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Pounding Cloth 搗衣 1
- Qingshang mode: 2 6 1 2 3 5 6 1; with Qing Shang Diao as modal prelude Dao Yi  
  Tang ladies pounding silk cloth 3                      
"Dao Yi" by itself can also be translated as "pounding clothes", a traditional method of washing clothes by putting them in water where it flows over rocks, then pounding them with the bare hands or a hard object such as a stone or club.4 However here, as with the musically unrelated earlier piece with almost the same title as here, the 1539 Dao Yi Qu,5 "dao yi" seems more likely to have another meaning: the process of using sticks to pound cloth in order to soften its fiber. The famous painting at right shows this process, depicting wealthy ladies, with the cloth specifically made of silk. With this melody, however, we know nothing other than that the lyrics are in the voice of a woman who is pounding cloth while her husband serves the government as a soldier on the frontier. The expanded lyrics of this later melody more specifically suggest the clothing might be rough winter clothing, perhaps made of a rough fiber such as hemp.6 However, the mention in the lyrics of "golden chain mail astride an excellent steed" suggests the singer is not simply a poor peasant woman.7

Although musically unrelated, both the 1539 Dao Yi Qu and the 1589 Dao Yi have lyrics, with some overlap. The first Dao Yi without lyrics is the version of the present melody published in 1634. However, there is still the possibility that instrumental versions existed prior to the ones with lyrics, with lyrics added later (and the melody presumably modified accordingly); see also below. Exploring this possibility should begin with a comparison of the 1589 version with the early versions without lyrics that followed it.

Versions of Dao Yi are often attributed to "Pan Tingjian of the Tang dynasty", a person who has not yet been identified.8 Although usually called simply Dao Yi, they are also often called Autumn Waters Melody (Qiushui Nong9) and occasionally Autumn Waters Melody (Qiuchu Nong10). Other thematically related titles can also be found in some old melody lists, including Hearing Pounding on an Autumn Evening (Qiuye Wen Zhen).11 Nothing is known of the music that was associated with the earlier titles.

Whereas versions of the musically unrelated earlier song Dao Yi Qu occur in only one handbook, dated 1539, versions of the present qingshang mode Dao Yi can be found in at least 22 handbooks from 1589 to the present.12 Qingshang tuning is the same as guxian: from standard tuning raise the 2nd, 4th and 7th strings half a tone each. Interestingly, Dao Yi shares at least one interesting motif with what is perhaps the most famous guxian melody, Qiu Hong.13

Also, although this later melody is unrelated musically to the 1539 Dao Yi Qu, it uses the 1539 lyrics as lyrics for its Sections 11 and 12, with a short addition in the middle. At least five later handbooks use a version of these longer lyrics. Nevertheless, even these versions with lyrics may work also as purely instrumental melodies - perhaps better - and it is difficult to say how their being paired with lyrics affected the actual melodies.14

There has been some suggestion that the qingshang melody has the flavor of flower drum songs (huagu ge) from northwest China (Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces in particular).15 However, to my knowledge no one other than myself has reconstructed any of the early versions of the qingshang mode Dao Yi, something that would be necessary if one is either to confirm this as a historical possibility or shed light on early forms of huagu ge. From its current rhythms it is difficult to imagine the modern version sung with lyrics, in particular lyrics such as those of 1589 that are paired according to the standard pairing method. (See below for some specific comments on pairing notes with the note runs at the beginning of several sections.)

Further on pairing: the modern interpretation of the note runs at the beginning of several sections is to play them as individual notes rather than as a quick run. In 1589 these notes are not paired against characters, suggesting they may well have been played quickly rather than as individual notes. However, in my recording I play them as a slow note run (further).

The version of this title most commonly played today is said to have developed from the qingshang version found in the Mei'an Qinpu (1931).16 There are several recordings available.

There is also yet another surviving Dao Yi melody. It uses huangzhong tuning (from standard tuning lower the first string and raise the fifth), has eight sections and has been transcribed as played by Long Qinfang,17 supposedly from the "Qianshi Shicao", a handbook dated from 1880, the melody does not seem actually to be there.18

Qingshang Modal Prelude (清商調 Qingshang Diao) 19

The 1609 edition of Zhenchuan Zhengzong Qinpu includes near the end a melody (qin song) called Qingshang Diao. Although the title does not directly indicate it is a modal prelude (no "意 yi"), it clearly is one. For several reasons it seems to work best as a modal prelude to Dao Yi, and so it is treated here as such. It did not occur in 1589, and in 1609 it had no commentary. Its lyrics, translated below seem, to appear here for the first time (comment).

Preface 20
The original preface in Yang Lun Taigu Yiyin begins as follows

It seems likely that this piece was created by Pan Tingjian of the Tang dynasty as a mourning boudoir lament. It speaks from the lonely place of the wife of a frontier official while her husband in the frontier region nobly works on affairs of the king. She can hear the insects buzzing, see grasshoppers hopping and behold various ferns, but has not seen her man. Her anxieties come from this, and so there is an old poem that says,

Suddenly she sees at the top of the lane the color of poplars and willows,
    and regrets having advised her husband to seek enfeoffment.
This is the idea here. Moreover, Master Pan's melody Pounding Cloth also set the model for describing such emotional complaints. Its intention and interest are both lofty and distant, it is plaintive but not angry, having the righteousness of someone who creates lyrics ("airs"). At first it has the feelings of pounding cloth in an autumn wind, irresolute when facing the moon; it then laments the loneliness of fish and geese, gets emotional about the solitude of those on the road, and finally has the flight dreams of a spirit in the northern frontier, and relating the separation thoughts of the morning and evening star. Finally ....
(Translation unfinished; the original Chinese is below)

Music: Qingshang Melody and Pounding Cloth 21
The melody in Yang Lun Taigu Yiyin (both 1589 and 1609) is arranged into 12 sections; sections 1 and 8 are in harmonics. The abovementioned melody Qingshang Diao (a qin song) works well as a prelude to Dao Yi and so is included here before the listing of Dao Yi section titles. To hear them together, first open both sound files in separate windows:

  1. Qing Shang Diao 聽錄音 and
  2. Dao Yi 聽錄音).
Then run these sequentially while following the lyrics and/or section titles. Timings below follow my recordings.

Qingshang Melody (清商調 Qingshang Diao)

00.00 (尾聲泛音 closing harmonics)
Shāngqiū; jīn fēng luò yè yě, cǎo mù hán chóu,
Autumn! Golden breezes, falling leaves, vegetation holds sadness.

Sòng Yù zuò fù shí bēi qiū.
Song Yu wrote a rhapsody truly Mourning Autumn.

Áo xiáng xī hóng yàn, wàn lǐ rèn áo yóu.
Soaring above are the wild geese; over thousands of miles they must roam.

Shāng xīn shì, wèn guī rén yě zhī fǒu.
For bitter affairs of the heart, they ask the lady of the boudoir whether she knows.

Xīn yōu, yī qì wú sī bù zì yóu,
Heartsick, at once no self, no freedom.

(泛起)月明砧杵也韻悠悠。 (Compare 1525b, below)
Yuè míng zhēn chǔ yě yùn yōu yōu.
(Closing harmonics) Under the bright moon the block and pestle resound long and sad.

End: 01.20

Pounding Cloth (搗衣 Dao Yi) 22

00.00     1. Moved by fate, thoughts overflow
00.37     2. To the moon expressing emotion
01.32     3. Sound sent off into the distance
02.12     4. Wafting emotions go out continuously
02.45     5. As the season changes clothing is passed on
03.21     6. Dreams of the frontier gates
04.05     7. Through seasons the sadness of separation
04.49     8. Venturing a sigh at the separation of the morning and evening stars
05.15     9. The northern frontier is bitterly cold
05.58   10. Hating spring mountain disasters
06.45   11. Sending off requisite clothing
07.40   12. Holding back her grief within the Unicorn Chamber
08.05         (harmonic closing, still with lyrics)
08.23         (melody ends)

One can also listen to Dao Yi Qu as a prelude, even though it uses a different tuning.

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Pounding Cloth (搗衣 Dao Yi)
This tablature is #28 in Yang Lun Taigu Yiyin (QQJC VII/129ff).

2. Qingshang Mode (清商調 Qingshang Diao)
The relative tuning for this mode, 6 1 2 3 5 6 1 , is achieved either by raising the 2nd, 4th and 7th strings, or lowering 1st, 3rd, 5th and 6th strings. The tuning is introduced under Shenpin Guxian Yi. Another name is Jiazhong.

I do not know of any studies attempting to make modal distinctions within this tuning. The present Dao Yi is very strongly a do - so mode piece, with 1 the primary tonal center and 5 the secondary tonal center.

For more how this mode fits into qin modes in general also see Modality in early Ming qin tablature.

3. Image of Pounding Cloth (搗衣圖)
This image seems to show ladies, as part of a process of preparing silk, pounding the thread or cloth to soften the fiber: they apparently are not washing it. The image is part of a longer scroll with the short title 搗練圖 Dao Lian Tu. Daolian today means "engaged in work", but "lian" originally referred to raw unfinished silk, hence the title "Ladies Preparing Newly Woven Silk". The painting has three panels showing Tang dynasty ladies performing several household tasks related to sericulture. This one is on the right side of the painting. The original, attributed to the Tang dynasty painter 張萱 Zhang Xuan (fl. 714–742), is lost; the present painting, attributed to Song emperor Huizong, is in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.

4. Washing clothes?
This sort of re-interpretation gained popularity after 1949, when it became important to find connections between guqin and "the masses".

5. 搗衣曲 1539 Dao Yi Qu
Standard tuning, one section. Its lyrics are almost the same as the lyrics of Dao Yi Sections 11 and 12, but there is no apparent musical relationship.

6. Rough fiber
Hemp (葛布 gebu) is not specificially mentioned; section 7 says something about material (not yet translated). My thanks to 李恨冰 Li Henbing for this suggestion as well as for other help with various other aspects of this page.

7. The singer
Compare Mulberry Lane, where the singer brags of her powerful husband. Note also that images in literati paintings of fishermen usually show them as gentlemen leisurely lounging on a boat. Or images such as that of the woodcutter Ziqi listening to Boya play qin (q.v.).

8. Pan Tingjian 潘廷堅 (or 潘庭堅)
Commentary in Yang Lun Taiyu Yiyin begins, "按斯曲,乃唐人潘廷堅所作....As for this melody, it is by Pan Tingjian of the Tang dynasty"(QQJC VI). This name, as well as the name 潘庭堅, also pronounced Pan Tingjian but written with a different "ting", is often mentioned in the melody introductions, but none of the compilers seems to have made any effort to identify who this person might have been.

Regarding the first, Pan Tingjian (潘廷堅 Bio/xxx; 18737.xxx), I have not been able to find any information about anyone of this name, whether or not from the Tang dynasty. 9792.77 廷堅 Tingjian is given as a style name or nickname for several people, but none with the surname 潘 Pan. (Note that it is a later usage for 唐人 3714.3 simply to mean "Chinese person".)

As for the second Pan Tingjian (潘庭堅 Bio/2527; 18737.132), although some later versions make the attribution to him, these still say he is Tang dynasty, and so far the only relevant historical records I have found to anyone of this latter name are to two people from the 12th to 14th centuries. One is a 潘庭堅 Pan Tingjian (18737.132), 字叔聞 style name Shuwen, said to be Yuan/Ming; there is some evidence that this Pan, a scholar associated with Zhu Yuanzhang, may have played qin but there is nothing to connect him to this melody or the lyrics. The other reference is to a Pan Fang 潘牥 18737.98 (Bio/2519), style name 庭堅 Tingjian, but his dates are 1205-1246 and, though a scholar official, is not credited in the bio entries with any music or poetry. (9553.58 庭堅 Tingjian has no one else named Pan.)

9. Autumn Waters Melody (秋水弄 Qiushui Nong; also Qiu Shui Nong; compare Qiuchu Nong)
Qiushui Nong, in addition to being an alternate title for later Dao Yi, has also been used as an alternate title for the musically unrelated 1525 version of Yueshang Cao (the one using guxian tuning, not the version using standard tuning). There may be more justification for this as an alternate title here than there, as the words 秋水 qiu shui can be found both in introductions and lyrics for Dao Yi.

Zha Guide also lists Qiu Shui as the name of a melody in five handbooks beginning with the Huiyan Mizhi (1647), where it is said to have as an alternate title Shenhua Qu, mentioned here under Shenhua Yin. Meanwhile at least one Song dynasty list says it was also called Yun Zhu Ji (compare Yun Zhu Ta).

Nevertheless, 25505.27 秋水 qiu shui, although it has many meanings, none is related to any of the themes here. 25505.28 to .36 also seem to have no connection.

10. Qiuchu Nong 秋杵弄 (Autumn Pestle Melody)
25505.xxx A 杵 chu is specifically a pestle (club) used for pounding cloth; see block and club. To my knowledge his title is not found in any of the old melody lists. It is used as a title for Dao Yi in 1670.

11. Qiuye Wen Zhen 秋夜聞砧 On an Autumn Evening Hearing Pounding (on Stone)
This melody (25505.134xxx; 29749.xxx), the title of which may refer to cloth being pounded, seems to survive only in the same early Ming melody list mentioned above. Could it be related to one of the Dao Yi?

12. Tracing 搗衣 Dao Yi and 搗衣曲 Daoyi Qu)
Zha Guide 15/162/356 combines both titles, but the first, the Daoyi Qu published in 1539 (shang mode; one section), is in fact musically unrelated to the rest (mostly called Dao Yi but also Qiushui Nong and Qiuchu Nong), which are in qingshang mode [raise 2nd 5th and 7th strings]; some have lyrics; all are in 12 sections).

The Zha Guide entry lists the qingshang mode Dao Yi as surviving in 21 handbooks from 1589 up through 1931 (Mei'an Qinpu), with six having lyrics. It seems to have been particularly popular in the 19th century. These are as follows:

  1. 1589; QQJC VII/129 (attributed to "唐人潘廷堅 Pan Tingjian of the Tang dynasty" - see below)
    12 sections, all titled and with lyrics; "即秋水弄 same as Qiushui Nong"; see "1589 preface" plus "1589 music and lyrics"
    Although this melody is unrelated to that of the 1539 Daoyi Qu, the lyrics of Sections 11 and 12 are the same as those of the 1539 melody, adding a short section in the middle (q.v.).
  2. 1623; VIII/446; Zha Guide: "two versions, the second called Qiu Shui Nong", but I cannot find it
    12 sections, untitled but with same lyrics and music as 1589; preface shorter, but has same attribution as 1589 and also says "即秋水弄 same as Qiushui Nong". On the other hand, the lyrics and music are paired inaccurately: elsewhere if there is a cluster calling for two right hand strokes there will be two characters paired: here only one character is paired, with the result that at the end of most sections there are a number of characters with no lyrics paired against them.
  3. 1634; IX/359
    12 sections; no commentary or lyrics. Still related to 1589 but quite different (opens with "泛七徽勾一二三四五五...."); some parts seem closer to the modern version.
  4. 1647; X/213
    12 sections; called 秋杵弄 Qiuchu Nong, "same as Dao Yi"; begins like 1589; no commentary
  5. 1692; not in
    Same as 1647
  6. 1670; XI/440
    12 sections; called 秋杵弄 Qiuchu Nong, "same as Dao Yi" but begins "泛七徽滾七至二...." but still related; afterword
    Brief comments at front say "據梧唐藏本 based on Wutang volume" and "唐潘庭堅作,叙征婦怨也 by Pan Tingjian of Tang; relates the lament of a wife". (Note character for "Ting" but still said to be from Tang)
  7. 1722; XIV/579
    12 sections; preface as 1589; lyrics also as 1589, but placed at end and they don't seem to match the tablature; begins like 1670
  8. 1755; XVI/278
    12 sections; "錢塘項尹周傳 as transmitted by Xiang Yinzhou of Qiantang"; comment at end says "别有詞 has lyrics elsewhere"; this handbook has two versions but the second, which has the lyrics (slightly modified from 1589), is missing from this QQJC edition; begins like 1670
  9. 1760; XVII/195
    12 sections; Qingshang Diao; no commentary; elaborate: begins with "拂一至七二七,滾拂七至二至七二七...." but still related.
  10. 1802; XVII/509
    12 sections; no commentary; like 1760
  11. 1833; XXIII/176 and facsimile reprint folio 4
    12 sections; afterword; begins like 1670
  12. 1833; XXI/479
    12 sections; begins like 1670; Zha Guide 359 says "lyrics as 1589" but on p. (197) 155 does not mention them in the pu pairs note names, not lyrics
  13. 1836; XXII/270
    12 sections
  14. 1864; XXIV/253
    12 sections
  15. 1864; XXIV/346
    12 sections
  16. 1868; XXVI/102
    12 sections
  17. 1876; XXV/547
    12 sections; "from 1802"
  18. 1878; XXVI/missing
  19. 1893; XXVIII/122
    12 sections; attrib. Pan Tingjian; lyrics (at end, not paired) related to 1589, etc.
  20. 1894; XXVIII/360
    12 sections; called 秋院搗衣 Qiu Yuan Dao Yi but still related
  21. 1914; not in QQJC)
  22. 1931; QQJC XXIX/213
    12 sections; tuning not indicated but still raise 2nd, 5th and 7th strings.
    This last version listed, in Meian Qinpu (1931) and the more recently discovered
    Longyinguan Qinpu (1799?), is discussed further below.

Examining the above reveals that there is considerable variety among the versions of this melody, the melody has several different names (for versions [also] called Qiushui Nong see below as well as Zha's Guide 15/162/356), and the name of the mode often changes. However, all of the above seem to be related, and many prefaces have the same attribution to Pan Tingjian. (One exception: the Huangzhong mode Dao Yi.)

13. Shared motif with Qiu Hong
This 7-note motif ( 6 6 1 1̅ 2 1 1̅ ) is hinted at in Dao Yi 1589 Section 1 (end) then occurs in its full form at the end of Sections 8 and 12 (end of piece).

14. Pairing lyrics and music: how did they influence each other?
The origins of qin melodies is a major unanswered question. Sometimes they are called "compositions", as though specifically written by a single person. Most surviving tablature probably reflects melodies evolved through play by one or more masters, over time, then were transcribed, and if popular often revised, by masters or students. Mention has been made above of the idea that Dao Yi has its origins in flower drum songs. The 1589 version, with lyrics, seems (from my own attempts at reconstruction) as though it could be primarily an instrumental melody, with lyrics added later. But how was the pairing actually done? The standard pairing method reminds one of the pairing of ci lyrics. And just as pairing according to ci patterns might be done impromptu at an elegant gathering, perhaps the same could have been done with Dao Yi. On the other hand, could someone have improvised such music to fit the lyrics? To evaluate such possibilies one must take into account the fact that in some places the pairing of words and music seems quite awkward, and the quality of the lyrics may not be particularly high. In addition, quite likely there would have been modifications made during the process of writing the result down.

Several specific aspects of the melody may be relevant here. First, the lyrics of Sections 11 and 12 of the 1589 edition can be found in the melodically unrelated version of 1539, perhaps suggesting that the lyrics came first. In addition, several sections include couplets structured 7+7x2: was this inspired by some aspect of the music in those spots? For some of these the music seems to form a corresponding musical couplet, but for others this is not so evident. Furthermore, the awkward connection of lyrics and music in certain places, in particular with the note runs at the beginning of Sections 2 and 9, perhaps suggests that the lyrics were at least in some places rather casually paired to the music: if it was the music being created for existing lyrics, one might expect a better pairing. Or perhaps this suggests that the 1589 version was created by modifying pre-existing versions of either the music, or lyrics, or both.

The modern interpretation of the note runs at the beginning of several sections (e.g. Section 1: 拂一至六) is generally to play them as individual notes rather than as a quick run: this is quite uncommon today. If in an early version these individual notes were each paired to a word, this might explain how this custom arose. However, in Sections 2 and 9 of the 1589 edition (as well as the others with lyrics that I have been able to examine) these notes are not clearly paired against characters: the pairing in some cases suggests no words on a note run, in other cases one or two words; in no case is there a word for each note.

This whole issue requires further research.

15. Flower Drum Songs (花鼓歌 Huagu Ge)
The commentary on this that I have seen is 嚴曉星,《「搗衣」作者潘庭堅考》,發表於2010年第6期《書品》, which quotes correspondence with 李楓 Li Feng). It in particular suggests that this melody as played in Mei'an Qinpu has the flavor of flower drum songs.

16. Dao Yi in Mei'an Qinpu (XXIX/213; "Wuyi tuning" not explained, but raised 2nd, 5th and 7th strings, as with guxian diao)
There is extensive discussion and a transcription (without tablature) in Fredric Lieberman, A Chinese Zither Tutor, p.131ff. It translates the Mei'an afterword (not in Zha Guide), which describes the woman thinking of her 親人 husband/lover "河畔搗衣時 while pounding cloth by the river". This has led some commentators to interpret "pounding clothes" as washing them in the river. There are nearly identical versions of the melody at least two other handbooks:

  1. Longyinguan Qinpu (1799?)
    Said to be proto-Meian; 8th melody; no commentary
  2. Wuxueshanfang Qinpu (1836).
    Said to be early Lingnan School; calls tuning taicou

Modern recordings are available.

17. Dao Yi in Huangzhong Mode (raise fifth, lower first strings: 1 3 5 6 1 2 3)
A transcription of this melody as played by 龍琴舫 Long Qinfang is in Guqin Quji I, pp.260-264 (commentary on p.9); it has 8 sections. There is also a recording. It is said to follow the melody of this name composed by 錢壽占 Qian Shouzhan, and to be in the collection of Qian's melodies in Qianshi Shi Cao. However the version of that handbook in QQJC (XXIV; see next footnote) does not seem to have it.

18. Ten Melodies of Mr. Qian (錢氏十操 Qianshi Shicao, 1880)
This is presumably the same handbook as the Qin Handbook of Qian Shouzhan, 10 Melodies (錢壽佔琴譜十操 Qian Shouzhan Qinpu Shicao published in QQJC XXIV). Note that the name 錢壽佔 Qian Shouzhan is written 錢壽占 with the Dao Yi in Guqin Quji, and 錢綬詹 in Xu Jian's Outline History (see under Tianwen'ge Qinpu). Guqin Quji attributes the melody to Qian, but the melody is not included in this handbook (see previous footnote) .

19. Qingshang Modal Prelude (清商調 Qingshang Diao) 17 (QQJC VII/217)
In 1609 Qingshang Diao does not come just before Dao Yi. Instead it comes near the end, just before the melody Feiming Yin (which also has lyrics, unlike in 1425), so one might think it is intended as a modal prelude for that piece, but there is significant evidence to suggest it will combine better with Dao Yi.

The reasons to pair it with Dao Yi include,

These factors suggest that perhaps these lyrics, and thus the prelude itself, might better relate to Dao Yi than the 1609 Fei Ming Yin (which also has lyrics).

Zha Guide 30/236/442 lists it in four handbooks:

1609 (here; see in chart)
1670 (no: = GX; again see comment in chart)

Note that this melody was not in the 1589 edition, making its intention somewhat more problematic.

This melody, except that the last line (the harmonic closing) is actually much like the one in 1525b, is rather different, having 13 notes instead of 8, thus allowing the lyrics to fit by normal pairing.

20. Original preface
The original Chinese preface is:


「忽見陌頭楊柳色,悔教夫婿覓封侯!」 蓋此意也。而潘君搗衣之曲,又模寫情狀,志、趣高遠,怨而不怒,有風人不義焉。始則感秋風而搗衣,對明月而徘徊;既則傷魚雁之杳然,悲羈旅之寥落;終則飛夢魂於塞北,敘離思之參商;而又恨鎖春山,淚溢秋水,一行書、千行淚,只欲衣先於寒,寒後於衣,而功名富貴,贅之楮末。蓋惟知篤夫婦之義,而等名利如土梗矣。其中吟韻蕭條,冰絃淒慘,有孤鸞寡鵠之態云。

In couplet in the middle of this preface is half of an "old poem" by 王昌齡 Wang Changling (ca.690 - ca.756) called Boudoir Lament (or: Lady's Chamber Lament, 閨怨 Gui Yuan; compare lyrics under Gui Yuan Cao). The full poem is:

In her boudoir seldom is a woman unaware of anxiety,
    as on spring days she vacantly gazes into the makeup mirror in her elegant pavilions.
Suddenly she sees at the top of the lane the color of poplars and willows,
    and regrets having advised her husband to seek enfeoffment.
Translation tentative and incomplete. The 1539 Dao Yi Qu and the 1589 Gui Yuan Cao both have lyrics that also mention regrets for seeking enfeoffment, with the latter also mentioning the vacant staring.

21. Dao Yi music (1589; (QQJC VII/129ff)
The calligraphy for the section titles were very hard to read: thanks to 孫小青 Sun Xiaoqing for helping me read them. They were not not copied in the Zha Guide, perhaps because they were not included in the
1609 edition).

On the other hand, the tablature in the 1589 edition is clearly written with few obvious errors. Nevertheless, the tablature style at the time causes some problems with potential non-pentatonic notes, in particular the fact that in this handbook positions between the hui are indicated only as "half"; problems with this are mentioned elsewhere. Note also that for some reason in the 1609 edition called Qinpu Hebi the final three lines of Section 9 have completely different tablature from that of the 1589 edition. The 1589 version is odd but playable; the 1609 seems to be garbled.

As with Daoyi Qu there are some copying errors that complicate interpretation of this melody.

22. 1589 Dao Yi section titles
The original section titles and their pronunciation are as follows (with timings following my recording 聽錄音):

00.00     1. 感時興思 Gǎn shí xīng sī
00.37     2. 對月懷情 Duì yuè huái qíng
01.32     3. 音信杳然 Yīn xìn yǎo rán
02.12     4. 遙悲旅况 Yáo bēi lǚ kuàng
02.45     5. 時變授衣 Shí biàn shòu yī
03.21     6. 夢統邊關 Mèng tǒng biān guān
04.05     7. 歷叙離愁 Lì xù lí chóu
04.49     8. 竊嘆參商 Qiè tàn shēn shāng
05.15     9. 塞北凄涼 Sài běi qī liáng
05.58   10. 恨春山壓 Hèn chūn shān yā
06.45   11. 遠寄征袍 Yuǎn jì zhēng páo
07.40   12. 勒憅麟閣 Lēi tòng língé yōu
08.05         泛音 (harmonic closing, still with lyrics)
08.23         曲終 (melody ends)

1589 Dao Yi lyrics
These lyrics (not yet translated) are paired to the tablature by the
standard pairing method in all 12 sections. These lyrics are as follows (note inserts of 7x4 poems in sections 7, 8, 9 and 10; there are more in sections 11 and 12, which seem to have been taken from 1539 Dao Yi Qu, except as noted):











搗衣,搗衣,復搗衣,  搗到更深月落時。
臂弱不勝砧杵重,       心忙惟恐搗聲遲。
妾身不是商人妾,       商人貿易東復西。
妾身不是蕩子婦,       寂寞空房為誰苦。
          Comparing the 1539 lyrics, 1589 Dao Yi ends Section 11 by changing 苦 to 守 (shou: protect [herself]), then adding:
          砧聲急,淚如雨,搗衣復搗衣,衣成矣。 Block sounds urgent, tears like rain, pound cloth, pound it again, until the clothing is ready.
          收拾寄寒衣,莫教衣到遲。 Prepare for sending cold(-weather) clothing, cannot allow the clothing to be late.

妾夫為國戎邊頭,       黃金鎖甲的那跨紫騮。
從渠一去三十秋,       死當廟食生封侯。
如此別離尤不惡,       年年為君搗衣與君著。

To my knowledge there are have been no recordings or transcriptions of this 1609 version other than my own.

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