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58. Intonation for Poetry
Yu mode 5 6 1 2 3 5 6 2
|Original tablature from 1573 (expand) 3|
As discussed under Cipai and Qin Melodies, it is interesting to consider the issue of pairing words and music in connection with the old concept regarding qi poetry. According to theory, ci lyrics originally accompanied a melody; the melody was subsequently lost, but people would still write poems according to the word count and tonal patterns of the original ci. It is fairly rare to find a qin melody with lyrics that fit an old ci pattern (see Surviving qin melodies and qin songs connected to ci patterns) and I have not yet found one that includes the instructions that the melody could be used with any lyrics following that pattern.
Getting back to the melody here in 1573, the title of the poem by 杜甫 Du Fu (712 - 770) to which it is set has been translated as Echoing Chancellery Secretary Jia Zhi's Poem on Morning Levee; the original poem and a translation are shown below. This poem has four 7-character couplets, but no other lyrics in 1573 or 1585 have this structure.5
Xing Tan Yin; Apricot Tree Forum Intonation
On the other hand, both the 1573 (#40) and 1585 (#56) handbooks do have a melody called Xing Tan Yin the lyrics of which are structured (7+7)x2. These lyrics, included below (with my recording), first survive from 1525, where the melody is completely different. They are also included as part of the 1573 and 1585 versions of the learning exercise generally called Caoman Yin. Here the musical settings in the 1573 and 1585 editions are slightly different from each other but almost the same as the melody used for the first half of Shi Yin.
To sum up, both of these pieces, Shi Yin and Xing Tan Yin, fit the pattern set up in the preface for use with further melodies, but none of the editions I have seen of this handbook (see list) includes or mentions specific other lyrics that can be substituted, nor have I seen this melody (or mention of it) in any other old handbooks.6
On the other hand, there is in fact at least one other qin melody that was intended to serve as a melody for others in the same pattern. This is a piece called Qin Poem (Qin Shi), published in 1590 in Qinshu Daquan.
In addition, a pre-existing published example of the Shi Yin melody paired with other lyrics can be found in the two collections of qin songs transcribed in modern times by Wang Di. Here she has paired a version of the present melody to a different poem by Du Fu, Ke Zhi without making clear the source of this pairing. Instead she publishes it under the title of the poem, Ke Zhi. Details of this pairing are as follows:
客至 Ke Zhi (A Guest Arrives)
Ke Zhi is the name of a poem by 杜甫 Du Fu; the qin melody of this name sets to music the words of the poem, which are as follows:
The following translation is from here:
Wang Di first transcribed this piece in her 琴歌 Qin Ge (1982, p.26), where she says the melody is from Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu, but her edition includes only transcriptions and lyrics, not any tablature. Later, in her Xian Ge Ya Yun (2007; pp. 42-49) she has the same lyrics and music (correcting the relative tuning from 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 to 5 6 1 2 3 5 6), but she (or the book editor) identifies the piece not as from Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu but only as "hand-copied qin tablature". However, the tablature there, though slightly different, clearly shows that this is the same melody as the one that occurs as Shi Yin in 1573 with the completely different Du Fu lyrics. Unfortunately, there seems to be no further commentary on this in either of Wang Di's books and so at present it is not clear whether this comes from another edition of the handbook, whether this was done by someone else some time later, or whether she applied the alternate lyrics herself.
Intonation for Poetry (詩吟 Shi Yin; 1573)
The original preface and tablature are as follows:
The 1573 preface to Shi Yin, as shown above, focuses on the (7+7)x4 structure of the song, as follows:
The translation of this preface is tentative, but it clearly says that, although Shi Yin has the structure (7+7)x4, one can use the half of the melody for melodies with the structure (7+7)x2, and that the melody itself can be repeated endlessly without becoming boring. The fact that the presentation of the music in the second half is slightly different from that in the first half, plus the fact that the same handbook has another slightly different version for the melody Xing Tan Yin suggests that "無尽妙" might mean not just endlessly beautiful but endlessly creative.
Echoing Chancellery Secretary Jia Zhi's Poem on Morning Levee (translation from here):
|The lyrics for 杏壇吟 Xing Tan Yin (further above) are set to versions of this melody in 1585 (at right) and 1573 (below)||1585 杏壇吟 Xing Tan Yin|
Summer goes, winter arrives, spring turns to autumn;
Stars and sun set in the west, water flows east.
Generals who fought on horseback: where are they now?
Wild grass covers the flowers, filling the earth with gloom.
Recording (combines Shi Yin and Xing Tan Yin, as they are essentially the same melody
My transcription has Shi Yin first, then the 1585 Xing Tan;
Timings follow my recording; lyrics for both are directly above
|3. 詩吟 Shi Yin: Original tablature from 1573 (compare 杏壇吟 Xing Tan Yin at right)||1573 杏壇吟 Xing Tan Yin|
The preface with the tablature at right begins,
It is not clear whether this melody is intended to work for any poems with the character count (7+7)x4 or (7+7)x2 or whether the tonal nature of the individual words should be considered (see further under the footnote for the original preface).
Could this melody (or a similar one) also have been used for longer poems using multiples of this structure, something not mentioned here? There is in fact evidence for traditions of using a repeated melody for singing/reciting long poems, but I do not know much about such traditions. Thus I do not know how to evaluate the source of, e.g., the four-line melody sung repeatedly in this YouTube example (thanks to David Badagnani for bringing it to my attention). Note that the four phrases of the melody mostly begin and end 6-2, 3-2, 2-1, 6-5, but near the middle (noting a section ending) and at the very end there is a single couplet that is 6-2, 2-1, i.e., ending on 1 ("do") instead of 5 ("sol"). According to Western music analysis the 5 keeps the music moving while the 1 denotes and ending. If that principle were followed in Shi Yin then perhaps the final phrase instead of ending on 6 ("la") could change to 1/do.
The qin song Si Si Ge uses as lyrics an early (2nd c. CE) example of poetry using seven character lines. Although the repeated (7+7)x2 pattern here cannot fit the pattern there (which I interpret as [3+7]x1 + [7+7]x3 for each verse), the similarity of the Si Si Ge melody for each of its four verses suggests a similar attitude towards the pairing of words and music.
Existing early melodies with this structure include:
None of these has music related to the music here. Several other pieces also have sections in (7+7)x4 or (7+7)x2, but as yet I have not found other qin songs using only one of these structures.
In general it is my tentative observation that the melodies designed for use with multiple lyrics of the same pattern tend to be more straightforward than melodies accompanying only one particular melody. For example, the melody with Huangzhong Diao seems intended to hide the regularity of the lyrics rather than emphasize them.
More lyrics that fit this pattern
In addition to Wang Wei's poem just mentioned, there are probably lyrics in other Ming dynasty handbooks that fit the structure here, four 7-character couplets ([7+7]x4), but I have not yet located them.
The source of the red punctuation marks on the online facsimile copy shown at top is unclear; thanks to Peiyou Chang for suggesting the punctuation change in my version above. I am still puzzling over the terms "詩韻" and "韻句", wondering if they suggest a connection between the qin melody and the natural melody of the poetry (not to mention the old 平仄 ping ze system).