Rao Zongyi: An Historical Account of the Qin: 03 
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Rao Zongyi: An Historical Account of the Qin
  from the close of the Song to the Jin and Yuan Dynasties 1

3. Wanyan clan qin tablature and Jin dynasty qin studies 2 完顏氏琴譜及金之琴學  

Yuan Jue wrote (this quotes two sections from his Qingrong Jushi Ji):

(After the country divided in 1127) the tablature transmitted in both north and south was all inner chamber tablature (gepu) from the Xuanhe period (1119-1126; Xuanhe pu). In the North there was the tablature of the Wanyan clan (Wanyan Pu) and in the south there was tablature for retainers in the imperial presence (yuqian zhiying pu) -- {Ti Xu Tianmin Shi Caoshu, see Qingrong Jushi Ji, 49. Regarding "retainers" (zhiying): this was a commonly-used term in the Song Dynasty. Thus in Chapter 7 of Qidong Yeyu (by Zhou Mi, 1232-1308), a note for the Hong Junchou3 entry reads: "Several generations went inside as zhiying"; this is just it. Also Wulin Jiu Shi (also by Zhou Mi), in its record about the emperor's birthday, involves "zhiying people". These can be looked up."4}

(Yuan Jue) also wrote:

"I attempted to learn gepu when I was younger. Its sound is frequent and complicated; Wanyan tablature only differs it in its slowness, but the sounds are the same. {Shi Luo Daoshi [also part of Qingrong Jushi Ji]}

So Wanyan tablature is, in reality, identical to gepu, except that it is slower. The so-called Wanyan tablature is Song tablature after the Jin (royal family) took it. Yelü Chucai (1190-1244, a Yuan dynasty scholar-official who was a lover of the qin; see more below), in his Preface to a Poem about Playing Guangling San (Tan Guangling San Shi Xu), wrote:

"During the recent Dading era (1161-1190), the Wanyan royal entertainers in Bianliang5 (Kaifeng), who had been left behind (by the Song when they moved south ca. 1127), ordered the scholar Zhang Yanyi6 to play this. Hence they invited Grand Master for Palace Counsel Zhang Chong7 to write a preface to the tablature, for which he prepared. He wrote: the tablature is found to contain sections (with titles) such as Jing Li, Bie Zhi, Ci Xiang, Bao Yi, Qu Han Xiang and Tou Jian."8

So Guangling San was one melody included within the so-called Wanyan tablature. The Ming dynasty high Confucian (book) Bai Chuan Shu Zhi9 recorded a Guangling San in two folios, the explanation for which said: "Written in the Jin dynasty by Wanyan Zhang of Wei Stream Daji,10 found in wide circulation with no specific source." It is not known if the Wanyan family had any connection to Wanyan Zhang.

By the Xuanhe period (1119-1126), Da Sheng music was already established; when the Jins attacked, it was suspended. By the second year of the Jingkang era (1127, last year of the Northern Song), the instruments, lyrics, and books all belonged to Jin. {Song History, Music Annals 28} In the first year of the Huangtong era (1141), Emperor Xizong of Jin (1135-1149) added an honorific title and began using Song dynasty music; however, the character "sheng" (of "da sheng") carved on the instruments violated (Jin) Emperor Taizong's taboo and was covered with yellow paper. {Jin History, Music Annals}.

Some Song statesmen who had surrendered to Jin, such as Yuwen Xuzhong (1079-1146),11 played the qin. {Zhongzhou Ji, first collection chapter 1, says that Xuzhong wrote a "Poem On Borrowing a Qin" [Cong Ren Jie Qin Shi], which said:12

"乞與南冠囚繫客,為君一奏變春榮。" (Not yet translated.)}

When they went north they took their libraries. {Jin History 79, Biography of Xuzhong, says:

"Du Tianfo13 accused Xuzhong of conspiracy, cooking up that the books in Xuzhong's home were instruments for rebellion. Xuzhong said: "Death will distinguish me. As for the books, the homes of all officials [shidafu] from the south have them; people of integrity who discuss books are particularly numerous at my home: how could they all be conspiring?"

Hence much old tablature spread to Jin.

Yuan Jue wrote,

"Zhang Yan obtained old tablatures from the home of Han Zhongxian;14 he bought them secretly (and called this) hushi.15 {Qin Shu}

Thus Southern Song officials sought old tablature from Jin; this was like losing morals and attempting to find them among common people [Confucius]. The past had become thus--how regrettable!

{Jin History 12, Annal of Emperor Zhangzong16: In the seventh year of the [Jin] Taihe era [1207], "Zhang Yan of the Song Privy Council dispatched Fang Xinru to send word to the manager of government affairs (and?) grand councilor to the left about asking for peace."17}

It was also possible that Northern and Southern envoys exchanged secret purchases and made excuses by calling it (ordinary) hushi.

Jin emperors, such as Xizong (1135-1149) and Shizong (1161-1190), all appreciated qin; Xianzong (lived 1146-1185 but never became emperor) had been especially adept. Yuan Haowen, in Qin Bian Yin, wrote:

"Shizong enjoyed this art, very much like his father. Outside his resting palace, tents were set up for qin players who played until night. He once said, "It is not that I enjoy qin; but when one's heart has no place, one constructs, wars, hunts, dotes on concubines, and whatever else. I use qin to tie down my heart…" (His son) Xianzong appreciated qin players. During these thirty to forty years, the art was widely popular. {Yi Shan Ji 36 [also by Yuan Haowen]}.

During the Taihe era, Zhangzong issued an imperial decree summoning all qin experts, and at the time Miao Xiushi of Pingyang was deemed the best. (Yelü Chucai, Miao Xiushi Qinpu Xu) As for skilled qin makers, the Tang dynasty Lei family was often praised {Chuo Geng Lu 29 lists, in detail, famous qin makers from the Sui to Yuan dynasty.} Of qins collected in the Hundred-Qin Hall in the Song-dynasty Xuanhe Palace, Lei's qin was the best. After the Jin took over, (the Lei qin) became prized in Emperor Zhangzong's imperial collection, and he had it buried with him {Yang Zongji, Guqin Kao18}, which demonstrates the depth of his fondness for it. (This was apparently the Chun Lei mentioned further below.)

During the Jin dynasty, Wei Zongru (Wei Zhongru 19?), a qin player, was recognized by Emperor Xizong and appointed to administrate the Music Bureau (樂署 Yueshu).

The Preface to Qin Bian in The Record of Yishan (Yishan Ji, by Yuan Haowen, said), Emperor Xizong kept up the work of his forefathers and only found amusement in qin. Wei Zongru the qin player was playing one day and it did not sound good. When asked why, he said, "the mountain is extremely cold and my hands are tired." So the emperor gave him a mink tent and burned coal in front, so he could play.

As for Mi Dayong, Yelü Chucai once studied under him.20 When Wei Zongru was a music bureau administrator (yueshu ling) he saw the Continuation of the Qin Tablature of Miao Xiushi (Miao Xiushi Qinpu Xu) by Yelü Chucai, who further said:

"In early years I gave much attention to qin, initially under the instruction of daizhao (imperial attendant) Mi Dayong." {Zhanran Jushi Ji 8}

And in the preface to the poem Playing the Qin on a Cold Evening (Dongye Tan Qin21) he said:

"In my childhood I gave much attention to qin, initially under the instruction of daizhao Mi Dayong. He has a style of his own that is carefree, elegant, natural and tranquil." {Folio 11}

Furthermore, in Way of the Qin Illustrated (Qin Dao Yu) 50,22 the preface to the melody says:

"I was obsessed with qin. From examining old tablature I played dozens of melodies and seemed to have gotten the idea. Later I met the qin player Mi Dayong; I gave up all my old work and had fresh understandings." {Folio 12}

In addition, Zhang Qizhi and Zhang Yanyi (see above) could both play Guangling San.23

Yelü Chucai, Preface to a Poem about Playing Guangling San: "During the Taihe era, daizhao Zhang Qizhi also played this melody (Guangling San). Every time it came to Chen Si and Jun Ji, he always played it slowly, disintegrating the rhythm and failing to do the melody justice."

Miao Xiushi's qin learning in fact came from Qiao Yi, who taught qin to both Miao and his son, Yu.24

Yuan Haowen, Preface to Qin Bian: "Master Miao Yanshi was from Pingyang. When he was a child, the village teacher Qiao Yi, style-name Junzhong, from Mengzhou, thought highly of him, and ordered his son Yu, style name Derong,25 the transhipments surveillance commissioner (ancha zhuangyun shi) of Hedong, to study with (Miao). Junzhang (i.e., Qiao Yi) was well-versed in literature as well as music, and had taught (Miao) Yanshi and Derong in qin matters. When (Qiao) had first taught them fingering techniques, he had piled coins on the backs of their hands and forbade frivolity or adding or missing any sounds. That Yanshi later became famous for his reserved elegance has a reason. When he came of age, he took the third level examinations for classical learning (mingjing juxuan), three times making it to the court examinations. When it came to his knowledge of qin, he was comparable to Derong."

The Collection of Central Region Literati (Zhongzhou Ji26) 2 (says), "In Lianfeng there was an authentic sage named Qiao Yi, style-name Junzhang, who came from Hongtong. A jinshi of the third year of the Tiande (1151) era, he was famed in both poetry and music. His son Yu, style-named Derong, could play qin at age eight. After he entered the Eastern Palace Emperor Xianzong praised him as 'extraordinary'."

Zhao Bingwen's Fushui Wenji,27 4, has Qiao Junzhang's Drawing of Solitude on Lianfeng Peak (Lianfeng Xiao Yin Tu); archaic sentences read: those who played qin as children know one another in old age, even in the remote corners of the earth. In a moment, forty years have passed and an adopted son buries the pair.

(Miao) Xiushi was an elevated person and once collected over a hundred guqin melodies. During Emperor Aizong's renchen year (1232, the first year of the Tianxing era), the Yuan army laid siege to Bianliang. (The Mongol official) Yelü Chucai asked after (Miao), but (Miao) died soon after arriving in Fanyang. His son Lan brought some forty melodies that he had left, and Chucai ordered that they be preserved in print and with a preface.

Yuan Haowen, Preface to Qin Bian: "After the crossing south {refers to the Jin moving to Bianling}, (Miao) Xiushi traveled with Yang and Zhao {refers to Yang Yunyi,28 the Minister of Rites, and Zhao Bingwen, whom their contemporaries called Yang and Zhao; see Zhongzhou Ji 4}, and sometimes expressed respect for one another with poems. {Not found during a recent perusal of Fushui Wenji.} Thus poets simply considered them as elevated men.... At one time they selected over 100 items (pian) of melodies played by people in antiquity, compiling those that expressed ancient thoughts, and passed these on to the world. This period of danger and survival left little room for leisure. (Miao's) oldest son, named Mao, style-named Junrui, served as provincial gentleman (shenglang), living at leisure in Yan (Beijing). Lamenting the decay of the elegant way (yadao) and discontinued study of its original concepts xianyi, these were ordered29 to be engraved on wooden blocks in order to pass them on, and I was invited to add explanations."

Yelü Chucai, Preface to the Qin Tablature of Miao Xiushi:30 "Ancient Tang Qiyan elder (, nickname of) sage Miao was named Xiushi and style-named Yanshi. He had extensive knowledge of history, and was especially good at Yi (Jing).... He was a virtuoso in qin, ranking first in the world. In (Bianliang, the Jin) capital city he associated with senior officials who were all convinced of his merit.... In the winter of the renchen year (1232), the army of the (Mongol) prince (Tolui, on behalf of Ogotai) crossed the Yellow River and captured Fort Tongguan, reaching Jingsuo and laying siege to Bianliang. I reported this to the (Yuan) imperial court, then took Qiyan into custody in the southern capital (seemingly with the aim of taking Miao back to Yuan court in Beijing; "southern capital" refers to Bianliang, the Jin southern capital). But soon after (Miao) arrived at Fanyang (in Hebei) he passed away. His son Lan arrived with the tablature (Qiyan) had left behind, which totaled some forty melodies. I played them, and they were indeed excellent melodies, passed down from Wei Zongru, the music bureau administrator. I ordered (the tablature) to be recorded so it could be passed down to later generations."

Note that the date Chucai signed at the end, "Two days after the Moon Festival in the renchen year", was (1232,) the first year of Emperor Aizong's Tianxing era {fifth year of Emperor Lizong of Southern Song's Zhaoding era, and forth year of the reign of the Mongol Emperor Taizong (Ogotai Khan)}. Yet the Preface to Qin Bian by Yishan (Yuan Haowen) was dated "autumn of dingsi (1257)" at the end, which is the fifth year of Emperor Lizong's Baoyou era, the seventh year of Emperor Xianzong of Mongolia. By this time the Jin dynasty had long met its demise, and Chucai had also passed away. The (above) two prefaces were both written for Miao's qin tablature. One named the book Qin Bian; it had 40-odd melodies (qu). One said it was a volume of over 100 melodies (caonong). It seems that what Miao Lan gave to Yelü Chucai was not the whole of his collection. Yishan said that (Miao) Yanshi's oldest son was style-named Junrui; it is not clear if this is the same person as Miao Lan.

Chucai was especially taken by Xiushi's fingering styles; he loved that it was steep and quick, like music of Shu (Sichuan), and was pleasing to the ear and eye. In the winter of jiawu (1234), he played some fifty melodies alongside Xiushi's son Lan, and understood much of its subtleties; Chucai also privately studied under Xiushi.

(Yelü) Chucai's Loving the Qin Playing Techniques of Qiyan (Miao Xiushi), said (in two verses31):

"One must realize that the best music is beyond sound; too much grand vibrato is confusing, too much small vibrato is excessive.
Many people do not understanding the true intention of Qiyan; they only enjoy the fashionable, qin (music that is) brash."


"Excessive vibratos fawn over the ears of the audience; artificial attempts to flatter vulgar emotions.
Who can identify the simplicity of the pure sounds? They only realize that Qiyan has no sounds from (sliding fingers against) the wood." {Zhanran Jushi Ji 11}

Also, in "The Great Amount Learned while Playing the Qin on a Cold Evening; 30 miscellaneous musings for [Miao] Lan"32 there is a short preface that says:

"As for (Miao Lan's son) Lan's qin works, he really inherited the legacies left by Qiyan (MIao Lan). In the winter of Jiawu (1234), I brought arrows to hunt, which ended with a foot injury. For sixty days we played over fifty melodies and really gained insight into Qiyan's purpose."

He also has in verse:

"Today I observed Qiyan's concept, the rhythms were fast.
It was complex but not confused, leaning toward breaking but still continued.
The vibratos were simple, and the dynamics undulated.
Just listen to Qiyan's artistic conception, it truly inspires admiration."

Jiawu (1234) was the third year of Emperor Aizong's Tianxing era. In the first month of that year Aizong committed suicide and Jin dynasty collapsed. Chucai wrote in The Sound of Miao Lan the Qin Player:33

"The sound of High Mountains roars at the thousand solemn trees; the sound of Flowing Streams howls at the midnight slopes." {[Zhanran Jushi?] Ji, folio 4}

(Also,) Listening to Mr. Miao Play the Qin by Yelü Shu (Yelü Zhu? See also below) said in qijue meter:34

"For the sound that will move a hermit yet, try listening to two or three sounds from outside the qin." {Shuang Xi Zui Yin Ji, scroll six}

The qin style of (Miao) Xiushi had simple vibratos and a vast sound. He was an expert of qin studies during the Jin dynasty, and his son Lan worked in Mongolia as a director of the imperial music office (daiyueling).

History of the Yuan Dynasty, Music Annals:35 "In the eleventh year of the reign of (Yuan) Emperor Taizong (1239), arriving at Yan (Beijing) obtained Jin musician Xu Zheng. In the sixteenth year, Emperor Taizong appointed Xu Zheng's recommendation, Miao Lan, as director of the imperial music office, to visit Dongping (? 東平; several places have this name). He appointed workers in order to make ten qins, two each for one string, three strings, five strings, seven strings or nine strings." {Scroll 69, Xin Yuan Shi scroll 91 says the same.}

Note that the sixteenth year of Taizong (1244) is the same as the third year of the rule of the dowager princess Naimazhen, and the fourth year of the Chunyou period of the Song dynasty Lizong emperor. By this time, Chucai has already passed away.

Among good qin makers under the Jin, there was Wu Boying. The Yuan's Record of Yishan (Yishan Ji, by Yuan Haowen) 4, preface to Poem of Cloudy Peaks (Yun Yan Shi) says:

"Wu Boying, an official of Guanzhou, was originally from Guoxian. In his youth he was a jinshi and was famous for his poetry.... He had many talents, and perfected the arts of landscape painting and of making qin as well as ink.... (Around 1120,) at the end of the Xingding era {of Emperor Xuanzong of Jin}, he disappeared into the central Shaanxi plain."

Another person famed for qin was Tian Tangqing.36 Cai Songnian's (volume of ci called) Old Man Mingxiu's Collection of the Bright and Beautiful recorded in the preface to his sixth (ci called) Recalling Nujiao:37

"Tian Tangqing of Jiujiang had a superior character and outstanding writing. He was also skilled in qin and often when among the mists and waters of rivers and lakes he would play elegantly."

And the Master of Leixi, Wei Daoming,38), noted:

"Tangqing's real name was Xiushi, and he was from Xunyang. He lived in Bianliang and was once inspector of wines in Qi County (Qixian, near Chenliu in Henan). He called himself Old Man who Studied the Cliffs and also Old Man who Cultivates Jade in the Eastern Peaks. He was skilled at playing the qin, the best of his day, and his music had great modulation. He enjoyed writing poetry and wrote several hundred, which have been made into collections and circulated in society. Because he loved both qin and plum flowers, he was also called the Daoist of Paired Clarity.

(Further regarding Tian Tangqing, Yelü) Chucai once gave his Tablature for Sad Feelings (Bei Feng Pu) as a present to (his teacher Old Man of the) 10,000 Pines (Wansong Laoren). In Zhanran Jushi Ji 3 (he wrote):

"Wansong asked for a qin and tablature. I gave him Spring Thunder (Chun Lei) from the Chenghua Palace and Bei Feng Pu of the Old Man who Cultivates Jade (Zhongyu Weng."

The identity of the Old Man who Cultivates Jade is often unknown to people, but it is actually Tian Tangqing. During the reign of Emperor Huizong of Song, Lin Tuan of Fuqing was summoned to play the melody Sad Feelings (Bei Feng). The emperor despised its name and stopped before it was played. Thus Sad Feelings was renamed Fragments of Jade (Sui Yu). This is the background of the melody Sad Feelings.

Miscellaneous Records of the Hall of Difficult Studies:39 "Grand Councilor Yelu's (qin named) Spring Thunder: an object from the Jin court, also named Spring Thunder of Chenghua Palace". This is the same qin.

There was also Xiong Yuhe:40

Latter part of Sounds of the Valley (Gu Yin41): "Xiong Yuhe of Yuzhan, style-name Tianyue. He was tranquil by nature, and was well-versed in the canonical histories and other books. He dressed simply, and was especially interested in playing the qin and calligraphy.

Both were from Jiangxi, so the tablature that they played must have been Jiang-xi pu.

(The final paragraph of Section 3 is indented but not subdivided. Here it is broken into separate sections to show the individual references more clearly, with the final section not indented, as it seems to be a sort of conclusion.)

(Yelü) Chucai's son Shu42 (Zhu?) also learned to play the qin, {[according to] Zhanran Ji 11, preface to Yushan Yong,43} he inherited the airs of his father.

In Zhanran Jushi Ji, there are too many poems about qin to count. {(They include) Way of the Qin Illustrated in 50 Poems, The Great Amount Learned while Playing the Qin on a Cold Evening; 30 miscellaneous musings for [Miao] Lan, as well as Loving the Qin Playing Techniques of Qiyan, and Playing Guangling San All Day and Writing 50 Poems,44 among others.} All of these added to the study and history of qin.

The collection also has Reflecting Upon Qin (Yi Qin) written in reply to Wang Zhengfu {Scroll 9}.45

The notes to the poem Presented to Zhang Ziwen (Ji Zhang Ziwen46) say: "I played Water Immortal (Shui Xian), which you have often studied (?)." {Scroll 6}

Giving Jingxian the Yujianmingquan Qin (Zeng Jingxian Yujian Mingquan Qin47) says: "He could play Pheasants' Morning Flight (Zhi Zhao Fei) and Clear Evening Intonation (Qingye Yin)." {Scroll 14}

Zheng Jingxian48 was closely associated with Chucai, and the collection (Zhanran Jushi Ji?) has many of their he shi (corresponding poetry written as responses to other people's poetry). He served Mongolian Emperor Taizong (Ogotai Khan) for medical affairs, and in Changchun Xi You Ji49 he featured as the third prince's doctor Master Zheng, nick-named Gentleman of Dragon Cliff (Longgang Jushi). {See Wang Guowei's Chucai Nianpu Pu Yu.50}

Thus one can see that there was an abundance of good qin players during this flourishing period. In the freezing, snow-covered fur tents would still be music from qin books; this is truly something for which later generations yearned. {Zhanran Jushi Ji 10 has the poem Playing Qin Facing the Snow [Dui Xue Gu Qin51].}

Appendix: Diagram of Qin Study Lineages under the Jin
N.B. The
original chart is vertical with a dotted line from Wei Zongru to Miao Xiaoshi then on to
Yelü Chucai, clearly showing that Miao was a student of Wei and a teacher of Yelü.

  喬扆 Qiao Yi - 喬宇 Qiao Yu
- 苗秀實 Miao Xiushi
- 苗蘭 Miao Lan
  衛宗儒 Wei Zongru -           ( " " )   - 耶律楚材 Yelü Chucai
  弭大用 Mi Dayong     -           ( " " ) - 耶律璹 Yelü Shu - 張子聞 Zhang Ziwen

(Continue with 4. Qin tablature transmitted by Zhang Yan and Han Tuozhou)

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)
Prof. Rao's original article had no footnotes, so the footnotes below are all added by the translator. The text above uses the brackets { } for Prof. Rao's original bracketed phrases, while the brackets ( ) and [ ] indicate comments added by the translator. In addition, some of the paragraphs in the original article have been sub-divided, with a particular effort being made to highlight Rao's various quotes from historical sources.

1. Song, Jin and Yuan Dynasties (see also article reference)
The period covered in Rao Zongyi's essay includes (with dates, capital city [modern name]):

北宋 Northern Song (960-1126; 東京 Dongjing [開封 Kaifeng])
遼朝 Liao (907-1125; various, including 大定府 Dading Fu - the Central Capital: 中亰 Zhongjing [寧城 Ningcheng?])
南宋 Southern Song (1127-1280; 臨安府 Linan Fu [杭州 Hangzhou])
金 Jin (1115-1260; 汴京 Bianjing [開封 Kaifeng] as well as 中都 Zhongdu [北京 Beijing])
元 Yuan (1206-1280-1368; 大都 Dadu [北京 Beijing])

2. Initial translation by 金秋雨 Jin Qiuyu.

3. Hong Junchou 洪君疇
Syle name of (宋)洪天錫 Hong Tianxi (Bio/1779), a high official who died in 1272.

4. Retainers (祗應 zhiying)
25239.43 侍從 attendant, retain

5. Bianliang
Around 1160 the Jin emperor, having moved his capital from Manchuria to Beijing, established Bianliang as his southern capital, making it cultural center. Perhaps this led to reviving Northern Song court entertainers who had been left behind.

6. Zhang Yanyi 張研一
10026.xxx; 24720.xxx

7. Zhang Chong 張崇
Grand Master for Palace Counsel (中義大夫 zhongyi dafu); Bio/1236 is a different person. See further under Lou Yue as well as Wang Shixiang)

8. Guangling San section titles
The names mentioned here, Jing Li, Bie Zhi, Ci Xiang, Bao Yi, Qu Han Xiang and Tou Jian, are mostly titles of sections that can be found in surviving versions of Guangling San

9. High Confucian Bai Chuan Shu Zhi (高儒《百川書志》)
23193.43 etc. include various Bai Chuan entries but none exactly this.

10. Wanyan Zhang of Wei Stream Daji (Jin dynasty) 金渭川大吉完顏章敘
The only explanation dictionaries give for 大吉 Daji is 大吉祥 "great luck".

11. Yuwen Xuzhong (宇文虛中 1079-1146)
Bio/729. The Wikipedia entry for Wanyan Xiyin (完颜希尹 d. 1140) says that Yuwen Xuzhong "was captured by the Jurchen while an envoy to the Jin (but was then persuaded) to advise (Wanyan Xiyin) and to teach his sons and grandsons. Hong Hao (洪皓) - another Song envoy similarly detained by the Jurchen - thought that it was under Yuwen's influence that a variety of Chinese cultural practices entered the Jin Empire, such as the forms of government organizations, the scale of official ranks, salaries, and hereditary privileges, as well as the rules for assigning posthumous names to emperors and the taboo against using characters that appear in emperors' names...."

12. Not yet translated.

13. Du Tianfo 杜天佛
Bio/xxx; apparently he was a servant. The quote here left that out from the original, which was as follows:

14. Han Zhongxian 韓忠獻
Han Zhongxian was 韓琦 Han Qi (1008-1075). 44126.270 and Giles: important northern Song official who lost favor by opposing Wang Anshi. After the Song moved south in 1127 apparently the family split up, some remaining in the family home, presumably in Kaifeng, others going south. The southern branch included his great-grandson Han Tuozhou (d. 1207).

15. Commerce (互市 hushi)
261.4; 1/489: a form of market exchange, especially mutual transactions across borders; the earliest reference is History of the Latter Han Dynasty. It then came to be used for trade between wealthy families. Apparently during the Southern Song period, when north China was controlled by the Jin, there were attempts to prevent valuable artifacts from being transferred, so in some cases the transferrals were disguised as ordinary hushi, which thus became a secret form of trade.

16. Zhangzong 章宗 1190-1209
Zhangzong (完顏璟 Wanyan Jing) was a grandson of 完顏裒 Wanyan Pou (Shizong). His qin connection is mentioned further above

17. Fang Xinru 方信孺 (1177-1222)
Fang Xinru, an official mostly in 淮東 Eastern Huai, was also a poet and calligrapher. The original quote here is, 宋知樞密院 (zhishumiyuan) 遣方信孺以書詣 (shuyi in writing to visit? 5/xxx) 平章政事揆左丞端乞和 pingzhang zhengshi kuizuo duankui chihe). Kuizuo is interpreted here as Hucker's zuokui and combined with duankui to mean left aide to the grand councilor, but this is a guess, especially there is no connecting word showing the connection between these and pingzhang zhengzhi.

18. Yang Zongji, Guqin Kao
This is part of Qinxue Congshu.

19. Wei Zongru 衛宗儒
This is presumably the same person as the 衛仲儒 Wei Zhongru discussed in QSCB, Chapter 6a4.

20. The structure of the essay here suggests the following inset paragraph is also quoted from the Qinbian Yin in Yishan Ji. However, if this is the case then presumably the sources cited in the paragraph would have been included in that same work, and this seems unlikely.

21. Playing the Qin on a Cold Evening (冬夜彈琴 Dongye Tan Qin
The quote says Folio 11, presumably Folio 11 of Zhanran Jushi Ji. The full version (also discussed later in the above text) is in a footnote under Yelü Chucai.

22. Way of the Qin Illustrated (琴道喻 Qin Dao Yu)
Full title: Way of the Qin Illustrated in 50 Poems (琴道喻五十韻 Qin Dao Yu Wushi Yun (see later in the text. Presumably this was part of Zhanran Jushi Ji.

23. Chen Si and Jun Ji are the titles of sections of Guangling San.

24. Regarding 喬扆 Qiao Yi, there may be some disagreement regarding who actually taught Miao Xiushi.

25. 喬扆 Qiao Yi's sons 宇 Yu and 德容 Derong
It is written as though the son was named Yu Derong 宇德容, but that seems unlikely.

26. Collection of Central Region Literati (中州集 Zhongzhou Ji)
A Jin dynasty collection of Jin dynasty literati's writings.

27. Zhao Bingwen, Fushui Wenji (趙秉文,氵釜水文集)
Zhao (38015.416) was a well-known writer from 氵釜陽 Fuyang (18431.5 also called Fushui, in Hebei) at the end of the Jin dynasty. Fushui Wenji is also called Fushui Ji 氵釜水集.

28. Yang Yunyi 楊雲翼 (1170 - 1228)
Bio/862; An important poet and scholar-official among the Jin (Jurchen).

29. The text does not make clear who ordered this.

30. Yelü Chucai, Miao Xiushi Qinpu Xu (耶律楚材,苗秀實琴譜序)


31. Loving the Qin Playing Techniques of Qiyan (愛棲巌彈琴聲二絕 Ai Qiyan Tanqin Sheng Er Jue)
See under Yelü Chucai for Van Gulik's translation of the same poems.

32. The Great Amount Learned while Playing the Qin on a Cold Evening; 30 miscellaneous musings for [Miao] Lan
(冬夜彈琴頗有所得亂道拙語三十韻以遺猶子蘭 Dongye Tan Qin Po You Suo De Luan Dao Zhuo Yu Sanshi Yun Yi Yi You Zi Lan)

See also earlier in the above text. The full version is in a footnote under Yelü Chucai.

33. In Tune with the Sound of Miao Lan the Qin Player (和琴士苗蘭韻 He Qinshi Miao Lan Yun)
The original text is "高山韻吼千巌木,流水聲號半夜鞁陂。

Listening to Mr Miao Play the Qin (聽苗君彈琴 Ting Miao-jun Tan Qin)
By 耶律璹 Yelü Shu. The original text is:
Huiwai (outside the studs on a qin) is a common expression for music beyond the ordinary qin sounds.

35. The quote here seems to be an abbreviation from the original in Jin History, Folio 68, 19th Annal (juan, Ritual Music 2:
(太宗)十一年,元措奉旨至燕京,得金掌樂許政、掌禮王節及樂工翟剛等九十二人。 十二年夏四月,始命制登歌樂,肄習于曲阜宣聖廟。 十六年,太常用許政所舉大樂令苗蘭詣東平,指授工人,造琴十張,一弦、三弦、五弦、七弦、九弦者各二。
Note that the punctuation is also somewhat different, in particular just at the first mention of Miao Lan.
As for 許政 Xu Zheng (36125.xxx; 11/70xxx), it literally could mean "permit government".

36. Tian Tangqing 田唐卿
Bio/xxx Real name 秀實 Xiushi (also xxx; same given name as 苗秀實 Miao Xiushi!); he was from 九江 Jiujiang or 潯陽 Xunyang. According to the text above he called himself the Old Man who Studied Cliffs (學巌老人 Xue Yan Laoren) and was also called Old Man Cultivating Jade in the Eastern Peaks (東岫種玉翁 Dongxiu Zhong Yu Weng) and Daoist of Paired Clarity (雙清道人 Shuangqing Daoren).

37. Cai Songnian 蔡松年 (1107-1159; Bio/2450)
金鎮定人,字伯堅,號蕭閑老人 From Jindeng under the Jin, style name Bojian, nickname Old Man Xiaoxian. Hence the book mentioned here is his Old Man Mingxiu's Collection of the Bright and Beautiful (蕭閑老人明秀集 Xiaoxian Laoren Mingxiu Ji). According to ICTCL Cai and 吳激 Wu Ji (d. 1142) were "two of the most famous ci poets during the early ears of the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115-1234). Their ci were collectively known as the 'Wu-Cai Style'." Recalling Nujiao would have been the names of some of the ci in his collection (念奴嬌 Nian Nujiao, 10654.11 name of a 詞牌 cipai and 曲牌 qupai; Nujiao was a famous Tang dynasty courtesan.)

38. Wei Daoming 魏道明 (N.D.)
Wei Daoming (46879.262; Bio/2577), 金易縣人字元道號雷溪子 from Yixian under the Jin, style name Yuandao, nickname Leixizi (Master of Leixi). His fame came from poetry but he was also a jinshi who became an official. Late in life he retired to 雷溪 Leixi. He wrote Poetic Talk of Dingxin (鼎新詩話 Dingxin Shihua). Because no dates are given it is not clear whether he was a contemporary of Tian Tangqing, in which case the paragraph should be written in the present tense.

39. Miscellaneous Records of the Hall of Difficult Studies (困學齋雜錄 Kunxuezhai Zalu)
4818.68 a book in one folio by 元,鮮于樞 Xian Yushu of the Yuan dynasty, named after his library. It mostly has 詩話 shihua (narratives on poets and poetry).

40. Xiong Yuhe 熊與龢
See Qinshi Bu #108.

41. Sounds of the Valley, latter part (谷音,下 Ku Yin, xia)
37022.33 A book in two folios by 元,杜本編 Du Ben (14796.51) of the Yuan dynasty, recording 100 poems of the latter Song and Jin period. The book is included in Siku Quanshu, Vol. 1365, but the reference here is Siku Tiyao, perhaps the essay at the front of the Wenyuange edition. (See Siku Quanshu Zongmu Tiyao).

42. Yelü Shu 耶律璹
See earlier reference. This is apparently the same person as 耶律鑄 Yelü Zhu (1221 - 1285).

43. Preface to Yushan Intonation (Yushan Yin Xu 吾山吟序
吾 is usually pronounced "wu", in which case "wu shan" could mean "my mountain". However, 3398.3 吾山 says it is a mountain in Shandong with the alternate name Fish Mountain (魚山 Yushan), and yu is given as an alternate pronunciation for 吾.

44. Playing Guangling San All Day and writing 50 Rhymes (couplets)
  (彈廣陵散終日賦詩五十韻 Tan Guangling San Zhongri Fu Shi Wushi Yun)

This poem, part of Zhanran Jushi Ji, is included under the entry for Yelü Chucai. It also includes the previously mentioned Preface to a Poem about Playing Guangling San.

45. Reflecting Upon Qin (憶琴 Yi Qin)
Written in reply to 王正夫 Wang Zhengfu (21295.xxx; 16611.38 as Zhengfu as a common nickname but none surnamed Wang).

46. Presented to Zhang Ziwen (寄張子聞 Ji Zhang Ziwen
Zhang Ziwen (10026.xxx; 7072.xxx) was apparently a student of Yelü Shu: see Appendix."

47. Giving Jingxian the Yujianmingquan Qin (贈景賢玉澗鳴泉琴 Zeng Jingxian Yujian Mingquan Qin
Jingxian is Zheng Jingxian: see next footnote.

48. Zheng Jingxian 鄭景賢
Bio/xxx; 40513.xxx; 14304.296xx, but he must have been fairly prominent if he was medical assistant to Yuan Emperor Taizong (Ogotai Khan). His nickname Gentleman of Dragon Cliff (龍岡居士 Longgang Jushi) comes from the reference in the next footnote.

49. Chang Chun Journey to the West (長春西遊記 Changchun Xi You Ji)
35587.609 西遊記 Xi You Ji gives as its first entry a book in two folios also called 長春真人遊記 Changchun Zhenren You Ji by 李志常 Li Zhichang (1193-1256) of the Yuan dynasty. It concerned the western wanderings of his teacher 邱處機 Qiu Chuji (Wiki) and doesn't seem to have any connection to the famous novel Journey to the West. There does not seem to be any mention of qin in its discussion of Zheng Jingxian as a doctor of 三太子 the third prince with the nickname 龍岡居士 Longgang Jushi.

50. Wang Guowei 王國維 (1877 - 1927)
ICTCL: Prominent scholar, poet and teacher. In particular he was a Mongol scholar, but there is no specific mention there of his 楚材年譜譜餘 Chucai Nianpu Pu Yu.

51. Playing Qin Facing the Snow (對雪鼔琴 Dui Xue Gu Qin)

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