Structural Characteristics of the Qin Piece Yangguan Sandie."
  17. 秦序﹕琴樂“活法”及譜式優劣之我見。1995 #4, pp.59-69. Qin Xu: "My Personal View on 'Freewill Approach' and Notation of Qin."
  18. 郭樹群﹕對朱載堉琴律問題的再思考—敬答陳應時先生。1996 #1, pp.117-130. Guo Shuqun: "Think over Zhu Zaiyu's Temperament Once More: Respectfully to Sir. Chen Yingshi."
  19. 成公亮﹕《洞庭秋思》流變考略。1996 #2, pp.55-59. Cheng Gongliang: "Briefly Researching the Distribution and Variation of 'Pathos in the Autumn Dongting Lake'."
  20. 凌紹生﹕古琴與中道—論含蓄與弦外之音美學的哲學內涵。1996 #3, pp.87-93. Ling Shaosheng: "Qin and Equilibrium: Philosophic Explicandum of the Implicit in Aesthetic Beyond Sounds."
  21. 吳文光﹕琴調系統及其音樂實証(上)。1997 #1, pp.5-30. Wu Wenguang: "The Mode System of the Qin and its Musical Characteristics" (Part One).
  22. 吳文光﹕琴調系統及其音樂實証(下)。1997 #2, pp.88-109. Wu Wenguang: "The Mode System of the Qin and its Musical Characteristics" (Part Two).

    d. 音樂學叢刊 (Journal of Musicology; Cultural Arts Publ. Co., Beijing, 1981, '82, '84 and '86.)

  1. 許健﹕最憶陽關唱,珍珠一串歌—《陽關》研究之一。#1 (1981), pp.112-27. Xu Jian: Extenstively trace the singing of Yuanguan, pearl of a song -- Study #1 of Yangguan.
  2. 王迪、齊毓怡﹕琴曲廣陵散初探。#2 (1982), pp.18-51. Wang Di, Qi Yuyi: Preliminary inquiry into the qin piece Guangling San. (See Vol. 3 pp. 162-254 for associated transcriptions into staff notation [the three long versions of Guangling San, without the original tablature] and commentary.)
  3. 許健﹕訪吳、 越、 閩琴友記。#2 (1982), pp.171-179. Xu Jian: Record of a visit to qin friends of the Wu, Yue and Min schools. (Shanghai, Hangzhou and Fujian).
  4. 陳應時﹕論姜白石的《側商調調絃法》。#3 (1984), pp.22-42. Chen Yingshi: Discussion of Jiang Kui's 'Tuning method for the Ceshang Mode.' Concerns the tuning for Jiang Kui's 12th century qin piece Gu Yuan.
  5. 許健﹕論《神奇秘譜》。#4 (1986), pp.148-157. Xu Jian: Analysis of Shen Qi Mi Pu. (Comments on the compiler, his preface, his explanations, the types of pieces, and musical structure.

    e. 音樂論叢 (Journal of Music; People's Music Publishing Company, Beijing; annual 1978-81)

許健、吳釗﹕沖冠怒亦探﹕談琴曲廣陵散。1979 #2, pp.162-73. Xu Jian, Wu Zhao: The fury of 'Hair Raising Anger' (Guangling San, Section 18) is very profound: discussing the qin melody Guangling San.

    f. 琴論 jue 新 (New Essays on Qin)

Mitani Yoko, "古琴音樂的歷史變乾". #5, March 1981 (trans. from Japanese by Wu Wenguang)

    g. 音樂建設文集(Writings on Music Reconstruction; 北京,音樂出版社)

楊蔭瀏﹕對古琴曲陽關三疊的初步研究。Vol. I, 1959. Yang Yinliu: "A Preliminary Study of the 'Three Variations of Yang Guan', an Ancient Song" (translated in Asian Music, V.#1.)  

    h. 民族音樂研究論文集

  1. 查阜西﹕幽蘭指法集解。1956 #1, pp.59-73. Zha Fuxi: Explanation of finger techniques in You Lan.
  2. 王世襄﹕古琴曲廣陵散說明。1957 #2, pp.13-30. Wang Shixiang: Explanation of the guqin piece Guangling San. Reprinted in Tong Kin-Woon, Qin Fu, pp.2801-2816.

    i. 清華學報(Tsinghua Journal of Chinese Studies

饒宗頤﹕宋季金元琴史考述。1971 (New Series 2 #1), pp. 83-106. Jao Tsung-Yi (Rao Zongyi), A Historical Account of the Lute, From the Close of Sung to the Chin and Yuan Dynasties (English summary pp.107-8). Reprinted in Tong Kin-Woon's Qin Fu, p.2017ff; translated here.  

    j. 中國音樂(北京)

陳應時﹕論四分損益律。 1984 #3, pp.21-23. Chen Yingshi: Discussion of just intonation (sifen sunyi). Argues that early qin pieces, such as You Lan and Guangling San should use just intonation (pure temperament chunlü 純律) instead of tuning by fifths (三分損益). My own studies do not support this argument.  

    k. 星海音樂學院學報

王德塤﹕論解曲組合與解曲擴展—琴曲《廣陵散》流變考之二。 1986 #3, 4; 1987 #3.  

    l. 黃鐘(Huangzhong: Journal of the Wuhan Conservatory)

田可文﹕魏晉南北朝隱逸琴曲及其藝術精神。 1993 #1/2, pp.41-48. Tian Kewen: The Qin Pieces with Feelings of Recluse and Retirement Trend from Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties and their Artistic Spirit."  

    m. 東海學報(Tung Hai Journal; Tunghai University, Taiwan)

朱雲﹕古琴指法釋要。Vol. XI #1 (June 1971), pp.47-57. Zhu Yun: Explaining the essentials of guqin finger techniques.  

    n. 人民音樂(北京)

16, December 1953, 32-33.  

Other periodicals to examine include:

    o. 民族藝術

    p. 北京琴訊

    q. 中央音樂學院學報
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IV. Zhu Quan (compiler of Shen Qi Mi Pu)

A. English

  1. The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7, #1, Early Ming. Cambridge, Cambridge U. Press.
  2. Farmer, Edward L., Early Ming Government: the Evolution of Dual Capitals. Harvard U.
  3. Gulik, R.H. van, The Lore of the Chinese Lute. Tokyo, Sophia University Press, 1941; Tokyo and Rutland, Tuttle, 1969 (2nd ed.); Bangkok, Orchard Books, 2011
  4. Idema, W.L., The Dramatic Oevre of Chu Yu-tun, 1779-1439, Sinica Leidensia #16. Brill Academic Publ., 1997 (paperback reprint).
  5. Idema, W.L. and West, Stephen, Chinese Drama from 100-1450. Wiesbaden, Source Book, 1982.
  6. Jonker, D.L., Zhu Quan (biography) in L. Carrington Goodrich and Fang Chaoying, eds., Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644, 2 vols. New York: Columbia U. Press, 1976.
  7. Soulliere, Ellen, PhD on Ming palace women, Princeton, ca. 1990
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B. Chinese

    a. Major works by Zhu Quan

神奇秘譜 (琴曲集成,琴府,等)
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    b. Works listed under his name in various collections

瞿仙神隱,四卷 ( Spiritual Reclusion - a variety of topics including agriculture and qin)
焚香七要,一卷 ( On burning incense)
地理正言,一卷 ( On geomancy )
天皇至道太清玉冊,八卷 ( On Taoism, in 續道臧)
賡和中峰詩韻,一卷 ( Poems by Zhu Quan )
借月山房彙鈔 ( includes Zhu Quan's Palace Poems 宮詞)
異城圖志 ( Foreign travel; at Cambridge University -- also in 萬用正宗不求人全扁,余文台,1609 )
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    c. About Zhu Quan

Excellent biography by an emeritus professor of literature in Nanchang
明史117/14a (or 12/117/3591 -- Taiwan edition)
明實錄,英宗1963: 3280
國訣by Tan Qian 1958: 561, 610, 1747
古今圖書集成 1885-8: XI, 99/12a
中國古典戲曲論chu 集成III (1959), 3
傅惜華,明代雜劇全目1958 (?): 49
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V. Some other books consulted in preparing this website.

A. English

  1. Berkowitz, Alan: Patterns of Disengagement, Stanford U. Press, 2000.
  2. Birch, Cyril (ed.): Anthology of Chinese Literature, Vol I: From Early Times to the Fourteenth Century. New York, Grove Press, 1965.
  3. Birch, Cyril (ed.): Anthology of Chinese Literature, Vol. II, From the Fourteenth Century to the Present Day. New York, Grove Press, 1972.
  4. Birrell, Anne (transl.): Chinese Love Poetry, New Songs from a Jace Terrace: A Medival Anthology; London, Penguin, 1995.
  5. Birrell, Anne (transl.): The Classic of Mountains and Seas; London, Penguin, 1999.
  6. Birrell, Anne (transl.): Popular Songs and Ballads of Han China; London, Unwin Hyman, 1988.
  7. Birrell, Anne: Chinese Myths; London (and Texas), British Museum Press, 2000.
  8. Birrell, Anne: Chinese Mythology: an Introduction; Baltimore, Johns Hopins University Press, 1993.
  9. Cai Zong-Qi (蔡宗齊 Cai Zongqi; website); editor: "How to" series; New York: Columbia University Press (also see howtoreadchinesepoetry.com): How to Read Chinese Poetry, A Guided Anthology; 2008 (Google Books)
    How to Read Chinese Poetry, Workbook; 2012 (with Jie Cui)
    How to Read Chinese Poetry in Context, Poetic Culture from Antiquity through the Tang; 2018
    How to Read Chinese Prose, A Guided Anthology; 2022
    How to Read Chinese Prose in Chinese, A Course in Classical Chinese; 2022 (edited by Jie Cui, Liu Yucai and Zong-qi Cai)
    How to Read Chinese Drama, A Guided Anthology; 2022 (edited by Patricia Sieber and Regina Llamas)
  10. Chang, Kang-i Sun and Saussy, Haun: Women Writers of Traditional China, An Anthology of Poetry and Criticism; Stanford, Stanford U. Press, 1999.
  11. DeBary, Wm. Theodore and Bloom, Irene: Sources of Chinese Tradition, Volume One, Second Edition. New York, Columbia University Press, 1999.
  12. Eberhard, Wolfram: A Dictionary of Chinese Symbols, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986
  13. Franke, Herbert (ed.): Sung Biographies. Wiesbaden, Fraz Steiner Verlag GMBH, 1976. Two vols.
  14. Giles, Herbert A.: A Chinese Biographical Dictionary. England, 1898.
  15. Graham, AC., Tr.: The Book of Lieh-Tzu, A Classic of Tao. London, Mandala, 1960.
  16. Hawkes, David: The Songs of the South, An ancient Chinese anthology of poems by Qu Yuan and other poets, translated, annotated and introduced by David Hawkes. Penguin Books, 1985. Chu Ci complete.
  17. Henry, Eric (translated and introduced): Garden of Eloquence (Shuo Yuan), by Liu Xiang (說苑). University of Washington Press, 2021.
  18. Huang, Alfred: The Complete I Ching. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions, 1998. (See Yi Jing.)
  19. Hummel, Arthur W. (ed.): Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Washington, D.C., US Government Printing Office, 1943. Two vols.
  20. Idema, Wilt and Grant, Beata: The Red Brush: Writing Women of Imperial China. Cambridge, Ma., Harvard University Asia Center, 2004.
  21. Jones, Stephen: Folk Music of China: Living Instrumental Traditions. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1995 (Also Clarendon Paperbacks).
  22. Knoblock, John: Xunzi. Beijing, Hunan People's Publishing House/Foreign Languages Press, 1999. This edition of Xunzi (Wiki) omits the footnotes from the earlier partial translation by Knoblock, Xunzi, a translation and study of the complete works: Stanford University Press, 1994 (out of print).
  23. Johnston, Ian: Mozi, A Complete Translation. Hong Kong, Chinese University Press, 2010. (墨子 Mozi)
  24. Knoblock, John and Riegel, Jeffrey: The Annals of Lü Buwei, A Complete Translation and Study. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2000. (呂氏春秋 Lüshi Chunqiu)
  25. Knechtges, David R., tr.: Xiao Tong, Wen Xuan. Princeton, Princeton U. Press, 1982 (I), 1987 (II), & 1996 (III).
  26. Kroll, Paul W.: A Student's Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese. Leiden, Brill, 2015.
  27. Lam, Joseph S. C., State Sacrifices and Music in Ming China, Orthodoxy, Creativity and Expressiveness. Albany, State University of New York Press, 1998.
  28. Lau, D. C.: Confucius, The Analects. Hong Kong, Chinese University Press, 1979, 1983
  29. Levis, John: Foundations of Chinese Musical Art. Peiping, (Beijing), Henri Vetch, 1936 (Paragon, 1963).
  30. Legge, James: The Chinese Classics V: The Ch'un Ts'ew with The Tso Chuen (1872). HKU Press and SMC Publishing, Taiwan, 1991.
  31. Liu Wu-chi and Lo Yucheng (Irving), ed.: Sunflower Splendor, Three Thousand Years of Chinese Poetry. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1975.
  32. Loewe, Michael: A Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han and Xin Periods (221 BC - AD 24). Leiden, Brill, 2000.
  33. Mair, Victor: The Columbia Anthology of Traditional Chinese Literature, Columbia University Press, 1994. (Also The Shorter Columbia Anthology, 2001)
  34. Major, John, et al: The Huainanzi, Liu An, King of Huainan, A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Government in Early Han China. New York, Columbia University Press, 2010.
  35. Mathews, R. H., Mathews' Chinese-English Dictionary Boston, Harvard University Press, 1979 (online)
  36. Minford, John and Lau, Joseph: An Anthology of Translations of Classical Chinese Literature, Vol.I: From Antiquity to the Tang Dynasty. New York, Columbia U. Press, 2000.
  37. Murck, Alfreda, The Subtle Art of Dissent, Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, 50, 2000.
  38. Needham, Joseph: Science and Civilisation in China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1954 - present. Of particular note: Vol. 4, Part I, Physics and Physical Technology, 1962.
    "Sound" (pp. 126 - 228) was written with the special cooperation of Kenneth Robinson.
    References to 琴 "chhin" on pp. 129 (image), 130ff., 132, 146 (image), 151, 217 (b), 221 (pdf129-146)
  39. Nienhauser, William H. Jr., Ed.: Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1986 (Vol. 1) and 1998 (Vol. 2).
  40. Nienhauser, William H. Jr., Ed.: Sima Qian, The Grand Scribe's Records. I, V/1 & VII. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1994, 2006 and 1994. Shi Ji 1-7, 31-40 and 61-88.
  41. Owen, Stephen (ed. and transl.): An Anthology of Chinese Literature, Beginnings to 1911. New York, Norton and Co., 1996.
  42. Owen, Stephen, The Poetry of Meng Jiao and Han Yü. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1975.
  43. Picken, Wolpert, Markham, Marett, Nickson, Mitani, Condit et al, Music from the Tang Court, 8 Volumes (Cambridge University Press; 7 published 1981 - 2000, more projected; see details). Tang court music reconstructed from the gagaku repertoire.
  44. Ricci, Matteo: see separate Matteo Ricci index.
  45. Soothill, W. E. and Hodous, Lewis, A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms. London, 1937 and Delhi (Motilal Banarsidass), 1977.
  46. Waley, Arthur (trans), The Book of Songs. New York, Grove Press, 1996. This edition of the Shi Jing has all the poems in the original order; the 15 omitted by Waley in 1937 are here translated by Joseph R. Allen.
  47. Waley, Arthur (trans), Translations from the Chinese. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1941 (originally 1919).
  48. Richard G. Wang, The Ming Prince and Daoism: Institutional Patronage of an Elite. Oxford University Press, 2012.
    Much information on
    Zhu Quan.
  49. Ware, James, Tr. The Sayings of Chuang Tzu. Taiwan, Confucius Publishing. Includes original text and modern Chinese translation.
  50. Watson, Burton, Tr.: Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian. New York, Columbia University Press, 1993 (revised edition). Shi Ji, 7-12, 16-20, 28-30, 48-59, 84, 89-104, 106-125, 127, 129 (last book is 130).
  51. Watt, James C. Y. and Ford, Barbara Brennan: East Asian Lacquer, The Florence and Hervert Irving Collection. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1991. Information in the introduction is applicable to the lacquer of guqins.
  52. Steven Weintraub, Kanya Tsujimoto and Sadae Y. Walters: "Urushi and conservation: the use of Japanese lacquer in the restoration of Japanese art." Metropolitan Museum of Art Journal, date not known. Information is applicable to the lacquer of guqins.
  53. Wieger, L., S.J., Chinese Characters, Catholic Mission Press, 1927; reprinted Paragon Book Reprint Corp., 1967.
  54. Wilkinson, Endymion (Dr.): Chinese History, A Manual; Revised and Enlarged. Boston: Harvard Yenching Monography, 2000 (Google Books).
  55. Xu Yuanzhong, Tr.: An Unexpurgated Translation of Book of Songs. Beijing, Panda Books, 1994. Shi Ji complete.
  56. Yang Hsien-I and Gladys Yang (楊憲益、戴乃迭 trans.), Records of the Historian. Hong Kong, Commercial Press, 1974. 31 Annals from 史記 Shi Ji: 6, 7, 41, 47, 48, 55, 56, 65, 66, 68, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 81, 82, 85, 86, 92, 100, 102, 106, 107, 109, 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 129 (not in that order).
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  B. Chinese
  1. 中文大辭典。臺北,中華學術院,1973. Zhongwen Dacidian (Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Chinese Language) is largely the Chinese translation of a book compiled originally by the Japanese Sinologist Murohashi. It has 49,905 characters and innumerable combinations; much of it is quotes from ancient Chinese sources. There are 24 and 10 volume editions (identical contents. It is published in Taiwan by the Chinese Cultural College on Yangming Shan.)
  2. 漢語大詞典,上海,漢語大詞典出版社, 1990. Hanyu Dacidian (Great Chinese Word Dictionary) is the standard unabridged dictionary. 12 volumes. Entries in standard characters, definitions in simplified characters.
  3. 辭海。上海,中華書局刊,1937. Ci Hai (Sea of words). Has some references not in the above.
  4. 詞譜 Ci Pu (Ci Handbook). 36175.60 A book in 40 folios published in 1715 with ci poems compiled by 王奕淸 Wang Yiqing and others, with analysis.
  5. 中國歷代人名大辭典。上海,上海古籍出版社, 1999. Zhongguo Lidai Renming Dacidian (Dictionary of Chinese Historical Persons).
  6. 中國歷史地圖集 Zhongguo Lishi Dituji (The Historical Atlas of China), 8 Volumes. Chief Editor, 譚其驤 Tan Qixiang. Sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Hong Kong, Joint Publishing, 1991.
  7. 中國歷史大辭典 Zhongguo Lishi Dacidian (Encyclopedic Dictionary of Chinese History). 上海辭書出版社, Shanghai, 2000.
  8. 史記 Shi Ji (Grand Scribe's Records). 中華書局, Beijing, 1959 (1994 softcover reprint)
  9. 樂府詩集。北京,中華書局,1979/1996. Yuefu Shiji, Beijing, Zhonghua Shuju, in four volumes.
    This modern edition is based on the one compiled in the Song dynasty by 郭茂倩 Guo Maoqian (
  10. 黃友棣著、吳心柳編校,中國音樂思想批判;香港,樂友書房, 1965
    Huang Youdi, Zhongguo Yinyue Sixiang Pipan; Hong Kong, 1965
    Includes bibliographies of qin books, supplementing
    Qinshu Cunmu
  11. (明)宛陵汪氏輯,宋詞畫譜;北京,古籍出版社, 1997。
    Facsimile reprint of (Ming) Wang Family of Yuanling compilation: Illustrations for Song Ci
  12. Magnificent China, Hong Kong, 1972
    A book with numerous pre-1949 photographs of China. Some captions are in English, as well as some summaries describing places, otherwise the book is in Chinese. The next book below has the same pictures, but arranged differently.
  13. 錦繡中華彩色珍本 Jinxiu Zhonghua Caise Zhenben (China. Land of Splendours: A Pictorial Presentation). Globe International Corporation, Taiwan, 1975. Large photobook of photos from Chinese scenic and historical spots, pre-1949.
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VI. Related online bibliographies Return to the top

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Qin Bibliography
This bibliography was compiled in 2000. At that time Chinese journals available were already at least several years old. Since then the bibliography has been updated, but not systematically.

Not all of the material listed in this bibliography can be found outside certain libraries. English language books that do seem currently to be available include:

  1. Binkley, Jim Abiding in Antiquity
  2. Gulik, R. H. van, Lore of the Chinese Lute
  3. Lieberman, Fred, A Chinese Zither Tutor, The Mei-an Ch'in-p'u
  4. Thompson, John, Music Beyond Sound: Transcriptions of Music for the Chinese Silk-string Zither
  5. Yeung, Juni, Standards of the Guqin
  6. Yung, Bell, The Last of China's Literati, The Music, Poetry and Life of Ts'ar Teh-Yun.

Further details are in the links.

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