Rao Zongyi: An Historical Account of the Qin: 04 
 T of C 
Qin as
Qin in
/ Song
Analysis History Ideo-
Personal email me search me
Summary and Contents   /   Previous     /     Next     /     QSCB : Song and Yuan Dynasties   網站目錄
Rao Zongyi: An Historical Account of the Qin
  from the close of the Song to the Jin and Yuan Dynasties 1

4. Qin tablature transmitted by Zhang Yan and Han Tuozhou 2 張巖及韓佗胄所傳之琴譜  

Yuan Jue wrote:

Nowadays it is popularly thought that the qin (music) learned in Wu (the area around Suzhou, extending to Hangzhou) is Zhe tablature. This mistake is due to the work of Chief Minister of Imperial Granaries (sinong) Yang Zuan, who (when he circulated this tablature) concealed its origins. The beginning of his tablature collection has the Four Melodies of Xi Kang, which had been owned by the family of Han Zhongxian (Han Qi, great grandfather of Han Tuozhou). Tuozhou, a Grand Councilor (pingzhang), passed (the tablature) on to Vice Grand Councilor (canzheng) Zhang (Yan). (Zhang's house) guest Guo Chuwang from Yongjia then collected and organized them. People today are not aware of these things and they are difficult to explain. Only those who are truly well-versed in qin understand. (Shi Luo Daoshi)

He also wrote:

Between (1284 and 1285,) the jiashen and yiyou years {21st and 22nd years of [Kublai Khan's] zhiyuan era}, I studied qin from Piaoweng (i.e. Xu Tianmin). I asked him where the tablature came from, and it turned out to have been from the home of Zhongxian.... Han's tablature had been lost for many years when Guo Chuwang of Yongjia finally collected and organized them.

He also wrote:

Later he (?) found the tablature of Zhang of Guangling (elsewhere it says Zhang Yan was from Hezhou) and edited it: this consisted of Cai (Yong)'s Five Melodies. What the Chief Minister of Imperial Granaries (sinong: Yang Zuan) claimed to have collected and organized had all been recorded by Zhang, but Yang concealed this truth and did not report it.... Note that the Zhang mentioned in connection with Guangling was named Yan and style-named Xiaoweng. During the Jiatai period (1201-05) he (had the position of) canyu (compare canzheng, above3). When he lived in Zha (Huzhou4) he once expressed the opinion that inner chamber tablature (gepu) was not elegant in sound; after obtaining ancient tablature from Han Zhongxian's home, he used private channels to acquire them, coordinating with Han (Tuozhou), and thus finalized fifteen scrolls. He had them carved into wood before Han expressed his opinion about borders, (leading to a disastrous military campaign) and (Han's) execution (destruction of the originals?). His house guest, Guo Chuwang of Yongjia alone acquired them and again distinguighing them (re-categorizing?) them as (individual?) melodies. Moreover, they were all done mostly according to the sounds of Cai (Yong).

This says that Zhang Yan's qin tablature was tablature that had been stored in the home of Han Tuozhou, and that is all that was collected by Yang Shouqi (Yang Zuan). I refer to Chen Zhensun's Shulu Jieti:5

Zhiqi Jieti 14: Qin Melody Tablature (Qin Cao Pu) fifteen folios; Modal tablature (Diao Pu), four folios: Vice Grand Councilor Zhang Yan, (style-name) Xiaoweng, at that time famous for being skilled in playing qin. I received this tablature from his son.

Also (Zhiqi Jieti mentions?) Qin Tablature, eight folios, among the old books at the Wei residence in Yin (Ningpo district6). In the year yimao (1159?), these were distinguished and recorded, bringing more benefit from this tablature.

"Wei's residence" presumably refers to the residence of the Lord of Wei, Han Zhongxian {i.e. Han Qi; Tuozhou was his descendent}. Jimao is suspected to refer to (1159,) the 29th year of the Zhaoxing era {if it refers to the next jimao [1219], then it was the 12th year of the Jiading era, by which time Tuozhou had already died}. This old tablature from the Han family was mixed with other tablature. If Zhang Yan organized these, having purchased old tablature privately with his own money for editing and reference, when he moved to Zha it was right at the end of the Zhaoxing era.

Song History, Folio 396, records: (Zhang) Yan, style-named Xiaoweng, was from Daliang but moved to Yangzhou. At the end of the Zhaoxing period he crossed the (Yangzi) river and lived in Huzhou {i.e. Zha}. In the fifth year of the Qiandao era (1169) he attained his jinshi degree. He curried the favor of Han Tuozhou, was implicated, then had his position lowered to Supervising Secretary (Jishizhong) (from?) Participant in Determining Government Matters (Canzhizhengshi, same as Canzheng, Vice Grand Councilor).

Regarding this (rank of) Canzhizhengshi, Jiang Kui wrote poems called "Congratulations to Zhang Xiaoweng Canzheng" and "Presented to Zhang Canzheng" {one dated [1201,] the eighth month of the first year of Emperor Ningzong's Jiatai era; the other dated [1204,] the tenth month of the fourth year of Jiatai. See Song History, Zaifu Biao}. They both lived in Wuxing and were highly knowledgeable about qin theory, and should have been close acquaintances.

(Continue with 5. The rôle of Guo Chuwang and Liu Zhifang in qin studies)

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)
Prof. Rao's original article had no footnotes, so the footnotes below are all added by the translator. The text above uses the brackets { } for Prof. Rao's original bracketed phrases, while the brackets ( ) and [ ] indicate comments added by the translator. In addition, some of the paragraphs in the original article have been sub-divided, with a particular effort being made to highlight Rao's various quotes from historical sources.

1. Song, Jin and Yuan Dynasties (see also article reference)
The period covered in Rao Zongyi's essay includes (with dates, capital city [modern name]):

北宋 Northern Song (960-1126; 東京 Dongjing [開封 Kaifeng])
遼朝 Liao (907-1125; various, including 大定府 Dading Fu - the Central Capital: 中亰 Zhongjing [寧城 Ningcheng?])
南宋 Southern Song (1127-1280; 臨安府 Linan Fu [杭州 Hangzhou])
金 Jin (1115-1260; 汴京 Bianjing [開封 Kaifeng] as well as 中都 Zhongdu [北京 Beijing])
元 Yuan (1206-1280-1368; 大都 Dadu [北京 Beijing])

2. Initial translation by 金秋雨 Jin Qiuyu

3. Canyu 參預
參政 Canzheng as Vice Grand Councilor comes from Hucker. For canyu Hucker has only a Tang dynasty rank called 參預政事 canyu zhengshi, Participant in Deliberations about Court Policy), but these seem to be related.

4. Zha 霅
43238 Name of a district or stream in 吳興 Wuxing (Zhejiang province, on the south side of Lake Tai, near 湖州 Huzhou).

5. Chen Zhensun, Shulu Jieti 陳振孫,書錄解題
Book Records Explanation; 14623.237 Shortened name of Zhiqi Shulu Jieti 直齊書錄解題 23676.194 : Song dynasty compilation in 22 folios.

6. Yin 鄞
Yin is an old name connected to 寧波 Ningbo in Zhejiang province. This is quite puzzling, since all the other details of 韓琦 Han Qi (1008-1075; connect him to north China (e.g., 魏 Wei is associated with Henan).

Return to the top or to the Summary and Contents