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Guqin Handbooks Published in Japan   Correct Toko Kinpu   From Gyokudo   Japan Theme   Qinci 首頁
Content of Japanese Guqin Handbooks
Focus on perhaps the earliest, the Qin Handbook with Lyrics and Pronunciation
日本琴譜目錄 1
Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu, p.12  

Japanese qin players have published numerous handbooks over the years. Most of the important early ones are mentioned in Guqin Handbooks Published in Japan, with some information on later ones also given on that page. Included in Qinqu Jicheng Volume XII are reprints of three of the most important handbooks.

The three Japanese handbooks published in QQJC are as follows:

  1. 和文注音琴譜 Hewen Zhu(yin) Qinpu (Wabun Chuyin Kinpu), <1676   (Appendix I)
  2. &
  3. 東皋琴譜 Donggao Qinpu (Toko Kinpu), 1709?

Until 2016 my work on qin melodies in Japan was confined to the above volumes. However, in 2016 I acquired information about two other important sources:

The music in those two handbooks will be dicussed separately. Meanwhile, the present page outlines the contents of the three handbooks published in Volume XII of Qinqu Jicheng; this should then be compared against the details in the "Correct Toko Kinpu".

Because the three handbooks have considerable overlap in content, these contents are given here as three appendices on a single page rather than separately.  
-------------------------------------------------------

Appendix I

Wabun Chuin Kinpu (?; <1676?)
和文注音琴譜
Hewen Zhu(yin) Qinpu
Qinqu Jicheng, Vol. XII/167 - 241
"Qin Handbook with Lyrics and Pronunciation"

38 melodies (34-1st); all with lyrics, hence the title. Except for the Fusang cao, these were intended to represent the melodies 蔣興疇 Jiang Xingchou took from Hangzhou to Japan in 1676 (though the fact that it survived only in a later edition perhaps led to the inclusion of some extra pieces); there, as the monk 心越 Shin-etsu (and other names), he taught many students. Many handbooks following Shin-Etsu's tradition were published later in Japan, generally with the title Toko Kinpu.

The volume used for QQJC, now in the Shanghai Library, was brought from Japan around 1900 by Zhou Qingyun. It is a hand copy said at one time to have been in 桂川家藏 the collection of the Katsuragawa family.4 In QSCM (#321) Zhou Qingyun writes that 每譜前有桂川家藏印記 in front of each melody was the Katsuragawa family seal. The copy in QQJC has the seal marks only in front of a few of these.5 This brings up the question of whether Zhou may have made his own copy, or had someone make a copy, from the original.

Zha Fuxi in his preface ascribes the date of this collection to "before 1676". He also says that it was compiled by the monk Toko Etsu. This must be based on a belief that the melodies were brought to Japan by the Buddhist monk Jiang Xingchou when he arrived there from Hangzhou in 1676; in Japan he was known as Toko Etsu (also other names).

However, as the QQJC preface itself points out, in this handbook most of the melodies have indications that either Shin-Etsu himself or one of his students revised them.6 In addition, the handbook itself labels two of the melodies (#34 and #35) as 扶桑操 Fusang Cao, Japanese melodies (Fusang was an old name for Japan).7

The evidence suggesting that many of these melodies were at that time actively played in China is largely circumstantial. Although very few of them can be found in handbooks published in China, there were probably many qin songs that were sung but, though perhaps hand-copied, never published. And before Jiang Xingchou arrived in Japan and became Shin-Etsu, he was active as a qin player in both Nanjing and Hangzhou. Nanjing was a center of the so-called Jiang School, which emphasized qin melodies with lyrics.

Cipai (lyrics that use the structures of old ci poems)

Cipai deserve special mention here, as qin handbooks in Japan are unusual in their heavy use of lyrics in this poetic form (for more on this see Cipai and Qin Melodies). The titles of these melodies are generally the name of the cipai, with a subtitle referring to the specific theme of the lyrics. One would think that once one had devised a melody for lyrics that fit a cipai, one would then apply other lyrics to the same melody. However, there is no evidence that this was done. Instead, as with #22 and #23 there seems to be a tendency to make new melodies for the existing lyrics.

The following is a list of melodies here in Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu that have the names of cipai:

  1. #2. 清平樂 Qing Ping Yue (recording)
  2. #3. 浪淘沙 Lang Tao Sha (recording)
  3. #4. 東風齊著力 Dongfeng Qi Zhuo Li
  4. #14. 瑞鶴仙 Rui He Xian (subtitle: Zui Weng Ting)
  5. #15. 鳳凰台上憶吹簫 Fenghuangtaishang Yi Chui Xiao (recordings)
  6. #17. 鶴沖霄He Chong Xiao
  7. #18. 南浦月 Nan Pu Yue
  8. #22. 離別難 Li Bie Nan (#1)
  9. #23. 離別難 Li Bie Nan (#2)
  10. #26. 月當廳 Yue Dang Ting
  11. #27. 憶王孫 Yi Wangsun
  12. #29. 長相思 Chang Xiang Si (recording)
  13. #30. 相思曲 Xiang Si Qu (recordings of six versionss)

Sometimes a melody may have "詞 ci" in the title but not be classified as a cipai (e.g., Zhu Zhi Ci). In addition, a melody may have the name of a cipai but lyrics that do not follow its structure.

Melodies published in both China and Japan

So far I have found the following connections between the melodies published in Japan and melodies surviving in handbooks produced in China.

See also Yu Qiao Wenda and Yangguan Sandie under the Toko Kinpu.
 

    Table of Contents for Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu

  1. 調絃入弄 Tiaoxian Runong (XII/167)
    A beginner's piece; lyrics ("得道仙翁,得道陳摶仙翁....") and music unattributed;
    No commentary; related to Chinese versions also called
    Caoman Yin

    Gong Mode (宮音 Gong Yin)

  2. 清平樂 Qingping Yue; subtitle: 七夕 Qi Xi (7th night [of the 7th month]; XII/168)
    Qingping Yue is the name of a 詞牌 cipai with 46 characters (as here: 4,5;7,6. 6,6;6,6). For the version in Japanese handbooks the lyrics ("The magpie bridge forms....") by 孫蒼虬 Sun Cangqiu concern the legend of the cowherd and weaving girl (牛郎織女), as follows:

    鵲橋成了,猶限歡娛少。爭似秦樓瓜菓早,盡向斯時乞巧。
    凝眸斗渚迢遙,浮槎定擬今宵。誰識天涯此際,教人暗裏魂銷。   (translation)

  3. 浪淘沙 Lang Tao Sha (Waves Scouring the Sands); subtitle 懷舊 Huai Jiu (Yearning for the past; XII/169)
    Zha Guide 32/--/471: 1618 (only VIII/342 [1-string qin] and Japan [same lyrics, different music])
    Lyrics by 歐陽修 Ouyang Xiu begin "把酒祝東風,且共從容...." (cipai: [5,4;7;7,4.] x 2);

  4. 東風齊著力 Dongfeng Qi Zhuo Li (East Wind of Qi Exerts Strength); subtitle: 除夜 Chuye (New Year's Eve; XII/170)
    Zha Guide 34/--/502 only in Japan; 14827.323 name of a 詞牌
    cipai; not 東風齋著力 Dongfeng Zhai Zhuo Li
    Lyrics by 胡浩然 Hu Haoran (Song dynasty; included in 全宋詞)
    Second half seems to begin with a double slide left over from first half: mistake?

    殘臘收寒,三陽初轉,已換年華。
         東君律管,迤邐到山家。處處笙簧鼎沸,會佳宴、坐列仙娃。花叢裏,金爐滿爇,龍麝煙斜。
    此景轉堪誇,深意祝、壽山福海增加。
         玉觥滿泛,且莫厭流霞。幸有迎春壽酒,銀瓶浸、幾朵梅花。休辭醉,園林秀色,百草萌芽。

    4,4,4; 4,5; 6,7; 3,4,4.
    5,3,6; 4,5; 6,7; 3,4,4.

    Shang Mode (商音 Shang Yin)

  5. 三才引 San Cai Yin (XII/172)
    Zha Guide 25/208/502 has one other,
    1559 (no lyrics; unrelated melody)
    Lyrics are from from 中庸 Doctrine of the Mean, Chapter 26 (Legge, Confucius, Dover, p.420); see Wang Yiheng (?)

    天地之道,可一言而盡也。其為物不二,則其生物不測....故曰配天。

  6. 大哉引 Dazai Yin (XII/174)
    Zha Guide 34/--/502 only in Japan
    Lyrics are from 中庸 Doctrine of the Mean, Chapter 27 (Legge, Confucius, Dover, p.422); again see
    Wang Yiheng (?)

    大哉聖人之道,洋洋乎....其足以容。
      尾:詩曰:既明且哲,以保其身,其此之謂與。

  7. 秋風辭 Qiu Feng Ci (XII/177)
    Zha Guide 34/260/503 lists it here and in 1840 (XXIII/347)
    See also below; "聖湖野樵訂 Edited by Seiko ...."(?)
    Lyrics are a poem in YFSJ (p.1180) attributed to 漢武帝 Han emperor Wudi (辭 not 詞)

    秋風起兮白雲飛....

  8. 歸去來辭 Gui Qu Lai Ci (XII/178)
    Zha Guide 13/145/251; main intro and translation at
    1511
    Lyrics by 陶淵明 Tao Yuanming; similar to the common ones, but divided into sections as in Taigu Zhengyin Qinpu (Yangchun Tang Qinpu, 1611; VII/455)

    歸去來兮....

  9. 子夜吳歌 Ziye Wu Ge (XII/185)
    Zha Guide 34/--/503; only in Japan
    Lyrics by 李青蓮 i.e., 李白 Li Bai.

    長安一片月,萬戶擣衣聲。
    秋風吹不盡,總是玉關情。
    何日平胡虜,良人罷遠征。

  10. 幽澗泉 You Jian Quan (Secluded Cascading Spring; XII/186)
    Zha Guide 34/260/504: only Japan and the musically unrelated 1739 (XVIII/161)
    Lyrics by Li Bai;
    further detail.

  11. 久別離 Jiu Bieli (XII/188)
    Zha Guide 35/--/504: only in Japan; 122.23 jiu bie: long separated
    Same as Jiu Libie
    below; lyrics by Li Bai

    別來幾春未還家。
    玉窗五見櫻桃花。
    況有錦字書。
    開緘使人嗟。
    至此腸斷彼心絕。
    雲鬟綠鬢罷梳結。
    愁如回飆亂白雪。 (飆 here written 一 over 儿 with 百 inside plus 炎 at right)
    去年寄書報陽台。
    今年寄書重相催。
    東風兮東風。
    為我吹行雲使西來。
    待來竟不來。
    落花寂寂委青苔。

  12. 醉翁操 Zui Weng Cao (XII/190)
    Zha Guide 16/--/362 醉翁亭 (also 醉翁吟, e.g,
    1539) lists various versions with differing music and sometimes differing lyrics (details)
    The lyrics here are by Su Dongpo

    琅然清圓,誰彈響空山....

  13. 八聲甘州 Basheng Ganzhou; subtitle: 送人 Song Ren (Seeing off a Friend; XII/192)
    Zha Guide 35/--/504: only here; 甘州 Ganzhou is today called 張掖 Zhangye (Gansu province)
    Lyrics by
    Su Dongpo

    有情風萬裡卷潮來,無情送潮歸。
    問錢塘江上,西興浦口,幾度斜暉?
    不用思量今古,俯仰昔人非。
    誰似東坡老,白首忘機。
    記取西湖西畔,正春山好處,空翠煙霏。
    算詩人相得,如我與君稀。
    約它年、東還海道,願謝公雅志莫相違。
    西州路,不應回首,為我沾衣。

    The opera Xi Xiang Ji has a song of this title but the structure seems to be different.

  14. 瑞鶴仙 Rui He Xian; subtitle: 醉翁亭 Zui Weng Ting (Old Toper's Pavilion; XII/194)
    Zha Guide 35/--/505: only here; Ruihe Xian (21606.133) is a cipai from a 周邦彥
    Zhou Bangyan Northern Song poem (compare Qiliang Fan as well as Ruilong Yin).
    The lyrics here are by 黃山谷 Huang Shan'gu (i.e., Huang Tingjian), retelling Ouyang Xiu's 醉翁亭記 Record of the Old Toper's Pavilion
    Although it reads like a narrative, it does follow a version of the ci pattern.

    環滁皆山也,望蔚然深秀....

  15. 鳳凰台上憶吹簫 Fenghuangtaishang Yi Chui Xiao; subtitle: 離別 Li Bie (Departure; XII/196)
    43079.41: On Phoenix Terrace Recalling the Playing of a Flute; no mention of cipai
    Zha Guide 35/--/505: only here, adding "different from 1609" (Gui Yuan Cao), which has the same lyrics but a different melody
    The title is a cipai; the lyrics by 李易南, i.e., 李清照 Li Qingzhao (1084 - ca.1151), are about her absent lover:

    香冷金猊,被翻紅浪,起來慵自梳頭....

  16. 太平引 Taiping Yin (XII/198)
    Zha Guide 35/--/505: only here; 5965.xxx
    Lyrics: first verse is by 賀東山 He Dongshan (He Zhu 賀鑄 1052 - 1125; ICTCL; from 豔聲歌 [太平時七首]);
          Second verse is by 辛棄疾
    Xin Qiji (both have 40 characters but phrasing is different)

    1. 蜀錦塵香生襪羅,小婆娑。個儂無賴動人多。是橫波。樓角雲開風卷幕,月侵河。纖纖持酒艷聲歌。奈情何。
    2. 長記瀟湘秋晚,歌舞橘洲人散。走馬月明中,折芙蓉。今日西山南浦,畫棟珠簾雲雨。 風景不爭多,奈愁何。

  17. 鶴沖霄 He Chong Xiao (Cranes Pierce the Clouds; XII/200)
    Zha Guide 35/--/506, only in Japan; 48157.42 and 12/1145 have only 鶴沖天 He Chong Tian (see in
    1511): Cranes Pierce the Heavens
      (or A Crane Pierces the Heavens, i.e., a person becomes an immortal in the form of a crane);
    Lyrics, by 和凝 He Ning (3600.308; 10th c), are verse 2 of his poem in cipai 春光好 Chun Guang Hao
      (一名愁倚欄令; verse 1 had almost the same structure), as follows (from 全唐詩,卷893_29):

    蘋葉軟,杏花明,畫船輕。雙浴鴛鴦出綠汀,棹歌聲。
    春水無風無浪,春天半雨半晴。 紅粉相隨南浦晚,幾含情。

  18. 南浦月 Nan Pu Yue (XII/201)
    Zha Guide 35/--/506; only here; 2798.371 Nanpu only (south bank;
    cipai name; name of various rivers)
    Lyrics by 何籀 He Zhou (Bio/xxx; Song); in 四庫全書 under 點降脣 Dian Jiang Chun (49065.47: a cipai; see also Zha Guide). Lyrics here have same the structure as in 1682 (滴瀝新晴,高秋雲薄渾如削....) as well as in Caotang Yin #2, below. The opera Xi Xiang Ji has several songs of this title with shortened versions of the lyrical pattern. In Nan Pu Yue the lyrics are,

    鶯踏花翻,亂紅堆徑無人掃。 (鶯 is elsewhere written 鸎)
    杜鵑來了,梅子枝頭小。
    撥盡琵琶,總是相思調。
    知音少。
    暗傷懷抱,門掩青春老。

  19. 飛瓊吟 Fei Qiong Yin (XII/202)
    Zha Guide 24/203/506 has two, the other an unrelated melody from
    1559 with no lyrics
    The literal meaning of fei qiong is (water looking like pieces of) flying red jade. 44974.336 飛瓊 says Feiqiong is the name of a female immortal at the time of Han Wudi; the introduction in 1559 suggests the literal meaning is intended. Here, however, I am not sure how this connects to the musically unrelated present melody, which is set to lyrics from one of the Three Poems on Snow (雪三首 Xue San Shou) by 林和靖 Lin Heqing, i.e., 林逋 Lin Bu:

    瓦溝如粉疊樓腰,高會誰能解酒貂。
    清夾曉林初落索,冷和春雨轉飄蕭。
    堪憐雀避來閒地,最愛僧衝過短橋。
    獨有閉關孤隱者,一軒貧病在顏瓢。

  20. 梅花 Mei Hua (also called 瑤芳引 Yao Fang Yin; XII/203)
    Further detail here including my recording together with the lyrics by Lin Bu.

    山園小梅 Shan Yuan Xiao Mei (How Plum Flowers Embarrass a Garden)

    眾芳搖落獨鮮妍,佔盡風情向小園。 (鮮 elsewhere 暄)
    疏影橫斜水清淺,暗香浮動月黃昏。
    霜禽欲下先偷眼,粉蝶如知合斷魂。
    幸有微吟可相狎,不須檀板共金尊。

    (Listen also to Mei Shao Yue)

  21. 偶成 Ou Cheng (short for 秋日偶成 Qiuri Ou Cheng; XII/204)
    Zha Guide 35/--/507: only in Japan; 35: "即程頤詩 actually a poem by Cheng Yi" (should be Cheng Hao);
    Bio/2312: lived in 洛陽 Luoyang (
    Henan), with his brother Cheng Hao
    Lyrics are a poem by "程明道 Cheng Mingdao" (程顥 Cheng Hao; 1032 - 85; Bio/2313)
    Translation under Jing Guan Yin.

    閑來無事不從容,睡覺東窗日已紅。
    萬物靜觀皆自得,四時佳興與人同。
    道通天地有形外,思入風云變態中。
    富貴不淫貧賤樂,男兒到此是豪雄。

    An introduction to Jing Guan Yin quotes the second line of these lyrics.

    Yu Mode (羽音 Yu Yin)

  22. 離別難 Libie Nan (Parting is Such Sorrow); subtitle: "送蔣馭鹿遊建溪 (Seeing Jiang Yulu off to Jianxi; XII/205)
    Zha 35/--/507: only in Japan. Jiang Yulu was Jiang Rui (1625-98; 蔣銳,字玉淵,號馭鹿,江蘇武進人 [original has 庶 for 鹿]; no connection to
    Jiang Xingchou); 9786.104 建溪 Jianxi is in Fujian.

    43079.43 離別難 says it is 詞牌名 the name of a cipai, but the only ref. seems to be to the introduction to this title in YFSJ 80/1131 (that entry is followed by two poems unrelated to those here; they begin, "此别難重陳...." and "綠楊陌上送行人...."). The lyrics here are by 鄒訏士 Zou Xushi (not 鄒訐士), style name of 鄒祇謨 Zou Zhimo (see also #23, #24 and #26).

    越水吳山,待扁舟久矣棲遲。只丈夫,南北東西。著徵衫,何必贈將離。
    應只有,奇字盈囊。虎跳龍臥。落紙徵飛。過嚴灘。為訪富春舊跡。重上釣魚磯。
    雲冉冉。草萋萋。憶臨岐,秋士休悲。聽武夷幔亭仙樂。便驂鸞梅福也相期。
    何況是,到處逢迎。天涯知己,斫鱠銜杯。懷故苑。暢好荔枝未熟。勸汝莫忘歸。 (112字)

    Websites show two different ci patterns with this name; one has 87 characters, the other 112, as here, but with somewhat different phrasing (mostly subdivisions as marked with , above; also, the first two phrases are 6+5). The "represenative poem" is by 柳永 Liu Yong.

  23. 離別難,又譜 Libie Nan #2; subtitle as above (XII/207)
    Zha 35/--/507 as above; comment also as above.

    Lyrics as #22 but differences in the music.

  24. 華清引 Hua Qing Yin (XII/209)
    Zha Guide 35/--/508: only in Japan; 華清引 31910.208 only 華清 Hua Qing (man's name)
    Lyrics by 鄒訏士 Zou Xushi (鄒祇謨
    Zou Zhimo); see also #22, #23 and #26
    (Elsewhere the poem has the added comment "晏起 (評語:羡門雲,非玉台金屋人不解。")

    重重珠幕護窗紗。春思方佳。一種嬌慵如夢。微聞鶯語嘩。
    丁香輕掩扣微差。綠雲半側堆鴉。枕痕紅暈重。不敢見菱花。

  25. 霹靂引 Pili Yin (XII/210)
    Zha Guide 35/261/508: Only in Japan (261 has comments from four sources, not qinpu;
    Music is unrelated to the
    Pili Yin used for Feng Lei Yin
    Lyrics by 唐,沈佺期 Shen Quanqi (c.650-713) are in YFSJ:

    歲七月火伏而金生,客有鼓瑟於門者,奏霹靂之商聲....

  26. 月當廳 Yue Dang Ting; subtitle: 秋夜聞蟋蟀聲 (On an autumn evening hearing cricket sounds; XII/213)
    Zha Guide 35/--/508; only here; 14658.231
    cipai
    Lyrics by 鄒訏士 Zou Xushi (鄒祇謨 Zou Zhimo; see #22, #23 and #24 above)

    小窗煙雨冥冥。響颼飀。吹墜落葉空庭。急杵浮砧。淒淒石竹牆陰。
    偏與愁人作楚。細思量、甚事恰關卿。無端似。空床泣恨。斷軫傳情。
    年年慣做西風伴。隱荒苔。啼殘青穗余燈。哀笳遠笛。飛來何處秋聲。
    二十五番寒照靜。聽清鉦、歷歷嚴更。偏怨汝。叫回孤夢。短發星星。

    Original sources also have: 評語:阮亭云,淒淒切切,此潯陽江上琵琶也。文友亦有詞云「已曾貫滿半閒堂,重來叫破邯鄲枕。」
                  太罪蟋蟀,得無不平耶。當以程村此詞平反之。)

  27. 憶王孫 Yi Wangsun (XII/215)
    Zha Guide 35/--/509: only in Japan; 11558.1:
    cipai; 7,7,7.3,7.
    Lyrics by 秦少游 Qin Shaoyou (秦觀 Qin Guan, 1049 - 1100; ICTCL/2)
    [here the last 7 is repeated]);

    萋萋芳草憶王孫,柳外樓高空斷魂,
    杜宇聲聲不忍聞。欲黃昏,
    雨打梨花深閉門。   (This line written out again for the closing harmonic passage.)

  28. 草堂唫(吟) Caotang Yin (XII/216)
    Zha Guide 35/--/509: only here; 31629.173 etc. xxx
    Lyrics are same as first four sections of the 10+1 section melody 梨雲春思
    Li Yun Chun Si, which attributes them to 錢塘毛先舒 Mao Xianshu, who lived in Hangzhou when Jiang Xingchou was there; the melody is different
    At front: "曲肱軒藏譜,凡四闋" (Tablature from the Qugong Xuan [14610.93: room name of 宋,魏衍 Wei Yan], in four sections)
    At end of sections 3 and 4: "聖湖野樵手挍" (Corrected by Seiko ____)

    1. 鵲橋仙
      輕暖破寒,檐雲閣雨,庭院深深鶯語。
      夭桃枝半出牆頭,見無數蜂狂蝶舞。
      柳外繡鞍,花前羅襪,陌上喧天簫鼓。
      春風意惱人腸,問何處江皋湘浦。
    2. 點絳唇 (Dian Jiang Chun)
      細雨斜風,十二高樓煙幾寸。
      誰相廝讓?傳與青鸞信。
      倦倚珠簾,長抱青春恨。
      悶悶悶。
      亂紅成陣,又是清明近。
    3. 好事近
      獨自步苔階,驚訊海棠開遍。
      怪得東皇有意,也到深深院。
      惜花常是為花愁,羞妬春風面。
      閉門不管韶華,付與驚和燕。
    4. 畫堂春
      借問東風來幾時,玉堂彩燕雙飛。
      浮花浪蘃弄春暉,蜂蝶霏霏。
      門巷輪諦雜沓,園林紅紫芳菲。
      海棠自惜是花妃,着意徘徊,着意徘徊。  

      昨夜東風入畫屏,欹杴不勝情。 

  29. 長相思 Chang Xiang Si; subtitle 春閨 Chun Gui (Spring Chamber; XII/220; transcription)
    Zha Guide 35/--/510; as with #2 Qingping Yue, same lyrics as but different music from:
        1677 (XII/374), 1677 (XII/392) and 1802 (XVII/549); it is not in 1738 (?)
    Lyrics by 馮延巳 Feng Yansi (903? - 960; ICTCL) follow the cipai:

    紅滿枝,綠滿枝,宿雨厭厭睡起遲,閒庭花影移。
    憶歸期,數歸期,夢見雖多相見稀,相逢知幾時。

    春閨 Chun Gui has no connection with 春閨怨 Chun Gui Yuan.

  30. 相思曲 Xiang Si Qu (XII/221; recording and further comment)
    Zha Guide 26/215/408: 3rd of 5 with this title; same lyrics and music as in 1618; compare 1585
    Lyrics, which have no connection to those in YFSJ, are from a ghost story about Su Shi and a female qin player; for this reason they are generally attributed to Su Shi himself.

    音音音,真負心,恁負心....

  31. 竹枝詞 Zhuzhi Ci (XII/222)
    Compare the
    Toko Kinpu version, which adds the instructions that the first two notes should be played in harmonics.
    Zha Guide 35/--/510: only in Japan; zhu zhi ci were (ABC) "ancient folk love poems" or "classical poems on local themes"
    26424.104 竹枝詞 references 劉禹錫 Liu Yuxi, but it has no mention of a cipai and does not quote any lyrics. 26424.103 竹枝 gives more detail, saying zhuzhi were poems in the Songs of Recent Times (近代曲辭 Jindai qu ci) section of Yuefu Shiji. Liu Yuxi lyrics of this title are indeed included in that section of Yuefu Shiji (see Folio 81).

    Two sets of those Liu Yuxi lyrics are set to a version of the present tablature in the book of transcriptions by Wang Di, and one these ("楊柳青青....") is sung on this modern recording. In fact, however, although all the Zhu Zhi lyrics in YFSJ seem to be 7x4, as here, the lyrics actually used in Japan are completely different, as follows:

    非商非羽聲吾伊,     Fēi shāng fēi yǔ shēng wú yī,   (吾伊 is the sound of reading)
        Without (the notes) shang or yu the sound is like reading;

    宛轉歌喉唱豔詞。     wǎn zhuǎn gē hóu chàng yàn cí.
        through the sinuous song line one sings beautiful lyrics.

    斷腸那何人不識,     Duàn cháng nà hé rén bù shí,
        As for heartbreak, who does not know it?

    一腔清韻有誰知。     yī qiāng qīng yùn yǒu shuí zhī.
        As for a clear melody, who does know it?

    The above lyrics are unattributed and I have not been able to find their source. The translation is tentative.

  32. 小操 Xiao Cao (XII/223)
    Zha Guide 35/--/511: only in Japan; "Little Melody"
    Lyrics unattributed

    嫌小人而踏高位,鶴有乘軒。 惡利口之覆邦家,雀能穿屋。

    Shangjiao Mode (商角音 Shangjiao Yin)

  33. 箕山操 Jishan Cao (XII/224)
    Zha Guide 35/--/511: only here; see comment under
    Dun Shi Cao
    Lyrics are unattributed but can be found in earlier sources such as #3 in the Qin Cao of Yang Weizhen. (N.B., baike.baidu.com specifies they are from Yang's 鐵崖樂府 Tiěyá Yuèfǔ.

    箕之山兮可耕而樵,箕之水兮可飲而游。
    牽牛何來兮飲吾上流,彼以天下讓兮我以之逃。
    世豈無堯兮應堯之求,吾與堯友兮不與堯憂。

    Shang Mode (商音 Shang Yin)

    扶桑操(之一) Fusang Cao
    ("Fusang" is an old name for Japan; the following three pieces do not sound Japanese, and this comment is thought to mean they were created by Shin-etsu in Japan itself. See also
    more.)

  34. 熙春操 Xi Chun Cao (扶桑操 Fusang Cao #1; XII/225)
    Zha Guide: 35/--/511: only in Japan
    Lyrics unattributed;

    熙熙日永熙扶桑,君聖臣賢來萬方。
    淳風穆穆,厚德洋洋。
    禮樂聲久,詩書音義長。
    物阜兮,廣貯廣積,民安兮,多善多良。
    山川萃秀兮,水色微茫。
    亰國生奇兮,樹影菁蒼。
    衆美具兮,人齊暢,恍疑遊世羲皇。

  35. 思親引 Si Qin Yin (扶桑操 Fusang Cao #2; XII/227)
    Zha Guide: 35/--/512: only in Japan (no connection to 思親操
    Si Qin Cao)
    Lyrics unattributed

    白雲不共海東齊,東海茫茫望轉迷。
    終日思親人不知,一日思親十二時。

    Jiao Mode (角音 Jiao Yin)

  36. 安排曲 An Pai Qu (XII/228)
    Zha Guide 35/--/512: only in Japan; 7221.314 only an pai
    Lyrics "by a person of the Song dynasty" (compare 安分咏 An Fen Yong in 解人頤 Jie Ren Yi by 錢德蒼 Qian Decang [18th c.]) 功名大小,天已安排了,何用百般機巧。
    榮休喜,辱休惱,開先謝早,此理人知少。
    萬事算來由命,聽自然真個好。

    榮枯得失,天已安排畢,何用強勞心力。
    得一日,過一日,泰來否極,機巧終可益。
    萬事付之一笑,前程事,暗如漆。

    Ruibin Mode (蕤賓音 Ruibin Yin)

  37. 樂極吟 Le Ji Yin (XII/229)
    Zha Guide 24/201/384: see introduction at
    Yu Ge Diao
    Same Liu Zongyuan lyrics but melody is quite different

    漁翁漁翁漁翁夜傍西巖宿....

    Gong Mode (宮音 Gong Yin)

  38. 高山 Gao Shan (XII/230-41)
    Zha Guide 2/21/14; melody and lyrics similar to some of the
    versions published in China,

    The present version is in particular similar in music and lyrics to the only other version with lyrics, i.e., the one in Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu (1585). Both have four sections, though in Japan the sections are not numbered. The lyrics amount to about 700 characters in all, beginning:

    懸崔削壁,天外雲間,蓬萊第一山.... (The entire Gao Shan lyrics can be seen on this .pdf file [146.5 KB]).

 
-------------------------------------------------------

Appendix II

Meiwahon Toko Kinpu (Meiwa Toko Kinpu?; 1771)
明和本東皋琴譜
Minghe Ben Donggao Qinpu
Qinqu Jicheng XII/245-59
Although Van Gulik says that Toko Kinpu has Japanese copies of pieces Shin-etsu (Toko Zenji) taught beginners, this might not have been completely true; Zha Fuxi mentions numerous editions. The earliest (1709) was not available for QQJC, so Zha Fuxi took two of the many later editions and appended them to Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu:

This edition was compiled in the 9th year of Meiwa, 1764 - 1772.

    Table of Contents

  1. 操縵 Cao Man (XII/248)
    Lyrics unattributed; same as
    Tiaoxian Runong

  2. 浪淘沙 Lang Tao Sha (XII/249)
    Lyrics by 歐陽修 Ouyang Xiu; also in
    1676

  3. 滄浪歌 Canglang Ge (XII/250)
    Lyrics (滄浪之水清兮....) by Qu Yuan; Zha Guide 39/--/552; no musical relation to
    Fan Canglang
    Also included below

  4. 鶴沖霄 He Chong Xiao (XII/250)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  5. 思親引 Si Qin Yin (XII/251)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  6. 子夜吳歌 Ziye Wu Ge (XII/252)
    Lyrics; same as 1676

  7. 秋風辭 Qiu Feng Ci (XII/252)
    See also
    1676 above

  8. 寄隱者 Ji Yinzhe (XII/254)
    Lyrics by 杜牧 Du Mu; also
    below; Zha Guide 40/--/553
    Wang Di #35, p.100 transcribes this as 送隱者 Song Yinzhe

    無媒徑路竹蕭蕭,自古雲林遠市朝。
    松道世間唯白髮,貴人頭上不會饒。

  9. 南風歌 Nanfeng Ge (XII/254)
    Zhiyin; lyrics only 南風之薰兮,可以解吾民之慍兮。南風之時兮,可以阜吾民之財兮。
    Same as
    Nanxun Cao below; these lyrics were also in the musically unrelated Nan Feng Ge (1.B.)

  10. 竹枝詞 Zhuzhi Ci (XII/255)
    Lyrics; same lyrics and music as in
    1676 (with a correction)

  11. 憶王孫 Yi Wangsun (XII/255)
    Lyrics; same as
    1676

  12. 華清引 Hua Qing Yin (XII/256)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  13. 小操 Xiao Cao (XII/257)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  14. 長相思 Chang Xiang Si (XII/258)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  15. 陽關曲 Yangguan Qu (XII/258)
    Lyrics: only the four lines of Wang Wei's poem, thus a shorter version of the Yangguan Sandie
    below

 
-------------------------------------------------------

Appendix III

Ohara Shiro's Toko Kinpu (1898)
大原止郎本東皋琴譜
Dayuan Zhilang ben Donggao Qinpu
Qinqu Jicheng, XII/261-285
No further information as yet on Ohara Shiro

    Table of Contents

  1. 調絃入弄 Tiaoxian Runong (XII/263)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  2. 長相思 Chang Xiang Si (XII/263)
    Lyrics by 馮延已 Feng Yanyi (not in YFSJ 69, pp.990-5); also in
    1676

  3. 南熏操 Nanxun Cao (XII/263)
    Lyrics and music same as in Nanfeng Ge
    above but mode called shangyin

  4. 滄浪歌 Canglang Ge (XII/263)
    Lyrics; also in
    1772

  5. 梅花 Mei Hua (XII/264)
    Lyrics by
    Lin Bu; virtually identical to 1676

  6. 偶成 Ou Cheng (XII/264)
    Lyrics; same as
    1676

  7. 秋風辭 Qiu Feng Ci (XII/264)
    Same as
    1676 and 1772

  8. 熙春操 Xi Chun Cao (XII/265)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  9. 鳴鳳朝陽 Ming Feng Chaoyang (XII/265)
    Lyrics (丹鳳五色羽,其名為鳳凰....) unattributed (101.237xxx?)
    47641.102xxx; only here; not in Zha Guide; not related to
    1525

  10. 安排曲 Anpai Qu (XII/266)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  11. 子夜吳歌 Ziye Wu Ge (XII/266)
    Lyrics; also in 1676

  12. 相思曲 Xiang Si Qu (XII/266)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  13. 小操 Xiao Cao (XII/267)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  14. 東風齊著力 Dongfeng Qi Zhuo Li (XII/267)
    Lyrics; same as
    1676

  15. 久離別 Jiu Libie (XII/267)
    Lyrics; same as Jiu Bieli in
    1676

  16. 浪淘沙 Lang Tao Sha (XII/268)
    Lyrics by 歐陽修 Ouyang Xiu; also in
    1676

  17. 石交吟 Shi Jiao Yin (XII/268)
    Lyrics (相逢此地....); not in Zha Guide; only here

  18. 幽澗泉 You Jian Quan (XII/269)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  19. 醉翁操 Zui Weng Cao (XII/269)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  20. 三才引 Sancai Yin (XII/270)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  21. 寄隱者 Ji Yinzhe (XII/271)
    Lyrics; also in
    1772

  22. 清平樂 Qingping Yue (XII/271)
    Lyrics by 孫蒼虬 Sun Cangqiu (孫蒼虯? 7135.xxx); also in
    1676

  23. 大哉引 Dazai Yin (XII/272)
    Lyrics; same as
    1676

  24. 霹靂引 Pili Yin (XII/272)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  25. 離別難 Libie Nan (XII/273)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676 (2)

  26. 歸去來辭 Gui Qu Lai Ci (XII/274)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  27. 樂極吟 Leji Yin (XII/276)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  28. 思親引 Si Qin Yin (XII/276)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  29. 漁樵問答 Yu Qiao Wenda (XII/276)
    Lyrics; related to various
    Yu Qiao Wenda Chinese versions, especially the one dated 1589?
    Transcribed in Wang Di, Xian Ge Ya Yun #51, p.117.

  30. 陽關三疊 Yangguan Sandie (XII/280)
    Lyrics; related to the
    short Chinese version
    Transcribed in Wang Di, Xian Ge Ya Yun #50, p.116

  31. 猗蘭操 Yi Lan Cao (XII/281)
    Lyrics (習習谷風....) as section 1 of
    1511 and of 1618, but melody seems unlike any Chinese version

  32. 瑞鶴仙 Rui He Xian (XII/281)
    Lyrics; also in
    1676

  33. 夜座 Ye Zuo (XII/282)
    Only lyrics, no music

  34. 舟夜 Zhou Ye (XII/282)
    Only lyrics, no music

  35. 操縵引 Caoman Yin (XII/283)
    No lyrics, only music, but lyrics should be as in
    #1 above

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. 琴曲集成 Qinqu Jicheng (QQJC), Volume XII/165-381
(Return)

2. Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu, p.1
From QQJC XII/207. This expanded version has pp. 207/208. The larger seal below the title of the first piece says, "桂川家臧 Katsuragawa Family Collection" (see below".
(Return)

3. "Correct Toko Kinpu"
As yet I have only seen a photocopy of the Table of Contents.
(Return)

4. Katsuragawa Family Collection (桂川家藏)
桂川月池 Katsuragawa Etchi (1751 - 1809), a doctor of Chinese medicine, was also a qin player. See Van Gulik, Lore, p.239.
(Return)

5. Pieces with the Katsuragawa family seal
There are four: QQJC/XII/pp.167, 190, 205 and 220. The image at top shows p.167.
(Return)

6. "訂正、校正"; it is not clear whether the revisions were to the melodies, to the lyrics, or to both.
(Return)

7. A preliminary investigation suggests they are still in a Chinese style.
(Return)

 
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