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Rao Zongyi: An Historical Account of the Qin
  from the close of the Song to the Jin and Yuan Dynasties 1

5. The rôle of Guo Chuwang and Liu Zhifang in qin studies 2 五、郭楚望與劉志方在琴史上之地位  

Yuan Jue relates that (Guo) Chuwang was Zhang Yan's private advisor (muke3), and helped him collect and organize the tablature. Chuwang's given name was Mian and he was from Yongjia. When Zhang lost out (because of his connections to Han Chazhou), Mian alone received all his tablature, which Mian then categorized into melodies. Yuan (Jue) further recorded the origins of the transfer as follows:

After Chuwang died, it was transmitted to Liu Zhifang; as Zhifang's transmission became more respected, its distance from its origins became greater. {Xu} Tianmin once said that when Chief Minister of Imperial Granaries (sinong) Yang (Zuan) and (his house guest) {Mao} Minzhong were young, they both learned Jiang-xi pu. One day, Minzhong came out of the mountains and began to play Chuwang's shang mode melodies (see Xu Jian, 6a3). (Yang Zuan) was pleasantly surprised, and gave gold and silk to have Tianmin learn from Zhifang. Thus today Zixia (Zixiadong Qinpu?) only speaks of Liu and Guo, but never says that it was taught by Zhang (Yan) of Guangling. This is all a result of the selfish concealment by Yang and his house guest. {Qin Shu}

Thus Xu Tianmin was a pupil once removed (i.e., via Liu Zhifang) of (Guo) Chuwang.

Song Lian's Epilogue to Mr. Zheng's Qin Tablature says:

"Xu {Tianmin}'s student Jin Ruli {made a} Beyond the Haze Handbook (Xiawai Pu4). Mr. He Juji of Dongbai once studied from Xu and his son, and Zheng Ying of Puyang, in turn, studied under He. (Zheng) Ying the compiled what was played and divided these (melodies) according to whether they used standard (zhengdiao) or non-standard (waidiao) tunings, making one folio of tablature for each. Although these did not all correspond to the record of those belonging to (Jin) Ruli, the details of their origin must have their own source. (Song Xueshi Quanji5 14, also Qianqingtang Shumu.6 2)

So of Tianmin's students also included these two: Jin Ruli, who wrote the Beyond the Haze Handbook, and He Juji. The latter taught Zheng Ying, who also compiled a qin handbook. During the years of jiashen (1284) and yiyou (1285) of the Zhiyuan era (note that in 1280 Khublai Khan had completed his conquest of the Southern Song) Yuan Jue also learned qin from Tianmin. The Zhe school of qin prospered from then on; its source can all be traced from Chuwang (Guo Mian).

Chart of the Guo family lineage

Zhang Yan ----- Guo Mian                          
(of Yongjia)
Liu Zhifang
(of Tiantai)
                                                                Xu Tianmin   -----   Yang Zuan   <-- Mao Minzhong
                                                            (of Yanling)                                         (of Sanwei)
/             |             \
He Juji         Yuan Jue       Jin Ruli
(of Dongbai)   (of Qingyuan)   ([from Xu])
Zheng Ying                                        
(of Puyang)                                        

Of melodies that Chuwang and Zhifang composed, there still are many that can be investigated today.

Chuwang was most famous for the melody Water and Clouds over the Xiao and Xiang Rivers (Xiaoxiang Shui Yun). (The preface in) Shen Qi Mi Pu says: "Xiaoxiang Shui Yun was written by Mr. Chuwang, Guo Mian. Mr. Guo is from Yongjia, and whenever he wanted to look at the Jiuyi mountains they were blocked by clouds above the Xiao and Xiang rivers, so he used (writing music about) this to express his loyalty to his country." (Shen Qi) Mi Pu also says that Floating on the Canglang (Fan Canglang) was also composed by Guo Chuwang. Chengyi Zhai Qin Tan7 says: "(Because the Jiuyi mountains were hidden by the clouds) Chuwang composed it in the ruibin mode. He also wrote Fan Canglang, Feng Ru Song, Mei Shao Yue, and Chun Jiang." Regarding Mei Shao Yue and Chun Jiang, see Yuan Junzhe's Taiyin Daquan Ji (specifically in the Melody List); they are in the shang mode.

Huang Xian of the Ming dynasty, in Qinpu Zhengchuan, wrote: "Qiu Hong {36 sections, guxian mode, the longest of the melodies}, tablature by Guo Chuwang." (See quote.) This inded has a basis, as it is known not to have been composed by The Emaciated Immortal (Zhu Quan) himself, but was based on one by Guo Mian. Zangchunwu Qinpu (see the ToC) further recorded that Fei Ming Yin was composed by Chuwang.

Yuan Jue's Qingrong (Jushi) Ji has "Describing Guo Chuwang's Two Qin Melodies, Walking on the Moon (Bu Yue) and Autumn Rain (Qiu Yu)" (see in Xu Jian 6a3), recording that these two melodies were composed by Chuwang; Walking on the Moon may be On an Autumn Evening Walking on the Moon (Qiu Xiao Bu Yue). Zhanran Jushi Ji has, "Playing the two melodies Qiu Xiao Bu Yue and Qiu Ye Bu Yue (On an Autumn Night Walking on the Moon)", (and) a sentence says, "Biyu sounds include those of the song Bu Yue - I have played them many times but never cease to enjoy them."8 Thus this melody is in the biyu mode, i.e. slacken first, fourth, and sixth strings a half step.9 Investigation shows that Wang Changling of the Tang dynasty, among others, had a poem about Listening to a Playing of Feng Ru Song; Wang Zhi of the Ming dynasty, in his Xilutang Qintong, has a Qiu Xiao Bu Yue (see in the ToC), marked as having been composed by Liu Shilong of the Tang dynasty10 {Shilong is Liu Yun's father and incorrectly identified as to have been of the Tang dynasty. Qin Shi scroll 4 has a biography of Shilong [q.v.])}. Thus whether these two melodies were composed by Chuwang remains a mystery.

Of melodies composed by (Liu) Zhifang, there were Oulu Wang Ji, which Shen Qi Mi Pu called Wang Ji. The Emaciated Immortal wrote: "Composed by Liu Zhifang of Tiantai in the Song dynasty." Chengyizhai Qin Tan: "Liu Zhifang composed Wang Ji Qu (and) Wu River Melody (Wu Jiang Yin).

(Continue with 6. Yang Shouzhai and his qin studies)

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)
Prof. Rao's original article had no footnotes, so the footnotes below are all added by the translator. The text above uses the brackets { } for Prof. Rao's original bracketed phrases, while the brackets ( ) and [ ] indicate comments added by the translator. In addition, some of the paragraphs in the original article have been sub-divided, with a particular effort being made to highlight Rao's various quotes from historical sources.

1. Song, Jin and Yuan Dynasties (see also article reference)
The period covered in Rao Zongyi's essay includes (with dates, capital city [modern name]):

北宋 Northern Song (960-1126; 東京 Dongjing [開封 Kaifeng])
遼朝 Liao (907-1125; various, including 大定府 Dading Fu - the Central Capital: 中亰 Zhongjing [寧城 Ningcheng?])
南宋 Southern Song (1127-1280; 臨安府 Linan Fu [杭州 Hangzhou])
金 Jin (1115-1260; 汴京 Bianjing [開封 Kaifeng] as well as 中都 Zhongdu [北京 Beijing])
元 Yuan (1206-1280-1368; 大都 Dadu [北京 Beijing])

2. Initial translation by 金秋雨 Jin Qiuyu.

3. Private Advisor (幕客 mu ke)
This term seems to be applied in particular to Guo Chuwang's relationship to Zhang Yan, as here. Compare "house guest" (門客 men ke). This is used for Xu Tianmin and Mao Minzhong, said to have been house guests of Yang Zuan. This is discussed, e.g., in QSCB, 6a3).

4. Beyond the Haze Handbook (Xiawai Pu 霞外譜)
Compare the 霞外神品 Xiawai Shenpin in Shen Qi Mi Pu.

5. Song Xueshi Quanji 宋學士全集
Complete Collection of Song Scholars

6. 千頃堂書目 Qianqingtang Shumu
A well-known book index.

7. 誠一齋琴談 Chengyi Zhai Qin Tan
36363.xxx; This should be 誠一堂琴談 Chengyitang Qin Tan, an appendix to 誠一堂琴譜 Chengyi Tang Qinpu (1705); see QQJC XIII/434-479; two folios. It is sometimes called simply Qin Tan.

The particular quote above can be found on p. 474 of its reprinting in Qinqu Jicheng XIII. Rao for some reason omits "because the Jiuyi mountains were hidden by the clouds". And of the melodies mentioned in the quote, only Xiao Xiang Shuiyun is included in the handbook.

8. Quotes from Zhanran Jushi Ji
See under Qiu Xiao Bu Yue.

9. Biyu mode
The 1425 Qiu Xiao Bu Yue describes its biyu mode as raising the 3rd string as well as "slackening the first, fourth, and sixth strings a half step". In addition there are also other tunings ascribed to biyu mode.

10. Attribution of Qiu Xiao Bu Yue
The Xilutang Qintong commentary actually seems to suggest rather that the melody was inspired by Liu Shilong. I have not yet seen any mention of Liu Shilong in Zhanran Jushi Ji.

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