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Qin Shi Xu (Continuation of History of the Qin, 1919)
By Zhou Qingyun (1864-1933)
琴史續 1

These 440 biographical essays begin around 1100 CE, where Zhu Changwen's Qin Shi and Zhou Qingyun's Qin Shi Supplement end. As with those pages, the original biography (if translated) is indented.

The book was published in eight folios; folio seven has 方外 fangwai players ("beyond the local area", meaning transcendental or Buddhist); folio eight has 閨秀 guixiu (graceful lady) players.

As with Qin Shi and Qin Shi Bu, very little of this volume has been translated anywhere.3 I partially translated some entries about 30 years ago, mostly the earlier ones plus those about women players at the end. I have since done some updating, but the translations below must all be seen as tentative.4

    卷一 Folio 1

    宋 Song dynasty (Next: Jin)

  1. 徽宗 Song emperor Huizong (r. 1101-1126)
    趙佶 Zhao Ji (1082 - 1135); see
    separate entry.

  2. 高宗 Song Emperor Gaozong (r. 1127 - 1163)
    趙構 Zhao Gou (1107 - 1187); see
    separate entry.

  3. 朱長文 Zhu Changwen (1041 - 1100)
    separate entry

  4. 張損 Zhang Sun
    Zhang Sun (10226.xxx), style name 益老 Yilao. Four lines; source:
    Chunhu Manlu.

    Zhang Sun, style name 益老 Yilao, collected 12 famous qins. Their names were 震餘孤桐 Zhenyu Gutong (original name 澗泉 Jian Shui [?; compare Zhen Yu]); 香林八節 Xiang Lin Ba Jie; 號鐘 Hao Zhong; 玉磬 Yu Qing; 松風 Song Feng; 古媧 Gu Wa (original name 媧簧 Wa Huang); 南風 Nan Feng; 歸鶴 Gui He (original name 舜胎仙 Shun Tai Xian); 秋風 Qiu Feng (original name 秋思 Qiu Si); 漁桹 Yu Lang; 九洲璜 Jiu Zhou Huang (original name 九井璜 Jiu Jing Huang); and 天球 Tian Qiu. Huang Tingjian (1050 - 1110) from 分甯 Fenning (in Jiangxi) made inscriptions for each.

  5. 陳暘 Chen Yang
    separate entry

  6. 葉夢得 Ye Mengde (1077 - 1148)
    separate entry

    崔閑 Cui Xian (8405.xxx)
    (See Xu Jian's History 6a2.)

  7. 江參 Jiang Can
    Jiang Can (17496.306; Bio. 712: from 信安 Xin An [Hebei or Guangdong], lived in 霅州 Zhazhou, south of Taihu?). Sources: 吳興備志 Wuxing Bei Zhi, 潛確類別書 Qianquelei Shu (18887.xxx).

    Jiang Can, style name 貫 Guan (should be 貫道 Guandao), 通江南人 was someone who traveled through the lower Yangzi region. In appearance he was emaciated. He was enamored with tea 以為生 for his livelihood/health (?). He was an expert landscape painter and and excelled at qin....

  8. 林摶 Lin Tuan
    Lin Tuan (14856.xxx), style name 圖南 Tunan (a Daoist term), was from 福清 Fuqing (south of Fuzhou). He became a recluse at 靈石 Lingshi (43483.14 Lingshi mentions only a district in southern Shanxi, but there is a 九峰 Nine Peaks Mountain near Fuzhou). The 琴譜三卷 Qin Handbook, Three Folios, mentioned in the article is not in QSCM. Sources: 福清縣志 Fuqing Xianshi,八閩通志 Bamin Tongzhi.

    Lin Tuan, style name Tunan, was from Fuqing (south of Fuzhou). 舉八行 (Someone?) chose his short essay (?) and he entered the Imperial College. In 1116 he 特奏科授楚州參軍不赴 (was supposed to be in army at Chuzhou [in northeast Jiangsu], but instead) became a recluse below 靈石九疊峰 Nine-fold Peak of Lingshi. People of that area considered him Duke Nine Peaks. He was fond of reciting poetry and playing qin. He once wished to study qin with Huangfu the Daoist Qin....

    皇甫道士 Huangfu the Daoist
    Huangfu the Daoist (23220.xxx). There is no further information other than his being teacher of Lin Tuan.

    陳杰 Chen Jie
    Chen Jie (? adds dot on upper right of 杰 jie; Bio/xxx [has one in 19th c]; 14899.xxx; 杰 = 傑 1003.xxx). Qinshu Daquan has three of his poems about qin:

    Folio 20A, #72 and #73, and
    Folio 20B, #104.)

    Sources are the same as for Lin Tuan.

    Chen Jie, style name 希古 Xigu, was from the same city as Lin Tuan. He studied qin from Lin Tuan and became famous, then became a recluse within the town....

    陳克勤 Chen Keqin
    Chen Keqin (Bio/xxx) was also a poet. The sources are the same as for Lin Tuan.

    Chen Keqin was also a good qin player....

  9. 何薳 He Wei (1077 - 1145)
    He Wei (489.381; Bio/1086), style name 子遠 Ziyuan, was from 浦城 Pucheng (in northern Fujian province). At that time 章惇 Zhang Dun (1031 - 1101) and 蔡京 Cai Jing (1046 - 1126) were both leading ministers who supported
    Sima Guang (author of the Zizhi Tong Jian) and then Wang Anshi (1021-86). He Wei's collection News from the Water's Edge on a Spring Day (春渚紀聞 Chunzhu Jiwen) included a Miscellaneous Writings on Qin Matters (雜書琴事一卷 Zashu Qin Shi), One Folio. Perhaps it is this part that is quoted in Qinshu Daquan Folio 17. 4 lines; source cited: 浦城縣志 Pucheng Xianzhi.

    He Wei, style name Ziyuan, was from Pucheng (in northern Fujian province). Widely studied and knowledgeable, he was skilled at poetry and excelled at playing qin. Zhang Dun and Cai Jing continued their own power over the country, so Wei had no position. In his later years he had the nickname 韓青老農 Old Farmer Hanqing (according to 直齋書錄解題 Zhizhai Shulu Jieti Hanqing was written 寒青). His Chunzhu Jiwen included a Zashu Qin Shi, One Folio. When the Song dynasty fled south (ca. 1125) he 遺老終從祀忠義祠 (showed his loyalty by retiring).

  10. 朱熹 Zhu Xi (1130 - 1200)
    Famous neo-Confucian scholar; see
    separate article

  11. 姜夔 Jiang Kui (ca. 1155 - 1221)
    Famous poet, musician and critic; see
    separate article

  12. 張巖 Zhang Yan (Bio. 1216)
    separate entry

  13. 張鎡 Zhang Zi

  14. 范先之 Fan Xianzhi

  15. 郭楚望 Guo Chuwang
    Style name of 郭沔 Guo Mian, see
    separate entry

  16. 石汝礪 Shi Ruli (11th c.)
    Shi Ruli (Bio/367), nickname 碧落子 Biluozi; his
    Biluozi Zhuo Qin Fa is discussed in QSCB, Chapter 6c9.

  17. 孫惟信 Sun Weixin

  18. 徐理 Xu Li
    separate entry

  19. 吳良輔 Wu Liangfu
    See Xu Jian's History
    6a2. Qinshu Cunmu attributes a Qin Pu to Wu Liangfu. Qinshu Bielu lists his Yue Shu and Yue Ji

  20. 楊纘 Yang Zuan
    separate entry

    毛敏仲 Mao Minzhong
    See separate entry

    徐天民 Xu Tianmin
    See separate entry

    何巨濟 He Juji
    Studied qin from Xu Tianmin

    鄭瀛 Zheng Ying
    Studied qin from He Juji; wrote a
    Qin Pu

  21. 文天祥 Wen Tianxiang (1236 - 1283)
    separate entry.

    胡日宣 Hu Rixuan
    Style name 德昭 Dezhao, nickname 琴窗 Qinchuang

  22. 汪元量 Wang Yuanliang
    separate entry

  23. 令狐揆 Linghu Kui
    Linghu Kui, style name 子先 Zixian, was from 安陸 Anlu (a district northwest of modern Wuhan in Hubei province. He was 筮任 appointed by lot to a position 齊安理掾 in Ji An (also Hubei). Having served his time he returned to his village (where he farmed, fished, did calligraphy and played the qin).... 蓴湖漫錄
    Chunhu Manlu says he wrote a Qin Handbook with the Essentials of (Book of?) Change Commentary (? 易疏精義琴譜 Yishu Jingyi Qinpu).

  24. 周芝田 Zhou Zhitian
    Zhou Zitian, from Zhejiang, wandered among lakes and streams, writing poems and drinking wine. At first he didn't realize he could use the qin to accompany poems. After this he played a lot. (山房隨筆 Shanfang Suibi)

  25. 羅寶珍 Luo Baozhen
    Luo Baozhen, nicknamed 務光子 Wuguanzi, was from 大良 Daliang (5960.361 ?). Good at poetry and playing qin, he left domestic life. At the end of the Song dynasty he went to a temple in Min (Fujian). (五山志林 Wushan Zhilin)

    金 Jin Dynasty (next Yuan)

  26. 金熙宗 Jin Emperor Xizong (r. 1135 - 1149)

  27. (金)世宗 Jin Emperor Shizong (r. 1161 - 1190)

  28. (金)章宗 Jin Emperor Zhangzong (r. 1190 - 1209)
    See Qinshi Chubian,
    Chapter 6, Part A5.

  29. 苗秀實 Miao Xiushi (d. 1232)
    separate entry

    元 Yuan Dynasty (next Ming)

  30. 耶律楚材 Yelü Chucai (1190 - 1244)
    separate entry

    弭日宣 Mi Rixuan

    萬松老人 Old man of 10,000 Pines

    苗蘭 Miao Lan
    See separate entry

    張之聞 Zhang Zhiwen

  31. 趙夢頫 Zhao Mengfu (1254 - 1322)
    separate article

    張天與 Zhang Tianyu (not the Maoshan Daoist 張天雨 Zhang Tianyu)
    See in the Zhao Mengfu page

  32. 阿榮 A Rong (1301 - 1333)
    A Rong (Bio/1322 says he was a Mongol named Qielieshi, style name Cunchu, nickname 梅月庄主 Meiyue Zhuangzhu), style name 存初怯烈氏 Cunchuqielieshi, was 奎章閣大學士 a Grand Academician in the Hall of Literature (created in 1329 to tutor the emperor). He played the qin and wrote poetry. References (also for Chi Zhan): 元史 Yuan History, 翠屏集 Cuiping Ji (29376.130: book in 4 folios by 明,張以寧 Jiang Yining of the Ming dynasty).

    赤盞 Chi Zhan
    Chi Zhan (Bio/797 calls him 赤盞布 Chizhanbu and says he was a 女真人 Jurchen) was from the Yuan 布肅慎貴族 Busushengui clan. A good painter of black bamboo with new ideas, he was also a (skilled poet and a) good qin player. (References with A Rong.)

  33. 俞琰 Yu Yan (1258 - 1327)
    1462.94 吳郡人,字玉吾,號全陽 from Wu jun, style name Yuwu, nickname Quanyang; more details in Rao Zongyi, Historical Account,
    Section 7; Xu Jian, QSCB, 6a3; and the listing of Yu Yan's Qin Pu, 40 folios, in Qinshu Cunmu. Here there are 5 lines, source given as 蘇州府志 Suzhou gazetteer. Xu Jian in particular suggests that he originated the modern tradition of qin songs. (Note, however, that the earliest surviving qin song collection dates from almost two centuries later: Xie Lin's Taigu Yiyin, 1511.) Rao discusses Yu Yan's 爐火監戒錄 Record of a Warning from the Stove; its preface is included in Qin Fu, p. 1699. In it Yu Yan says that after retiring from the world he became enamoured of the qin and tried to learn more about its music. He asked qin masters, but only gained an understanding after he read certain books (named in the QSCB reference). He adds that he compiled a poetry collection called 周南召南詩譜 Zhounan Zhaonan Shipu and made string songs for such poems as 鹿鳴 Lu Ming and 皇華 Huang Hua. There was also tablature for 離騷 Li Sao, 九歌 Jiu Ge (see Qu Yuan Wen Du), 蘭亭詩序 Lantingshi Xu, 歸去來辭 Guiqulai Ci, 醉翁亭記 Zuiwengting Ji and 赤壁賦 Chibi Fu.

  34. 趙淇 Zhao Qi
    Zhao Qi (Bio/1638), style name 元德 Yuande, nicknames 平遠 Pingyuan and 太初道人 Taichu Daoren, when old combined these to 平初 Pingchu and also had the nickname 靜華翁 Jinghuaweng. He rose in rank to be Pacification Commissioner for Hunan Province. From 潭州 Tanzhou (near 衡山 Hengshan), he was a son of 趙葵 Zhao Kui (Bio/1639; 1186 - 1266, from 潭州衡山 Hengshan). Zhao Qi 飄然有神仙之思 thought like an immortal. He made qins, and while playing a melody would add lyrics. He also drew pictures to amuse himself.

  35. 劉尊德 Liu Zunde
    Liu Zunde (Bio/xxx) was good at qin and a skilled painter. Liu Guiyin (nickname of 劉詵 Liu Shen (Bio/626; 1268 - 1350, a good writer from 廬陵 Luling in central Jiangxi province, who taught but refused office) presented him with a poem about his qin playing.

  36. 武伯英 Wu Boying (d. ca. 1222?)
    Wu Boying (Bio/1407) was from 崞縣 Guo county (near Yanmen in the 恒山 Hengshan range). He became a jinshi while young, rose in office, but also wrote poetry.

  37. 劉世賢 Liu Shixian
    Liu Shixian (Bio/xxx), style name 希孟 Ximeng, was from 東光 Dongguang (modern Henan province south of Tianjin). He was the ninth generation descendent of 宋丞相忠肅公(劉)摰 the Song dynasty Grand Councilor Liu Chi (Bio/???; 1030 - 1097). Information here is from 松江府志 Songjiang Fuzhi. Liu Shixian, style name Ximeng, was from Dongguang. He was the ninth generation descendent of the Song dynasty Grand Councilor Liu Chi. Liu Chi had been good at qin. His descendents carried on his learning, then brought it to 湖州 Huzhou, where Liu Shixian used his qin to become famous in 浙右 the area of Zhejiang south of the Yangzi river.

  38. 蕭性淵 Xiao Xingyuan
    Xiao Xingyuan (Bio/xxx) seems to be best known for owning a Tang qin called Frosty Bell (霜鐘/霜鍾 Shuangzhong). Rao,
    Section 8, also mentions a qin of this name belonging Xiao Xingyuan, and QSDQ Folio 19 has a poem about this qin. However, according to Zhou Mi (1232 - 1298), Shuangzhong was one of two apparently Tang dynasty qins belonging to another contemporary, Zhang Shouyi. This one apparently had a known inscription. 鄱陽 Poyang is a lake and lake district east of Nanchang. Regarding the ancestor being a 官將領 guan jiangling, I cannot find either that or jiangling in Hucker. As for his 謫和林 banishment to Helin, there is a 3600.94 Helin 和林 Helin = 和寧 Hening, but this meaning is a guess. The person he visited on the way home was 揭徯斯字曼碩 Jie Xisi, style name Manshi or Manshuo (Bio/2298, 1274 - 1344). It was the Yuan dynasty, so the 史館 Historiography Institute presumably was in what is now Beijing. The verses quoted are from a long poem ([7+7]x12) by Jie; the complete text is included in a footnote to Rao, Section 8. The source cited is 西神客話 Xishen Kehua. (5 lines; source: 西神客話 Xishen Kehua)

    Xiao Xongyuan was from Poyang (lake district east of Nanchang). One of his ancestors, a high ranking military official, had a Tang dynasty qin that he loved called Frosty Bell. When Xingyuan was banished to Helin he carried his qin. After he was pardoned he returned, visiting Jie Manshi at the Historiography Institute. In order to play a melody or two he entreated (Jie) to write a poem. So Manshi wrote a long song that said,

    "The day is long at the historiographers' institute (shiguan), silent and secluded,
        He straightens his hat and plays the qin for me.
    The capital in the sixth month has a sun like fire,
        and the bell rings at midnight for an empty mountain.

  39. 宋尹文 Song Yinwen
    (See See Xu Jian's History

  40. 郭撫 Guo Fu
    The source of this story is said to be the 嫏嬛記
    Lang Huan Ji.

    Guo Fu (Bio/xxx) once chiseled into a cistern, where he obtained an empty coffin. Inside it was an iron object. He washed it and looked at it: it was a qin. He put on strings and played it (but the strings) remained motionless with no sound. He told mentions this to a high official named 姚範 Yao Fan; Fan was amazed at this, also not knowing what sort of object it was. Subsequently a guest came who said he could play it. he used 法 a method to chisel it out the dirt and rust from the waist, after which he was able to play several songs. The sound was very constant. (Guo) Fu asked and was able to learn two melodies 昭雲 Zhao Yun and 泣猿 Qi Yuan, but was told not to transmit this to anyone else. When other people played it, it did not go back to having sound.

  41. 張桂 Zhang Gui
    Zhang Gui (Bio/) was from 婆源 Poyuan (southwest Zhejiang province).

  42. 馬希遠 Ma Xiyuan
    Ma Xiyuan (Bio/xxx; 9025.130xxx). The others mentioned are 郭希仲 Guo Xizhong (bio/xxx; 9025.35xxx), 紀叔雅 Ji Shuya (Bio/xxx; 3223.194xxx), 陳秀民 Chen Xiumin (Yuan; Bio/1376), 周景文 Zhou Jingwen (Bio/xxx; 14304.8xxx) and 乾乾居士陸仁 Lu Ren (Yuan; Bio/1304). The source cited is 西神客話 Xishen Kehua.

    Ma Xiyuan was skilled at qin. Once with 郭希仲 Guo Xizhong, 紀叔雅 Ji Shuya and 陳秀民 Chen Xiumin he went drinking at the Evening Fragrance Hall of 周景文 Zhou Jingwen. Ji Shuya painted 墨匊 Chinese asters (a flower whose color was so black it could be used to make ink), Ma Xiyuan played the qin and Chen Xiumin wrote a poem that said,


    This was an example of the 美如炙 lovely intimacy of melodies Ma played, paintings by Ji, and topics set for poems by Guo. Also 乾乾居士陸仁 Lu Ren wrote a 思公子曲 which he sent to Xiyuan...

  43. 李天和 Li Tianhe
    Li Tianhe was from 新淦 Xin'gan (central Jiangxi province)

    李嵩壽 Li Songshou

  44. 林晉 Lin Jin
    Lin Jin was from 中山 Zhongshan (near 茅山 Maoshan in Zhejiang province)

  45. 李貴 Li Gui
    Li Gui, style name 懷德 Huaide, was from 嵩縣 Song county (south of the Songshan range in northern Henan province)

  46. 郭節之 Guo Jiezhi
    Guo Jiezhi, from 六合 Liuhe (north across the Yangzi from Nanjing)

  47. 員怡然 Yuan Yiran
    Yuan Yiran was from 關中 Guanzhong (42402.26; 陝西 Shaanxi, in particular the central plain)

  48. 趙海月 Zhao Haiyue
    Zhao Haiyue (Bio/xxx) was a qin teacher. 何吾山 He Wushan (Bio/xxx) presented him with four poems.

  49. 朱右 Zhu You
    Zhu You (1314 - 1376; Bio/539) wrote a
    Guang Qin Cao

    朱遺安 Zhu Yi'an
    Zhu Yi'an was from 吳 the Suzhou area.

  50. 倪瓚 Ni Zan (1301 - 1374)
    Ni Zan, style name 元鎮 Yuan Zhen, nickname 雲林 Yunlin, was from Wuxi. A famous painter and recluse, he became known as the 無錫高士 Recluse of Wuxi. More at Rao,
    Section 8 and in the Watt article. There is a poem in QSCM, Section 19b. The Wikipedia article says that during the Red Turban Revolt around 1350 he gave away all his possessions, moved into a houseboat and traveld in the relatively peaceful eastern regions; during this period he developed his distinctive style.

    袁員外 Yuan Yuanwai

    錢文則 Qian Wenze

    袁子 Yuan Zi

    薩天錫 Sa Tianxi

    劉伯容 Liu Borong

    囗甘白 (XX Ganbai)
    (Family name missing)

  51. 張南窗 Zhang Nanchuang
    Zhang Nanchuang, from 山西雁山 Yanshan (northern Shanxi province), was good at qin. He was friendly with #50 Ni Zan.

  52. 倪驤 Ni Xiang
    Ni Xiang, style name 子舉 Ziju, was from 湖州 Huzhou. He was of wide learning and able on the qin. Once he went to 京師 the capital.

  53. 劉程 Liu Cheng
    Liu Cheng was from 定州 Dingzhou (in Zhongshan, near 茅山 Maoshan, Zhejiang province)

  54. 王有恒 Wang Youheng
    Wang Youheng was from 揚州 Yangzhou

  55. 傅玉 Fu Yu (970.xxx)
    At the end of the Yuan dynasty he was a recluse in 江東 Jiangdong. With 王彝 Wang Yi (Yuan writer) and 張翰 Zhang Han (d. ca.1214) he 宸輩 Chen Bei (imperial type 7320.xx) 作吟 made intonations. ....

    卷二 Folio 2

    明 Ming dynasty (next Qing)

  56. 宣宗 Xuanzong (朱瞻基 Zhu Zhanji, 1398 - 1435; r.1426 - 1435)
    Oldest son of 仁宗 Renzong (朱高熾 Zhu Gaochi 1378 - 1425; r.1425 - 1426)

  57. 英宗 Yingzong (朱祁鎮 Zhu Qizhen, 1427 - 1464; r. 1435 - 1464)
    (Spurious son and successor of Zhu Zhanji.)

  58. 憲宗 Xianzong (朱見深 Zhu Jianshen, 1439 - 1487; r.1464 - 1487)
    (Eldest son of Zhu Qizhen)

  59. 孝宗 Xiaozong (朱祐檔 Zhu Youdang, 1470 - 1505; r.1487 - 1505)
    (Son of Zhu Jianshen)

  60. 懷宗 Huaizong (朱由檢 Zhu Youjian, d. 1644; r.1627 - 1644)
    (Last Ming emperor; son of 朱由校 Zhu Youxiao 1605 - 1627; r.1620 - 1627)

  61. 寧獻王(朱)權 Zhu Quan, Prince of Ning (1378 - 1448)
    separate biography

  62. 衡王(朱)厚燆 Zhu Houqiao, Prince of Heng (n.d.)
    衡王厚燆恭王祐楎子 Houqiao prince of Heng was a son of 恭王 Prince Gong Youhui: was that 朱厚爝
    Zhu Houjiao (1507-1550), who lived in 鈞州 Junzhou and compiled Fengxuan Xuanpin? Account says Houqiao was enfeoffed in 1541 and that once he had 馮朝陽 Feng Chaoyang make him a qin that named 太古遺音 Taigu Yiyin that had a wonderful sound.

  63. 益王(朱)厚炫 Zhu Houxuan, Prince of Yi
    Had close connections with #62 Zhu Houqiao. Ordered 洪都琴士涂桂 the qin gentleman
    Tu Gui of Hongdu to 監製 supervise the making of qin with materials he had selected.

    洪都 Hongdu 17757.141: a part of or near 南昌 Nanchang, where Zhu Quan had been prince.

  64. 鄭世子(朱)載堉 Zhu Zaiyu (1536 - ca.1610)
    Writer on music in general, best known for discovering
    equal temperament; wrote a Caoman Guqinpu

  65. 潞王(朱)常淓 Zhu Changfang, Prince of Lu (d. 1646?)
    separate entry

  66. 冷謙 Leng Qian
    separate entry

  67. 危素 Wei Su

    張弘道 Zhang Hongdao

    董英仲 Dong Yingzhong

  68. 林右 Lin You

  69. 張宣 Zhang Xuan

  70. 陳汝言 Chen Ruyan

  71. 吳海 Wu Hai

  72. 郭彥貴 Guo Yan'gui

  73. 鄧旭甫 Deng Xufu

  74. 徐詵 Xu Shen
    separate essay

    徐宇 Xu Yu
    - nickname 雪汀 Xueting or 雪江 Xuejiang (i.e., Xu Tianmin?)

    徐夢吉 Xu Mengji
    - See Xu Shen

    薛生 Xue Sheng
    - See Xu Shen

    王禮 Wang Li
    - See Xu Shen

    金應龍 Jin Yinglong
    - See Xu Shen

    吳以介 Wu Yijie
    - See Xu Shen

  75. 施彥昭 Shi Yanzhao
    (Also in QSCB,

  76. 俞寰 Yu Huan

  77. 尤鏊 You Ao

  78. 張收 Zhang Shou

  79. 沈民則 Shen Minze

    劉仲禮 Liu Zhongli

  80. 魏時敏 Wei Shimin

  81. 盧閎侃 Lu Hongkan

  82. 張澤民 Zhang Zemin

  83. 盛英 Sheng Ying (Cheng Ying?)

  84. 陳憲章 Chen Xianzhang

  85. 伍雲 Wu Yun

  86. 朱瓘 Zhu Guan

  87. 祝海鶴 Zhu Haihe

  88. 高騰 Gao Teng

  89. 譚鎧 Tan Kai

  90. 張鶚 Zhang E
    Active first half of 16th c.; 6 line bio (souce: Ming History) begins 宮太僕寺 he was an officer in the Court of the Imperial Stud. It then says his Musical Score and Dance Illustrations for the Sacrifice to Confucius (大成樂舞圖譜 Dacheng Yuewu Tupu, 1520; see Lam,
    State Sacrifices, pp. 111-115) 自瑟琴以下諸樂隊字作譜, which seems to suggest it included notes played by se and qin. The bio goes on to say he emphasized the importance of the qin in correct music. Lam discusses his work as a Confucian official composing music for state ceremonies, his promotions in the court, his conflicts with Daoist monk-officials, and eventual banishment to the frontier.

  91. 張弓 Zhang Gong

    楊繼盛 Yang Jisheng
    Authored a 擬補學經
    Nibu Xue Jing

  92. 黃銑 Huang Xian (Huang Xi?)

  93. 宋學古 Song Xuegu

  94. 陳鼐 Chen Nai

  95. 宋克 Song Ke

  96. 王陞 Wang Sheng

  97. 黃維珪 Huang Weigui

  98. 張德潤 Zhang Derun
    Style name 良玉 Liangyu; compare name in 11th c.
    Wrote a Qin Pu that included his Jiu Huan Cao

  99. 皇甫涍 Huangfu Xiao

  100. 皇甫濂 Huangfu Lian

  101. 陳鳳 Chen Feng

  102. 王圻 Wang Qi (Wang Yin?)

  103. 蘇洲 Su Zhou

  104. 陸堯化 Lu Yaohua
    Style name 和卿 Heqing; from 嘉興 Jiaxing (northeast of Hangzhou); he wrote over 100 qin songs, including a version of Baitou Yin (QSCB,
    7.A.4: 皆矜慎不傳 he was careful not to transmit them?)

  105. 張大命 Zhang Daming
    Zhang Daming (10026.xxx; Bio/xxx) was a well-known late Ming qin master.
    Van Gulik (pp. 121-2, 179, 240) discusses Yangchuntang Qinjing (his general work on the qin, also called Qin Jing), as well as his collection of tablature, Yangchuntang Qinpu. VG dates the latter to ca. 1625 because of an undated preface by the famous artist 董其昌 Dong Qichang (1555 - 1636), who visited Zhang in 1622. However, the edition in QQJC, Vol. 7, is dated 1611 and does not seem to have this preface, so perhaps that only came in a later editon. The original entry here says nothing about his qin teachers. It begins:

    Zhang Daming, style name Yougun, from Jianxi in Fujian, was skilled at qin. He built a room called Yangchuntang (Bright Spring Hall) where he could play qin and read books at leisure. First he wrote Qin Jing, 14 folios....(12 lines)

  106. 林有麟 Lin Youlin
    - Bio/1448 (son of 林景暘 Lin Jingyang, 1530 - 1604); his 青蓮舫琴雅
    Qinglianfang Qinya has a number of stories about qin (see Van Gulik, Lore, p.153)

  107. 李之藻 Li Zhizao
    Source: 操縵錄
    Caoman Lu (by 胡世安 Hu Shian, in Siku Quanshu Cunmu Congshu, 子 74)
    His Institute of Higher Learning Ritual Music Commentary, in 10 folios, includes qin tablature about half the folios, not just in one, and seems all to be part of court ensemble music. Nevertheless, this seems to be what is referred to elsewhere as his Qin Pu, one folio. A Roman Catholic convert, Li Zhizhao also published Ricci's Eight Songs; about this work there are several comments here.

    Li Zhizao, style name Zhenzhi, was from 仁和 Renhe (near Hangzhou). He achieved jinshi in 1598, and attained the rank of Vice Minister for the Court of the Imperial Stud. Skilled at qin, he was especially good in the study of modes 如操 (applying that to melodies?). His Institute of Higher Learning Ritual Music Commentary (頖宮禮樂疏 Pan Gong Liyue Shu), in 10 folios, as published in Si Ku included Qin Pu. Tiyao (in Vol. 651 of Siku Quanshu?) compared something in Songfeng Ge (missing gouti, i.e., tablature indications? Translation incomplete )....

  108. 胡文煥 Hu Wenhuan
    30073.32 gives as reference 明詞綜,十

    Hu Wenhuan, style name 德甫 Defu, nickname 全菴 Quan'an, also style name 抱琴居士 Master Qin-Hugger, was from 錢塘 Hangzhou. Skilled at qin, he compiled Wenhuitang Qinpu in six folios.... (incomplete)

  109. 張新 Zhang Xin

  110. 史繼佃 Shi Jidian (or Jitian)

  111. 鄭祐 Zheng You

  112. 屠隆 Tu Long
    - wrote a 琴箋一卷
    Qin Jian, 1 folio

  113. 王逢年 Wang Fengnian

    卷三 Folio 3

  114. 陳愛桐 Chen Aitong
    Chen Aitong (Bio/xxx) was the father of 陳星源 Chen Xingyuan (see next). From 婁東 Loudong (east from Suzhou), he was an excellent qin player, the best of his day. He especially excelled at playing such melodies as
    Zhi Zhao Fei and Xiao Xiang (Shui Yun). He didn't casually teach others, but only to 張渭川 Zhang Weichuan....

    張渭川 Zhang Weichuan
    Zhang Weichuan prized and guarded (Chen Aitong's teachings?) especially deeply, (then) 徐青山 Xu Qingshan (
    Xu Hong) treated Zhang as a teacher and attained this.... (His Dahuange Qinpu includes a version of Zhi Zhao Fei; see QQJC X/403.)

    陳星源 Chen Xingyuan
    Teacher of
    Yan Cheng and thus important to the Yushan School.

    戈莊樂 Ge Zhuangle

    施(石+間)(船over木) Shi Jianchuan?

  115. 嚴澂 Yan Cheng (嚴天池 Yan Tianchi; Bio/816 has no dates)
    Songxianguan Qinpu documented his melodies; for biographical details see QSCB, 7.A.
    Source (also for Shen Taishao): Chunhu Manlu

    沈太韶 Shen Taishao (original name 沈音 Shen Yin)
    further. The entry here only mentions Shen in connection with Yan Cheng, but he was also teacher of the court eunuch Hao Ning (see Zangchunwu Qinpu, 1602) and others. The biographical note here at the end of the Qinshi Xu entry on Yan Cheng, presumably also drawing on Chunhu Manlu, begins by saying Yan Cheng met Shen Taishao in 京師 the capital (Beijing, where he was teaching court eunuchs such as Hao Ning). It continues:

    Shen was the best qin master at that time. His temperament (氣調 6/1035: 氣概) compared to that of the gentlemen of the Qinchuan school was compatible but perhaps even more elegant....

    A translation of this passage here, plus further information, is included under Zangchunwu Qinpu (1602; VI/292)

  116. 孟紹甲 Meng Shaojia
    -Bio xxx

  117. 戚忠臣 Qi Zhongchen
    Bio xxx

  118. 鄭邦俶 Zheng Bangchu

  119. 來復 Lai Fu

  120. 顧道潔 Gu Daojie

  121. 徐正學 Xu Zhengxue
    Jinshi during 1573 - 1620

  122. 陳南谿 Chen Nanxi or Nanqi
    Bio xxx

  123. 郜璉 Gao Lian, style name 方壺 Fanghu, self nickname 旅天主人 Lütian Zhuren
    Bio 1729 says he was Qing dynasty, from 如皋 Rugao in Jiangsu, Buddhist, good qin player

  124. 虞謙 Yu Qian, nickname 樵谷 Qiaogu
    From 開化 Kaihua in central west Zhejiang (source: 浙江通志; no dates given; Bio/2405 is different person)
    He was particularly known for setting Confucian essays such as
    Da Xue to music (QSCB, 7.A.4)

    汪一恆 Wang Yiheng (Bio xxx)
    其高弟汪一恆為續中庸、語、孟之首篇,知音者兢賞之。 Yu's main student Wang Yiheng supplemented important essays such as Zhong Yong, Lun Yu and Mengzi (by adding music); music lovers tried to emulate this. (There are settings from Japan of two parts of
    Zhong Yong.)

  125. 高攀龍 Gao Panlong (1562 - 1626)
    From 無錫 Wuxi; Bio 2004

  126. 陳允誠 Chen Yuncheng
    From 華亭 Huating in 松江 Songjiang district (now a western suburb of Shanghai)

    陳詩 Chen Shi
    Son of the above, he created a qin version of
    Hujia Shibapai (?) and passed on his tradition to 曹可述 Zao Keshu (QSCB, 7.A.4)

  127. 詹懋舉 Zhan Maoju (Bio xxx)
    During 1573 - 1620 he guarded 潁州 Yingzhou (modern Fuyang in western Anhui)

  128. 都修之 Du Xiuzhi, style name of 都某 Du So-and-so
    From 杭 Hang (Hangzhou?)

  129. 陳瑞 Chen Rui
    From 太原 Taiyuan Bio xxx

  130. 巖泰 Yan Tai, style name 克安 Ke'an (Bio 814 is different person)
    From 海鹽 Haiyan (on Hangzhou Bay NE of Hangzhou) he excelled at qin melodies. His fingering got its sound from the best parts of the 劉 Liu and 徐 Xu schools. Later he obtained an iron di flute that had been in the collection of 楊鐵崖 Yang Tieyai of the Yuan dynasty (Bio xxx)....

    張毅 Zhang Yi
    Also a good qin player.

  131. 吳文蒸 Wu Wenzheng, also called 文正 Wenzheng
    From 江陰 Jiangyin

  132. 康國相 Kang Guoxiang
    From 郃陽 (Geyang or Heyang)

  133. 陸泰徵 Lu Taizheng (or Taizhi)
    From 常熟

  134. 文震亭 Wen Zhenting, style name 啟美 Qimei (1585 - 1645)
    Younger brother of 文肅公 Wen Sugong (文震孟 also Bio 304) and son-in-law of 王伯毇 Wang Bohui. Good at qin and calligraphy.

    文園公 Wen Yuangong
    Son of Wen Zhenting

  135. 巖調御 Yan Diaoyu, style name 印持 Yinchi (Bio xxx)
    Wrote a 琴述 Qin Shu; (Also in QSCB,

  136. 高宇泰 Gao Yutai (Ming/Qing; Bio 1996)
    From 鄞 Yin county of Zhejiang province.

  137. 鄘露 Kuang Lu, style name 湛若 Zhanruo (1604 - 1650; Bio. 460)
    From 雨海 Yuhai (Also in QSCB,

  138. 華夏 Hua Xia
    From 定海 Dinghai district of Zhejiang (Also in QSCB,

  139. 楊正經 Yang Zhengjing (Bio xxx)
    A 宣慰司人 (7276.199 an official rank) from 西陽 Xiyang

  140. 尹爾韜 Yin Ertao (1600 - 1678; Bio 324, under nickname 尹芝仙 Yin Zhixian)
    浙江山陰人 From Zhejiang; style name 紫芝, in later years nicknamed 芝僊 Zhixian; his handbook is 徽言秘旨
    Huiyan Mizhi, 1647. Some later handbooks seem to refer to his handbook as 尹芝僊太古遺音 Yin Zhixian's Taigu Yiyin. Yin Ertao is also mentioned in entries #141 Zhang Dai and #171 Sun Quan. Meanwhile, QSCB, Shaoxing Qin School, describes his learning this tradition, then moving to the capital where he wrote some qin songs based on lyrics written by 崇禎 Chongzhen emperor (r. 1628-44); these do not seem to have survived but other of his songs do. After the fall of the Ming he lived in Suzhou.

  141. 張岱 Zhang Dai (1597 - ca. 1684)
    A long, detailed essay. See his
    separate entry; also in QSCB, 7.A.. The essay also mentions:

    王侶鵝 Wang Lü'e
    王本吾 Wang Benwu
    何紫翔 He Zixiang
    張慎行 Zhang Shenxing and
    何明台 He Mingtai

  142. 王若芝 Wang Ruozhi
    From 益都 Yidu

  143. 陸符 Lu Fu
    From 寧波 Ningbo

  144. 徐谼 Xu Hong (1580-1650)
    separate enty: from 江蘇太倉 Taicang (near 崑山 Kunshan), he wrote 溪山琴況 Xishan Qin Kuang and compiled 大還閣琴譜 Dahuange Qinpu (1673)

  145. 夏汝弼 Xia Rubi, style name 叔直 Shuzhi

  146. 楊茂芳 Yang Maofang
    From 通州 Tongzhou

  147. 張頤 Zhang Yi
    From 惠安 Hui An

  148. 于鑒之 Yu Jianzhi
    From 金壇 Jintan

  149. 韓畕 Han Jiang (韓石耕 Han Shigeng; ca. 1615 - ca. 1667)
    Han Jiang (Bio/2281; QSCB,
    p. 152), style name 經正 Jingzheng, literary name 石耕 Shigeng, was from 宛平 Yuanping (Wanping? near Beijing), but when he was young he followed his father south, where they traveled around 吳越 the Jiangnan area. He spent his life as a wandering eccentric, particularly noted for playing Pili Yin (QSCB p. 131 says he taught it to Li Yanshi). He is also said to have been a teacher of Chen Xiong and to have written praise of Zhuang Zhenfeng. Han wrote poetry, but its connection to qin songs is not clear. Van Gulik, Lore, p.53, says Qing dynasty commentaries on Shitan Zhang often attribute their versions to Han Jiang (VG writes 畕 as 曰/田). This includes the earliest version without lyrics (see 1677).

    王猷定 Wang Youding
    From 南昌 Nanchang

  150. 冷士嵋 Leng Shimei
    From 丹徒 Dantu

  151. 金癡 Jin Chi, nickname for 金某 Jin So-and-so, style name 德洪 Dehong (Bio xxx)
    This is the same person as
    Jin Qiongjie, who was also from 宋江 Song Jiang and from a family of military commanders (衛指揮 wei zhihui).

    Jin Chi was surnamed Jin. No one knew his given name but his style name was 德洪 Dehong. He was from Songjiang. People of Song, whether or not they were familiar with him, all called him Jin Chi (Jin the Imbecile). His ancestors served the Ming dynasty with the hereditary position of military commander. When young he was skilled in literature. When his family lost its position he filled his vacant time acting as a government-sponsored district student. After the Ming perished he cast off his turban....

    袁子彝 Yuan Ziyi
    Adds nothing to information at QSCB,

    沈維存 Shen Weicun
    Adds nothing to information at QSCB,

    王汝德 Wang Rude
    Adds nothing to information at QSCB,

    王端 Wang Duan
    Son and student of
    Wang Rude. However, the only information here is that "when Duan died, the teachings of their master (Jin Chi) ended."

  152. 周續之 Zhou Xuzhi, style name 臞鶴 Quhe
    From 嘉興 Jiaxing

  153. 鍾秉會 Zhong Binghui, style name 時舉 Shiju
    A recluse living in 南昌 Nanchang (Bio/xxx)

  154. 李延__ (14166: 日/正: = 是 shi or 夏 xia) Li Yanshi or Li Yanxia (1628 - 1697)
    Li Yanshi (or Yanxia; Bio/xxx; QSCB,
    7.A.) is sometimes written "李延罡 Li Yan'gang", but this seems to be a mistake, confusing him with someone who died in 1722. He wandered in Zhejiang's 平湖 Pinghu, where he especially liked to play 霹靂引 Pili Yin, which he learned from Han Jiang.

  155. 高北峰 Gao Beifeng
    From Yunnan, during 1573 - 1620 he lived at 北秀邑村 (xx; a village on the north side of Mount Xiu, in Yunnan south of Kunming?)...When he played qin a crane would dance.

    卷四 Folio 4

    清 Qing dynasty (to #316)

  156. 劉體仁 Liu Tiren (1612-1677)
    Liu Tiren (Bio/678; 2270.1342) was quite well-known as a poet and book collector. From Wei, near Yingzhou (now part of Anhui province), he studied with 蘇門孫奇逢 Sun Qifeng (孫鍾元 Sun Zhongyuan) of the Sumen school (poetry?). The present entry says that at one time he left a qin in a particular hall that came to be called Hall Where a Qin was Left (留琴堂 Liu Qin Tang). After he made friends with 王士禎 Wang Shizhen and 汪琬 Wang Wan they would enjoy poetry together, and also qin, in particular the melody 御風操 Yuefeng Cao (see
    Liezi Yufeng), which Liu liked to play at the 慈仁寺 Ciren Temple. Once Wang Shizhen wrote a related poem. An online quote of this says the poem is 詩兆 and the text is:


    Liu himself wrote 七頌堂識小錄 7.404. The Qinshi Xu biography begins (source: 文獻徵存錄; 11 lines) : Liu Tiren, style name 公㦷 Gongyong; from 潁州 Yingzhou, but 籍河南棣川衛 registered as from Henan Dichuan Wei (?); jinshi in 1655....

  157. 毛際可 Mao Jike (1633-1708)
    17141.195; Bio/279. From 浙江遂安 Sui An in Zhejiang, 字會侯 style name Huihou, 號鶴舫,又號宋皋道人 nicknames Hefang and the Songgao Daoist; jinshi in 1658. He was a scholar official who, while in Zhejiang, was associated with
    毛奇齡 Mao Qiling (Wiki); although not as knowledgeable as Qiling, Jike was a better essayist and could also paint. These two Maos plus 黃齊 Huang Qi (? 48904.954xxx) were known as the Three Maos. The essay here includes a poem attributed to 濟南田山薑雯 Tian Wen (1635-1704; 22219.225 田雯 says he called himself 山薑子 Shanjiangzi) about Mao Jike's qin playing. It begins, 儒林丈人毛公者.... (? Seems unconnected to this poem online attributed to Tian Wen, called "晚坐來鶴橋聽道士彈琴": 噴薄歷山根,遠注自王屋。琴聲和泉聲,清響滿空谷。千載無賞音,山鴉鳴灌木。). 12 lines; source 古歡堂集.

  158. 孫挺銓 Sun Tingquan (1613-1674)
    Bio/785: From 青州益都 Yidu in Qingzhou, style name 沚亭 Zhiting. The present essay says that after retirement he got very involved with qin, writing an Abridged Qin Tablature Finger Method (琴譜指法省文 Qinpu Zhifa Shengwen, 1673; listed in 中國音樂思想批判
    Zhongguo Yinyue Sixiang Pipan, p.157). This work included some poems, after which was an essay, quoted here, about playing qin.
    18 lines; source: 沚亭文集 Zhiting Wenji

    The Leiden Museum has a document in three parts, the third part of which seems to have been copied by Yang Shibai (Yang Zongji, 1865–1933) from the Qinpu Zhifa Shengwen. The three parts are

    1. A 舞胎仙館吟猱指法 Wutaixianguan Yinnao Zhifa (Left hand ornaments from the Wutaixian Hall, a studio of Yang Shibai), much of it copied into Booklet 6 of Yang Shibai's Qinxue Congshu; it describes various left hand ornamenting methods.
    2. A short "琴學隨筆 Informal Essay on Qin Study" by Yang; a longer version is in Section 12 of Qinxue Congshu.
    3. The 琴譜指法省文 Qinpu Zhifa Shengwen, consisting exclusively of fingering explanations - no other essays or actual melodies. Could this part be a handcopy by Yang Shibai of this one section of Sun's original? It is not the same as Yang Shibai's own extended fingering explanations in Section 25 of Qinxue Congshu.

    In the margins of this book, at least the latter part, are the words 沚亭琴譜 Zhiting Qinpu.

  159. 謝良琦 Xie Liangqi
    From 廣西全州 Quanzhou in Guangxi. Wrote a 琴說二則 that was "very good". 28 lines; source 醉白堂集.

    將韻和 Jiang Yunhe

    曹泗濱 Cao Sibin

    張訒庵 Zhang Ren'an

    張煥宸 Zhang Huanchen

  160. 范佩蘭 Fan Peilan
    From 中州 Zhongzhou

    朱周望 Zhu Zhouwang

  161. 何匯海 He Huihai
    From 惠安崇武 Chongwu in Huian

  162. 吳元沖 Wu Yuanchong
    His ancestors were from 太倉 Taicang

  163. 尤侗 You Dong (or Tong)
    From 長洲 Changzhou

  164. 譚清 Tan Qing
    From 常熟

  165. 程志灊 Cheng Zhiqian
    From 歙 She county

  166. 崔朋銓 Cui Pengquan
    From 海門 Haimen district

  167. 湯巖夫 Tang Yanfu
    A good qin player. He once traveled in Huang Shan (Yellow Mountains) playing the qin. On one of the peaks was someone with whiskers and white clothing. Examining in front it seemed to be ? 雪翁 The Old Man of the Snow (43160.147xxx -- style name of [宋]陳虞之). The Old Man of the Snow was called by mountain people 猿公 Sir Gibbon. A long cry split open the clouds and he went off. 休寧韓冶人 A man from Hanye in Xiuning then inscribed 猿公聽琴圖 Sketch of Sir Gibbon Listening to the Qin.

  168. 孔興誘 Kong Xingyou (and/or 孔興爕 Kong Xingxie)
    The Qinshi Xu entry gives as its reference the
    Qinshu Cunmu entry for his handbook, Qinyuan Xinchuan Quanbian (1670; QQJC XI/209-527), where the names 孔興爕 Kong Xingxie and 孔興誘 Kong Xingyou are both used (7077.xxx for both). In fact, this Qinshi Xu entry is mostly copied from Qinshu Cunmu, with only the first two sentences giving any detail about "Kong Xingyou" himself. Instead there are only vague descriptions of the book (e.g., its comment on the extent of work on music analysis [? 考聲律論制度博大精深] is puzzling, as it comprises only the first two of 20 folios and has only one chart).

    Kong Xingyou, style name 起正 Qizheng, nickname 秀子 Xiuzi, was from 曲阜 Qufu (Shandong). Skilled at qin he wrote Qinyuan Xinchuan Quanbian 20 folios, working on it from 1637 to 1668 when he made it into a book, having worked on it for 32 years. As a result this book's examination of systems in discussing the rules of music is vastly profound and wonderful to look at. As for the arrangement of the tablature, the recorded pieces imitate Yuefu Shiji in that they all have commentary. The melodies' phrasing and sectioning are examined and interpreted; every piece is connected with critical comments relating all the experts' comments all noted. Its style is especially to the point.

  169. 張英 Zhang Ying
    From 江南桐城 Tongcheng in Jiangnan

  170. 徐常遇 Xu Changyu (17th c.)
    From 揚州 Yangzhou (廣陵 Guangling).
    Van Gulik, p.83, says that in the 17th century the old Zhe school split into the Yushan School and the Guangling School, with Xu Changyu the "most prominent representative of the Guangling School". QSCB, Qing dynasty Qin specialists (pp.154-5), says he was quite similar to Yushan school and that from what he wrote he preferred shortening melodies to extending them. See also Xiangshan Tang Qinpu

    徐祐 Xu You
    Son of Xu Changyu

    徐禕 Xu Yi
    Another son of Xu Changyu, he helped his father compile 澄鑒堂琴譜 Chengjiantang Qinpu (Clear Mirror Hall) in 1689 (XIV/3)

  171. 孫泉 (written 水全) Sun Quan
    Connected to #140 尹爾韜
    Yin Ertao

  172. 菜毓榮 Cai Yurong
    From 山湖 Shan Hu

  173. 鄭善述 Zheng Shanshu
    Lived in 閩 (Fujian)

  174. 莊臻鳳 Zhuang Zhenfeng
    QSCB; see separate entry: author of Qinxue Xinsheng (1664) and teacher of Shin-Etsu.

  175. 陳翼 Chen Yi
    From 常熟

  176. 張文星 Zhang Wenxing
    Played new music (?) at the beginning of Kangxi period (1662 - 1723)

  177. 黃正傳 Huang Zhengzhuan (or Zhengchuan)
    From 建寧 Jianning

  178. 夏浦 Xia Pu
    From 蘇州 Suzhou

  179. 沈宗敬 Shen Zongjing
    From 華亭 Huating

  180. 巖光(支學) Yan Guangxiao
    From 曲阜 Qufu

  181. 朱人特 Zhu Rente
    From 泰興 Taixing

  182. 黃應纘 Huang Yingzuan
    From 漳州府平和 From Pinghe in Zhangzhou district

  183. 章生 Zhang Sheng
    From 閩 Min (Fujian)

  184. 金陶 Jin Tao
    Aka 金吾易 Jin Wuyi. From 嘉興 Jiaxing; see QSCB, Qing dynasty
    Qin specialists. His versions of a number of pieces were transmitted via Liaohuaitang Qinpu (1702)?

    王澤山 Wang Zeshan

  185. 魏濱 Wei Bin
    From 直隸鳳潤 Fengrun in Zhili

  186. 王坦 Wang Tan
    From 通州 Tongzhou; wrote a Qin Mandate (琴旨 Qin Zhi), included in Vol 210 of
    Siku Quanshu. It is discussed in Xu Jian, QSCB, Qing Dynasty Essays (中文 QSCB p.166) and Rao Zongyi, Chapter 6.

    王公捷 Wang Gongjie (?)

  187. 和素 He Su (style name 存齋 Cunzhai; husband of Miss Kede)
    A 滿州 Manchu of the 鑲黃 Yellow (Gold) Inlay banner, he rose in office to Inner Chamber Hanlin College Reader. A good qin player, he took the Ming dynasty Yang Lun's Taigu Yiyin (1589; or more specifically an edition called Qinpu Hebi) in order to make a dual language (Manchu / Chinese) edition called Qinpu Hebi, 18 Folios. (This work is not included in Qinqu Jicheng, but it was printed separately in Shanghai in 1991, together with some other qin works, as entry #3 in Extra 10 Volumes of Siku Yishu Congshu. It is also in Vol. 839 of the Wenyuange Siku Quanshu.) (Source: Siku Tiyao.)

  188. 景錫爵 Jing Xijue, style name 公言 Gongyan
    A good qin player, his original name was 蔣徑 Jiang Jing, style name 開三. A military man with a high reputation, he played 塞上鴻詩 Poem of the Wild Goose in the Border Region.

    景百里 Jing Baili
    Also a good qin player.

  189. 畢振 Bi Zhen
    From 丹徒 Dantu

    畢夢魁 Bi Mengkui

    關雪江 Guan Xuejiang

    喜天來 Xi Tianlai

    畢宏鑾 Bi Hongluan

  190. 程雄 Cheng Xiong
    Style name Ying'an 颖庵; from 燕山 Yanshan (QSCB,
    Chapter 8A [中文 p. 153] says he was 安徽休寧人 from Xiuning in Anhui). He had two well-known teachers, 韓石耕 Han Shigeng, mentioned, above and Chen Shanmin, and compiled the well-known Songfengge Qinpu.

    陳山岷 Chen Shanmin, Cheng Xiong's other teacher, though quite likely also well-known, is described in a somewhat unclear manner. Cheng Xiong's Songfengge Qinpu includes one melody, Zui Yu Chang Wan, said to have 陳山民譜 tablature of Chen Shanmin, i.e., with 民 instead of 岷, but in this context one might guess they are the same person. Also worthy of consideration here is that around that time there was a well-known painter named 陳珉字陳山民 Chen Min style name Chen Shanmin. Note also that the painter-poet 吳歷 Wu Li is said to have studied qin around this time from a 山民陳先生 Mr. Chen Shanmin (see further).

    Cheng Xiong himself often set to qin lyrics from noted local literati - the songs in his Shuhuai Cao were apparently all set to poems local literati had written in his praise. His songs should thus have a different flavor from those of, for example, Zhang Jutian, who adapted songs from the oral tradition (Kunqu?).

    Cheng Xiong, style name Ying'an, was from Yanshan. He loved riding, archery and swordfighting, hoping to make use of these, but without results, so he cast them aside and studied the qin, learning the playing techniques of Han Shigeng and Chen Shanmin....(9 lines; Source: Chunhu Manlu)

  191. 程允基 Cheng Yunji
    From 新安 Xin'an; compiled 誠一堂琴譜
    Chengyitang Qinpu (1705; XIII.4) and Qin Tan

    畢爾恕 Bi Ershu

    胡洵龍 Hu Xunlong

  192. 雲志高 Yun Zhigao
    字載青 Style name Zaiqing, 號逸亭 nickname Yiting. See QSCB, Qing dynasty
    Qin specialists p.158 (中文). From 廣東文昌 Wenchang in Guangdong, he compiled 蓼懷堂琴譜 Liaohuaitang Qinpu (1702; XIII.3). He wrote about qin as a form of self-cultivation, saying for this it was better than calligraphy (Wu Zeyuan, p.95)

  193. 祖餐雲 Zu Canyun
    A recluse in 吳 Zhejiang

    祖簡能 Zu Jianneng

    董陳亮 Dong Chenliang

  194. 徐祺 Xu Qi
    From 揚州 Yangzhou, he compiled 五知齋琴譜
    Wuzhizhai Qinpu (1722; XIV.4).
    QSCB, Qing dynasty Qin specialists (p.155), says he studied melodies from all over but emphasized the Shu School (熟派 Shupai, from 常熟 Changshu; not in chart)

    徐俊 Xu Zun

    周魯封 Zhou Lufeng

    黃鎮 Huang Zhen

    汪安候 Wang Anhou

    羅子敬 Luo Zijing

  195. 張岡 Zhang Gang
    From 長洲 Changzhou

  196. 吳方 Wu Fang
    From 陳州 Chenzhou

  197. 曹友仙 Cao Youxian
    From 上海 Shanghai

  198. 江永 Jiang Yong
    From 婺源 Wu Yuan, he compiled Diagrams of Qin Positions (琴徽圖
    Qinhui Tu), and Diagrams of Five Qin Modes (琴五調圖 Qin Wudiao Tu); also mentions qin in his Lülü Xinlun.

  199. 郭裕齋 Guo Yuzhai (郭用英 Guo Yongying?)
    晉陽人 From Jinyang (太原 Taiyuan in Shanxi? also Anhui); he compiled 德音堂琴譜
    Deyintang Qinpu (1691; XII.7)

  200. 張翬 Zhang Hui
    From 吳縣 Wu district

    卷五 Folio 5

  201. 吳水雲 Wu Shuiyun

  202. 張梁 Zhang Liang
    Zhang Liang, style names 大木 Damu and 奕山 Yishan, and nicknamed 幻花 (Flower Illusion) was from 華亭 Huating (east of Suzhou); he attained jinshi in 1713. He was uncle of 沈文敏 Shen Wenmin (father of 沈宗敬
    Shen Zongjing).... Once at 西溪 Xixi he played the melody He Wu Dongtian. The two cranes he was rearing in the courtyard soared and danced.... A similar story is told of his daughter Zhang Foxiu, but she does not seem to be mentioned here. (Source: 西神客話 Xishen Kehua.

  203. 譚子璽 Tan Zixi

  204. 徐梗 Xu Geng

  205. 葉魯白 Ye Lubai

  206. 沈曦賓 Shen Xibin

  207. 陸生芝 Lu Shengzhi

  208. 顧耘叟 Gu Yunsou

    廖燕 Liao Yan

    蕭絅若 Xiao Jiongruo

  209. 陳春樹 Chen Chunshu

  210. 徐遴 Xu Lin

  211. 張開基 Zhang Kaiji

    賈巢雲 Jia Chaoyun

    曹永鼎 Cao Yongding

  212. 馬兆辰 Ma Zhaochen

  213. 王紱 Wang Fu (also named 汪烜 Wang Xuan)
    Wrote Lixuezhai Qinpu and Yuejing Lülü Tongjie

    吳薌巖 Wu Xiangyan

    吳健菴 Wu Jian'an (an was written 荅/廾)

    余家鼎 Yu Jiading

  214. 潘翰 Pan Han

  215. 陳遵 Chen Zun

  216. 李郊 Li Jiao

    李襄五 Li Xiangwu

  217. 曹尚絅 Cao Shangjiong
    Chuncaotang Qinpu

  218. 蘇璟 Su Jing
    - style name 祐賢 Youxian, nickname 琴山 Qinshan, from Hangzhou. No mention of a handbook. Source:
    Chunhu Manlu.

    閆沛年 Yan Peinian

  219. 戴源 Dai Yuan
    Essay discussed in QSCB
    Chapter 8C (中文 QSCB p.165)

  220. 王善 Wang Shan (1678 - after 1758)
    - style name 元伯 Yuanbo; from 雲陵 Yunling (43170.337 in 陝西 Shaanxi)
    Wang compiled
    Qin Xue Lianyao (QQJC/XVIII; QSCM) and made a qin setting for You Jian Quan. The QQJC preface says he was a Confucian who was critical of qin styles as they then existed, but that he was unable to come up with interesting new music: just some short songs. QSCB (中文) also mentions him only as a creator of qin songs. No mention is made of him developing a new school of play. Wu Zeyuan, pp.75/6 says that Qinxue lianyao "includes a section that lists the names of thirteen sponsors, who are called "Qin-friends Who Assisted with the Publication" (zhukan qinyou 助刊琴友). Wang Que 王慤 (fl. 1754), whose name is listed at the top of in this section, wrote in the preface that he offered part of his government salary to support the publication."

    王叔均 Wang Shujun

    帥皋蘭 Shuai Gaolan

  221. 沈鳳來 Shen Fenglai

    沈汝愚 Shen Ruyu

  222. 黃庭 Huang Ting

  223. 廖惟聰 Liao Weicong

  224. 張道浚 Zhang Daojun (or Daoxun)

  225. 顧玉 Gu Yu

    梁萬(示冀) Liang Wan(ji? character not in dictionary "spiritual + hope")

  226. 籃鼎元 Lan Dingyuan

  227. 黃世熹 (xi written 火喜, a variant)

  228. 王昶 Wang Chang

    周端 Zhou Duan

  229. 茆在宮 Mao Zaigong

  230. 楊廷果 Yang Tingguo

  231. 侯維岳 Hou Weiyue

  232. 姜大親 Jiang Daqin

    康兆元 Kang Zhaoyuan

  233. 萬復 Wan Fu

  234. 顏超 Yan Chao

  235. 馬駿 Ma Jun

  236. 林仁 Lin Ren

  237. 謝伯 Xie Bo

    謝愚泉 Xie Yuquan

  238. 唐庭楷 Tang Tingjie (or Tingkai)

  239. 蔣寶三 Jiang Baosan

    張覆照 Jiang Fuzhao

  240. 李克岐 Li Keqi

  241. 徐光燦 Xu Guangcan

  242. 王範 Wang Fan

  243. 吳潁芳 Wu Yingfang

  244. 崔應階 Cui Yingjie

    白如熙 Bai Ruxi

  245. 謝廷賓 Xie Tingbin

  246. 任金書 Ren Jinshu

  247. 沈銓 Shen Quan

  248. 程瑤田 Cheng Yaotian
    Wrote a
    Qin Yin Ji

  249. 徐宗彥 Xu Zongyan

    林哲侯 Lin Zhehou

  250. 曹庭棟 Cao Tingdong
    His 琴學內篇一卷,外篇一卷 Qinxue Neipian and Waipian are included in
    Siku Quanshu Cunmu Congshu, Vol. 子 75, pp. 153-226.
    They seem to be part of his 琴學例言 Qinxue Liyan; see also QSCB Chapter 8C

    何夢瑤 He Mengyao
    See his 琴學纂要
    Qinxue Zuanyao

  251. 吳聲譽 Wu Shengyu

    -曹秋潭 Cao Qiutan

  252. 索祿 Suo Lu

    唐侃 Tang Kan

    唐明 Tang Ming

  253. 積善 Ji Shan

    卷六 Folio 6

  254. 楊天益 Yang Tianyi

  255. 萬柏 Wan Bo (or Bai)

  256. 王繪 Wang Hui

    姚仁 Yao Ren

  257. 江玨 Jiang Jue (text has 王玉 jue or gu, the old form)

  258. 陳允衡 Chen Yunheng

  259. 吳宜蟄 Wu Yizhe (or Yizhi)

  260. 李世則 Li Shize

    李馨 Li Xing

    李粹 Li Cui

  261. 吳灴 Wu Hong
    See QSCB, Qing dynasty
    Qin specialists

    徐錦堂 Xu Jintang

    吳宮心 Wu Gongxin

    吳重光 Wu Chongguang

    沈江門 Shen Jiangmen

    江麗田 Jiang Litian

  262. 汪德鉞 Wang Deyue

  263. 徐養源 Xu Yangyuan
    Wrote 琴學原始
    Qinxue Yuanshi

  264. 徐涵 Xu Han

    吼琴 Hou Qin

  265. 高步瀛 Gao Buying

  266. 劉光照 Liu Guangzhao

  267. 周顯祖 Zhou Xianzu

  268. 趙一漁 Zhao Yiyu

    汪國 Wang Guo

  269. 江孟寬 Jiang Mengkuan

    汪秉鍾 Wang Bingzhong

  270. 萬國諫 Wang Guojian

  271. 徐昌景 Xu Changjing

  272. 鄧松 Deng Song

  273. 葉桾 Ye Jun

    陳同文 Chen Tongwen

  274. 張味琴 Zhang Weiqin

  275. 李貞 Li Zhen
    河南禹州人 Bio/890xxx (none of these 3 different people); also not 李真
    Li Zhen or 李禎 Li Zhen.

  276. 屈鼇 Qu Ao

    王泉之 Wang Quanzhi

  277. 何述善 He Shushan

  278. 孫匯 Sun Hui

  279. 屈頌滿 Qu Songman

  280. 巖恪 Yan Ke (or Que)

  281. 江山 Jiang Shan

    李崑 Li Kun
    Qingtengxuan Qinpu

  282. 程起振 Cheng Qizhen

  283. 胡欽 Hu Qin

  284. 嚴秉彝 Yan Bingyi

    嚴慵 Yan Yong

  285. 吳式芬 Wu Shifen

  286. 韓桂 Han Gui
    -Han Gui aka 韓古香 Han Guxiang was from 武進 Wujin. He studied with 李玉峰 Li Yufeng of Hangzhou, then traveled and learned pieces from various players. For example, in Beijing 文溥寰 Wen Bohuan taught him such pieces as Hujia Shiba Pai, Zhuang Zhou Meng Die and Han Gong Qiu Yue. From 冉性山 Ran Xingshan of 西蜀 western Sichuan he learned Pei Lan and Gu Yuan Xiao Yue.

    Later he was a teacher of Jiang Wenxun: see also QSCB, Qing dynasty Qin specialists.

    徐渭仁 Xu Weiren

  287. 查奕照 Cha Yizhao

  288. 祝鳳鳴 Zhu Fengming

    祝鳳喈 Zhu Fengjie, style 祝桐君 Zhu Tongjun
    QSCB Chapter 9, p.173 (
    中文); author of Yuguzhai Qinpu;

    許海樵 Xu Haiqiao

  289. 孫長源 Sun Changyuan

  290. 吳景湖 Wu Jinghu (Bio. xxx)
    Wu Jinghu, style name 憲文 Xianwen, nickname 素江 Sujiang, was from 歙 She county (Huizhou) in
    Anhui.... He compiled a 謝琴詩文鈔 Xie Qin Shiwen Chao. ("Listed among existing books". His own preface is dated 1818. See also his wife, #395B Zhang Shangyu ).

  291. 沈浩 Shen Hao

    沈遵生 Shen Zunsheng

  292. 蔣文勳 Jiang Wenxun
    - see QSCB, Qing dynasty
    Qin specialists (QSCB p.159; 中文) and Qin essays (QSCB p.169; 中文); compiled Er Xiang Qinpu (1833) based on melodies played by his teachers, Han Gui and Dai Chenggeng. Han Gui was known as 韓古香 Han Guxiang and Dai Changgeng as 戴學香 Dai Xuexiang. Hence "二香 Er Xiang" referred to the two teachers.

    戴長庚 Dai Changgeng
    - aka 戴學香 Dai Xuexiang; compiled
    Lü Hua (1833). See also QSCB, Qing dynasty Qin specialists

  293. 吳統 Wu Tong

  294. 黃增康 Huang Zengkang

  295. 郭鳳岡 Guo Fenghang

    姚振翥 Yao Zhenzhu

  296. 陸應麒 Lu Yingqi

  297. 姚配中 Yao Peizhong
    Yijinglu Qinxue

  298. 趙非石 Zhao Feishi

    李詠霞 Li Yongxia

  299. 陳本禮 Chen Benli

  300. 朱本福 Zhu Benfu

  301. 鄭蘭 Zheng Lan

  302. 沈烜 Shen Xuan

  303. 梅植之 Mei Zhizhi

  304. 王瑋 Wang Wei

  305. 湯貽汾 Tang Yifen (ca. 1778-1853; Wiki; image)
    A landscape painter, calligrapher and government official from 武進 Wujin in Jiangsu

    趙振北 Zhao Zhenbei

    丁贊 Ding Zan

    沈癡 Shen Chi

    姚賡之 Yao Gengzhi

    德峰 De Feng

    崇敬 Chong Jing

    湯綬名 Tang Shouming

  306. 鄒安鬯 Zou Anchang
    Wrote a
    Qinlü Xicao

  307. 戴煦 Dai Xu (1801 – 1860; should be 戴熙 Dai Xi; Wiki)
    From Hangzhou, a noted artist with a style similar to that of Tang Yifen, he also became a senior official. He wrote a 琴弦徽分、琴弦轉調 Qinxian Huifen, Qinxian Zhuandiao

  308. 慶瑞 Qing Rui
    separate entry

  309. 秦維瀚 Qin Weihan
    See QSCB, Qing dynasty
    Qin specialists

  310. 唐彝名

  311. 黃曉珊 Huang Xiaoshan

  312. 劉人熙 Liu Renxi

  313. 張春圃 Zhang Chunpu
    The source for this story is given as 蓴湖漫錄
    Chunhu Manlu; see also QSCB, Chapter 10, p.176.

    Zhang Chunpu worked in the factory of a shop at Liuli Chang (in Beijing). He was upright in his dealings with people, had courage of his convictions, and was well-known in Beijing for his skill as a qin player. Once 慈禧 Cixi (the Empress Dowager) summoned him to the palace for qin instruction. Zhang first fixed with palace eunuchs that would not be able to kneel: to play the qin one had to sit.

  314. 倪世鑑 Ni Shijian

  315. 李蘭 Li Lan

    周慶賢 Zhou Qingxian

  316. 陳世驥 Chen Shiji
    See QSCB,
    p. 173

    何鏞 He Yong

    祝鳳翥 Zhu Fengzhu

    卷七 Folio 7: 方外 Transcendental (Mainly Buddhist)

    宋 Song dynasty

  317. 周貫 Zhou Guan
    Zhou Guan (3597.xxx) was from 膠東 Jiaodong (near Qingdao in Shandong). 奉新龍泉觀 Dragon Spring Daoist Monastery (49812.264xxx). Sources cited: 冷齋夜話 Lengzhai Yehua (1658.104 by 釋惠洪 the monk Huihong, 1071 - 1128, Bio/2296); 宋詩紀詩 Song Shi Jishi.

    Zhou Guan was from 膠東 Jiaodong (near Qingdao in Shandong). During 1068 - 1098 he went back and forth to the 西山 western mountains. By day he caroused, keeping with him a large gourd. At night he would use it as a urination pot. He was skilled at writing poetry and enjoyed very much playing the qin. One night he stayed at the Dragon Spring Daoist Monastery in Fengxin (near Nanchang, Jiangxi). At midnight he pounded on the gate. The 道士 Daoist priests, alarmed, asked the reason. (Zhou Guan) said, I suddenly encountered a sentence. The priests asked him to recite it. Zhou Guan, gesticulating with his hands and intoning, said, Playing qin can harm the fingernails. Covering oneself with a blanket can harm the beard." The evening was very cold. Guan was using this method (to criticize them) because he had only a thin mat to cover himself.

  318. 文照 Wen Zhao
    Wen Zhao (13766.xxx), style name 銓 Quan. 普照寺 Puzhao Buddhist Temple (14293.91xxx). 北牖 Beiyou (2615.347xxx north window). Liu Fa (2270.821xxx). Source cited: 松江府志 Songjiang Fu Zhi.

    Wen Zhao, style name 銓 Quan, excelled at playing qin. He had a qin called 響泉 Melodious Spring. He lived at 普照寺 Puzhao Buddhist Temple. He lived in a room called 妙音 Beautiful Sounds, closing his door to outside communication. When there was a pleasant breeze and a clear moon he would burn incense and play melodies saying he was offering this to the Buddha. Neighbors valued this and made a pavilion neary to listen. When Wen Quan found out he (left and) traveled on foot to 北牖 Beiyou. During the period 1086 - 1094 he became friends with the 主簿 bookkeeper 劉發 Liu Fa. Liu Fa praised him in a poem that said,


    Liu Fa once....

  319. 智和 Zhi He

  320. 思聰 Si Cong

  321. 邵琥 Shao Hu

  322. 照曠 Zhao Kuang
    Six lines, citing 墨莊漫錄 Mo Zhuang Manlu. See QSCB,
    Chapter 6a1. He was a disciple of Zequan Heshang.

  323. 林虛極 Lin Xuji

  324. 蘇紹成 Su Shaocheng

  325. 商碧山 Shang Bishan

  326. 羅道士 Luo Daoshi

    元 Yuan dynasty

  327. 芳洲 Fang Zhou

  328. 王德譧 Wang Delian

    明 Ming dynasty

  329. 無瑕 Wu Xia

  330. 張印頂 Zhang Yinding

  331. 孔希島 Kong Xidao

  332. 景輝 Jing Hui

    清 Qing dynasty

  333. 嶧聲 Yi Sheng

  334. 雲村 Yun Cun

  335. 岳蓮 Yue Lian

  336. 澄照 Cheng (or Deng) Zhao

  337. 特藻 Te Zao

  338. 古心 Gu Xin

  339. 金道人 Jin Daoren

  340. 鶴雛 He Chu

    笠道人 Li Daoren

  341. 練江 Liang Jiang

  342. 可韻 Ke Yun

  343. 蔡璸 Cai Bin

  344. 沈心耕 Shen Xingeng

  345. 軾侶 Shi Lü

  346. 吳浩 Wu Hao

  347. 高峻 Gao Jun

  348. 鄭濂 Zheng Lian

  349. 徐體微 Xu Tiwei

  350. 明辰 Ming Chen

  351. 張道浦 Zhang Daopu

  352. 陳紹藩 Chen Shaofan

  353. 蔣蓴胡 Jiang Chunhu (chun written 艸/純)
    Bio/xxx; The Chunhu here is the same as the Chunhu of
    Chunhu Manlu, but the text makes no connection. The source given is 丹徒縣志 Chronicles of Dantu County (southeast of Zhenjiang in Jiangsu Province). Date seems to be ca. 1853.

    Zhang Chunhu, a Daoist priest at the Guandi Temple in Yinshan (Silver Mountain, near Zhenjiang), was good at qin melodies, and thus a match for Xu Tiwei.

  354. 賀炳 He Bing

  355. 慧蒼 Hui Cang

  356. 覺阿 Jue A

  357. 覺虛 Jue Xu

  358. 張鶴
    Qinxue Rumen

    王嘯霞 Wang Xiaoxia

  359. 空塵 Kong Chen

  360. 聞溪 Wen Xi

    卷八 Folio 8: 閨秀 Graceful Ladies
    (See also
    Early Women Players)

    宋 Song dynasty

  361. 莊氏女 Woman of the Zhuang family
    Zhuang Anxiang is also featured in a brief story told in Van Gulik, Lore, p.158. So far I have no further information on her melody Bright Flowers (金花 Jin Hua; 41049.342 金花夫人 refers to southern female spirits during the Song dynasty). The source of this story is given as 嫏嬛記
    Lang Huan Ji.

    The woman of the Zhuang family, from 陳郡 Chenjun (modern 淮陽 Huaiyang in eastern Henan) was good at 女紅 nü gong feminine tasks and at playing the qin. She had a qin called Lightning Point (駐電 Zhudian). Every time she played Plum Blossom Melody (Meihua Qu) listeners all said there was an invisible fragrance (暗香 anxiang). As word got around she became known as Zhuang Anxiang. Whenever she played in the dark her right fingers seemed to have a bright flower illuminating the table, so she wrote a tune called Bright Flowers. One day she said in remorse, How can it be proper for a woman to do such things? So she broke her strings and played no more.
    元 Yuan dynasty

  362. 喬夫人 Wife of Qiao
    Qiao's wife (4114.xxx) is known mainly through her friendship with 元好問
    Yuan Haowen (1190 - 1257), a famous poet from northern Shanxi nicknamed 元遺山 Yuan Yishan. The source cited here is 元遺山集 Collected Works of Yuan Yishan. 行臺公 Xingtai Lord (34850.392 a government rank; see also Hucker) 喬琚 Qiao Ju (4114.xxx; Bio/xxx).

    Qiao's wife had the maiden name 張 Zhang. She was the daughter of a 行臺公 Xingtai Lord; her mother's name was 毛長 Mao Chang. She married 喬琚 Qiao Ju, the son of 喬侯 Earl of Qiao. She was calm, self-possessed and polite, like her mother. Her fu and shi poems as well as her qin play had an unreal beauty. 元遺山 Yuan Yishan treated her as a niece and (or: because she was a friend of his niece) nicknamed her 靜華君 Jinghua Jun (43533.xxx). When he heard her play Feng Ru Song he wrote a shi poem (structure [7+7] x 4; also in Qinshu Daquan Folio 19B) that says,


    White snow, crimson strings, she played again and again;
          Spring breeze, delicate fingering, (play over) 13 stars (the qin studs).
    Clouds in window, fog in the room on such an evening;
          Beautiful faces and elegant silks do not have the beauty of such sounds.
    The delicate sound of rain in the cold pines surpasses the empty sounds on bamboo pipes;
          .... (translation incomplete.)

    He praised her to such an extent!

  363. 陳淑真 Chen Shuzhen
    Chen Shuzhan (Bio/xxx). 陳友諒 Chen Youliang (see Giles) fought the Yuan, declared himself emperor in Wuchang; he lost to Zhu Yuanzhang of Ming. Source cited: 元史列女傳 Yuan History, Annals of Virtuous Women.

    When Chen Shuzhen was seven she could recite poetry and play the qin. In 1359 when Chen Youliang was plundering 龍興 Longxing () Shuzhen saw an elderly neighbor woman running up panting and telling her about this. Shunzhen then took her qin and sat by the window playing it. At the end of the piece she cried deeply and said, Now I must break the strings. Her parents in puzzlement asked her why. She said, The city is about to be destroyed and I certainly will be defiled. It would be better to die first. The next day the bandits arrived. She lived near the east end of the lake so she drowned herself there.

  364. 曹妙清 Cao Miaoqing
    Cao Miaoqing (14626.110); sources given here are 玉臺書史 Yutai Shushi and 太平清話 Taiping Qinghua. The Mr. 廉夫 Lianfu in the present account is the well-known writer 楊維楨
    Yang Weizhen (1296-1370). Chang and Saussy, Women Writers of Traditional China, pp.732/3, has his preface to her poems, but they do not say why they don't include any of the poems themselves; in the preface he describes this meeting (they translate qin as "lute").

    Cao Miaoqing, self nicknamed 雪齋 Xuezhai, was from 錢塘 Hangzhou. She was good at qin and calligraphy. Unmarried until the age of 30, she was admired for her moral restraint. Once she presented her poems to her teacher 丘公 Master Qiu. She told him that when she was younger she had gained interviews with Master 貫 Guan of 酸齋 Suanzhai and Master 班 Ban of 恕齋 Shuzhai, but had not been to see Mr. Lianfu. So her teacher took her and her wet nurse to visit (Lianfu) at 洞庭 Dongting (on an island) in 太湖 Taihu Lake. For him she sang poetry and played the qin, describing the agony of wasteland scenery. She drew on the qin melodies Guan Ju and Zhi Zhao (Fei) to accompany (the 章: song?) Bai Xue. Mr. Liao was greatly impressed. He discussed her 曹氏絃歌集 Ms. Cao's String Song Collection, and also responded to her with a poem that said, ([7+7] x 2)

    Sandalwood brush case with beautiful brushes;
          With snow water she blends her ink on yudaopao.

    Her writing is as good as that of Xue Tao on day-lily cards.
          So the price of paper in West Lake might be going up.

    玉帶袍 yudaipao (jade belt gown) was the name of her inkstone; 薛濤 Xue Tao: famous poet, 768-832

    明 Ming dynasty

  365. 田貴妃 Tian Guifei
    Tian Guifei (the original entry calls her 田妃 Tian Fei) was apparently named after the most famous concubine, 楊貴妃 Yang Guifei (22219.248) of the Tang dynasty. Tian Guifei, perhaps the daughter of a former
    courtesan, became a concubine (恭淑貴妃) of 朱由檢 Zhu Youjian, who reigned 1628 - 1644 as 莊烈帝 Zhuanglie Di or 崇禎 Chongzhen, the last emperor of the Ming dynasty. Regarding the melody she learned from her mother, Looking up at the Emperor (朝天 Zhao Tian), 14705.20/2 朝天 does not mention music. The Frosty Gibbon Collection (霜猿集詩 Shuangyuan Ji): 43311.195xxx. The sources cited are 霜猿集 Shuangyuan Ji and 甲申小紀 Jiashen Xiaoji (22221.20xxx).

    Gongshu Guifei, concubine of the last Emperor Zhuanglie, was from the Tian family, which had moved to Yangzhou from their home in Shaanxi. Beautiful from birth she was short on words but long on artistic talents. She was a good qin player, so the emperor gave her a qin named 小雷琴 Little Thunder Qin and ordered her to play it. He guessed that the tune she played was one she had learned from her teacher, but she said that her mother had taught it to her. The mother was then invited to the palace, where she played a melody called Looking up at the Emperor. The Frosty Gibbon Collection has a poem that praises this event.


    In addition, Emperor Zhuanglie once wrote 訪道五曲 Five Pieces on Visiting a Daoist. These were called

    崆峒引 Kongtong Yin
    敲爻歌 Qiaoyao Ge (13636.xx)
    據桐吟 Jutong Yin
    參同契 Cantong Qie
    爛柯遊 Lanke You.

    He ordered Tian Guifei to play them. It is said that her finger techniques whether grand or reserved were all appropriate. A poem in 明宮雜詠 Miscellaneous Songs of the Ming Palace says this as follows,


    選侍范 Palace girl Fan and 選侍薛 Palace Girl Xue both studied qin from her. They were called her 入室弟子 Best Students.

  366. 葉小鸞 Ye Xiaoluan (d.1616 - 32)
    Women Writers (pp.266 - 284) has biographical notes on and poems by Ye Xiaoluan (32127.18; Bio/403), her two younger sisters 葉紈紈 Ye Wanwan (1610 - 32) and Ye Xiaowan 葉小紈, (b. 1613), and their mother 沈宜修 Shen Yixiu (1590 - 1635), who married a talented official named 葉紹袁 Ye Shaoyuan (32127.156), style name 葉仲紹 Ye Zhongshao. The Shen family was from 水部 Shuibu, in 吳江 Wujiang, near Suzhou. Although Xiaoluan was 16 (17 in the Chinese system) when she died, the McGill list includes 97 poems by her. She is also discussed in Idema and Grant's Red Brush. For the significance of later stories about her, see Anne Gerritsen, "The Many Guises of Xiaoluan. For example, on p. 52 Gerritsen writes, "In 1849, a low ranking official by the name of Wang Shoumai...came across a small inkstone. When he found two short poems engraved on the back of the inkstone he became convinced it had once belonged to Xiaoluan. Looking through her collected poems, he discovered that these two poems were not included." One of these two later poems is the one here attributed to Xiaoluan herself. (The other is "天寶繁華事已陳,成都畫手樣能新。如今只學初三月,怕有詩人說小顰。".) The connection of Xiaoluan to an eyebrow-shaped inkstone also seems to come from a later date: a poem about her by Wu Songliang (1766 - 1834; it is translated in Gerritsen, p. 51). Sources cited here: 午夢堂集 Wumengtang Ji (a collection by Ye Shaoyuan of writings by eight members of his family), 疏香閣遺錄 Shuxiangge Yilu (1917; includes a biography of her by Ye Dehui), 鸝吹集 Li Chui Ji, and 列朝詩集 Liezhao Shiji.

    Ye Xiaoluan, style names 瑤章 Yaozhang and 瑤期 Yaoqi, was a daughter of Ye Zhongshao of Shuibu. At age four she could recite the Chu Ci, at 11 she could write poetry, at 14 she could play weiqi, when she was 16 she had an aunt who was a good qin player teach her something of the fingering, after which she could play several tunes in a refreshing and lovely manner, what Xi Kang called 英聲發越采采粲粲 lovely sounds in brilliant array. By day she sat quietly in her 疏香閣 Pavilion of Subtle Fragrance and 韶年靈慧語亦生香 (spent pleasant seasons in intelligent conversation and burning incense?)。 小庭無多芳草 (few gentlemen?) 繁列風月映戶琴書在床。珍藏一眉子硯,自題詩云. She greatly valued her "eyebrow-shaped inkstone" and so wrote a poem about it that says:


    She died at age 17.

  367. 湯尹嫺 Tang Yinxian (1615 - 1640)
    Tang Yinxian (Bio/). 計來 Ji Lai (Bio/xxx). Source cited: 吳江縣志 Wujiang District Annals.

    Tang Yinxian, style name 洽君 Qiajun or Xiajun, was a daughter of 湯三俊 Tang Sanjun of 吳江 Wujiang (near Suzhou) and wife of 計來 Ji Lai. She was good at poetry and painting and fond of the qin. When her husband was about to die to told his wife that he'd had a dream in which she was playing qin when a string broke. He interpreted this as proof they were soon to part, and he begged her to take good care of his songs. She replied that while she was alive she would certainly do this, but she feared she couldn't live on without him. For three days after he died she didn't eat, only sobbed. On the fourth day she leaned over his grave, spit up several cups of blood and died. It was 1640 and she was 25 years old.

  368. 徐烈婦 Honorable Wife of Xu
    徐錫胤 Xu Xiyin ("yin" [?] is missing the final stroke; 10363.599xxx); the 永康侯 Marquis of Yongkang (17461.146xxx). Source cited: 留溪外傳 (22365.xxx but apparently in 四庫全書) Extra Chronicles from Liu Xi, a work attributed to the Qing dynasty writer 陳鼎 Chen Ding.

    Xu's honorable wife had the maiden name 張 Zhang. He was Xu Xiyin, the Marquis of Yongkang. Widowed at the age of 17, and without sons, she shunned face powder and lived in her room reading, doing calligraphy and playing the qin. Every month she would go wait on her mother-in-law. When she played the Shang Tune Water Flows over Chu (商音激楚 Shang Yin Ji Chu (激楚 18876.36) listeners all cried. When in 1644 the bandit 李自成 Li Zicheng (1606 - 1645) attacked the capital everyone else ran off, but she decided it was nobler to die. Soaking her official clothing in oi, she and her mother-in-law ordered a servant to burn everything. The mother-in-law started to run off, but she held her back. She had four young female servants who also wanted to immolate themselves, but she told them not to. They tried anyway, but in the midst of this one of the servants, as she later related, seemed to be grbbed by a force which carried her to a neighbor's house, where she lived to tell of this affair.

  369. 李玉弘 Li Yuhong
    Li Yuhong (Bio/); 牟呈燦 Mou Chengcan (Bio/xxx); 李本深 Li Benshen (14819.264; d.1660). Source cited: same as #368: 留溪外傳 Extra Chronicles from Liu Xi (22365.xxx]).

    The honorable wife of 牟 Mou was Li Yuhong. She was the wife of 牟呈燦 Mou Chengcan, from 貴州安順郡庠 Prefect School/Asylum of Anshun (west of Guiyang) in Guizhou. She read books as a youth and understood the meaning. She was not excitable, but calm and polite. At age eight she was praised as correct and upright. Her paternal grandfather 李本深 Li Benshen was governor of Guizhou so she followed them there. The hundres of men and women at her grandfather's yamen all respected her. When (in 1643) Wu Sangui made his secret pact with the Manchus, the grandfather went along with him in spite of his granddaughter's moralizing. On her mother's orders she married Mr. Mu; she was filial to his parents and courteous to all her in-laws. When Wu was killed (in 1678 - he had come to the southwest to defeat rebels but then became one himself) the law held that her family had to be destroyed, but that a woman who had married out of the family could not be held responsible. However, since she was so beautiful and desirable someone (with rank who desired her) wrote her name back into the family record (in order to have his way with her). Her husband complained to local officials but they could do nothing. In the end she decided to commit suicide. When the evil official had her taken away she concealed a knife in her sleeve. Theyu walked all night to the capital. The evil official sent a palanquin to have her taken to the yamen, but there she slit her throat. The previous New Year'd Eve she had been playing three tunes on qin with her husband. There was a wailing sound and the 7th string broke. This, combined with a dream she'd had that a mountain fell on her, was so ominous that they cried in each other's arms and could play no more.

  370. 卞賽 Bian Sai (early 17th c.)
    Bian Sai is combined with her sister, Bian Min. One of the melodies mentioned, 離鸞引 Li Luan Yin (43079.196), is in some ancient melody lists, but it is not in any surviving handbooks. Sources for both sisters: 梅村集 Annals of Meicun, 板橋雜記 Banqiao Zaji, 圖繪寶鑑續纂 Tuhui Baojian Xuzuan. Also see
    Women Writers of Traditional China, p.331ff.

    Bian Sai, style name 賽賽 Saisai, self nicknamed Daoist of the Jade Capital (玉京道人 Yujing Daoren), was of unknown origins. Some say she was from 秦淮 Qinhuai (southern Nanjing, its entertainment quarters, suggesting she was a courtesan). She was skilled at 小楷 small standard script calligraphy, a capable painter of orchids and a capable qin player. She (liked to) sojourn by the 山塘 mountain pond at 虎邱(丘) Huqiu (a hill just northwest of Suzhou). Her residence had bamboo screens, a wooden table and an absence of dirt. She had lovely clear eyes which by day would shine against her beautiful black ink and the "ice strings" (famous for their smooth translucence) of her qin. After the disturbances (at the end of the Ming dynasty) she traveled around 吳 Jiangsu. Putting on plain yellow cloth she became a Daoist (nun). She met the scholar 吳梅村 Wu Meicun (nickname of the famous poet 吳偉業 Wu Weiye, 1609 - 1671), and played the qin for him. Meicun then presented her with a poem called Listening to the Lady Daoist Bian Yujing Play a Qin Song. She liked to combine 別鵠 Bie Gu and 離鸞引 Li Luan Yin to make a melody fitting the phrases of 悲風怨雨吟 Beifeng Yuanyu Yin (11088.37xx). 梅村過錦樹林弔道人墓詩 Poem of Wu Meicun Passing Brocade Forest and Mourning at the Daoist's Grave, and 五條絃拂銀鉤手 Playing Five Strings (archaic reference to the qin) and Writing Silver Hook (a calligraphy style), are (two writings that) describe her qin play.

    卞敏 Bian Min
    Bian Min (Bio/)

    Bian Sai had a younger sister, named Min, who could also play the qin.

  371. 馬文玉 Ma Wenyu
    Ma Gui, style name Wenyu ((both 45550.xxx). 鄭士弘 Zheng Shihong (字 not found; 40513.xxx; Bio/xxx). Alliteration technique: 雙聲 shuangsheng (43067.348). Sources cited: 列朝詩集小傳 (1921.xxx) Biographies from Poetic Collections of Many Dynasties, and 西湖志 (西湖志纂? 35587.531? Qing) West Lake Chronicles.

    Ma Wenyu's given name was 珪 Gui. She was good at singing ballads and good at playing qin. (At that time) 鄭士弘 Zheng Shihong of 晉陵 Jinling (modern 常州 Changzhou), who was so good at 樂府 Yuefu (music bureau-type songs) that he could stop the clouds of Wu with his alliteration techniques, loved the silk string qin more than anything; he (or did he say she could? the Chinese seems alliterative: 挹湘水於十指之品平) baled out the 湘水 water of the Xiang River through the arrangement of 10 fingers. Once when traveling in West Lake playing the qin, when a melody was ordered, the mountains resounded on all sides.

  372. 沈素瓊 Shen Suqiong
    Shen Yin 沈隱, style name 素瓊 Suqiong (17529.xxx for both). The mentioned Sounds of the Melancholy Call of a Yellow Goose (黃鵠悲鳴聲 Huanggu Bei Ming Sheng, though it does not necessarily refer to a melody title, was perhaps music inspired by the Yellow Geese Melodies (48904.1272 黃鵠曲Huanggu Qu), a set of four YFSJ poems, the last of which mentions "melancholy calls" (悲鳴 bei ming; Folio 45,
    p.663). Her 孤山詠梅花 Gushan Yong Meihua is elsewhere called 詠梅詩 Yong Mei Shi, but I have not found a complete version. Other sources also say she was a 杭州妓 female entertainer in Hangzhou, but her family was very poor, hence her melancholy. Source cited here: 留溪外傳 Extra Chronicles from Liu Xi (same as with #368). See also 金忠潔公文集.

    Shen Suqiong, given name 隱 Yin, was a 京都女子 young woman of Jingdu (near Yangzhou). As a child she was smart and quick learning; she could read something once and remember it a long time. She was a good qin player, able to play Sounds of the Melancholy Call of a Yellow Goose in such a way that listeners would be moved to tears. She was also a good poet, using a lot of heart-rending phrases. By nature she loved scenery, and accompanied her mother to 武林 Wulin mountains (near Hangzhou); since they loved Hangzhou they made this their home.

    (Shen Suqiong's?) 孤山詠梅花 Praising the Plum Blossoms at Gushan (an island in West Lake) says,


    It also says

    有限人嗟琴在室,       There is a limit to people who sigh with qin in a room;
          空彈野調寄情癡。 In vain play wild melodies foolishly
    expressing one's emotions.

    Her poems often described herself. Later she returned to Hangzhou (?) and in the summer caught "summer illness" (cholera?). In the end she hung herself in order to be buried with the dead.

  373. 吳湘 Wu Xiang
    Wu Xiang (Bio/ ); 范崑崙 Fan Kunlun (31472.xxx). Sources cited: 西湖傳 Xihu Zhuan; 正始續集 Zhengshi Xuji (166611.197 zhengshi xxx; see also
    #375, #378, #392 below).

    Wu Xiang, style names 若耶 Ruoye and 婉羅 Wanluo, was from 京都 Jingdu (near Yangzhou). She was a 側室 concubine of Chief Secretary 范崑崙 Fan Kunlun. They lived by (presumably West) Lake. She was a good qin player, better than her contemporaries. Her poem 湖居即事詩 (speaks of her dislike of women's crafts and her love of painting, nature and the qin, which captures the essence of the rest):

    不解嫻刀遲,     隨時好畫山。
    茅檐香篆字,     湖面翠生斑。
    靜亦人中福,     勞因詠未閑。
    古人悲莫見,     琴意好追攀。

  374. 秀雲 Xiu Yun (Elegant Cloud)
    Xiu Yun (Bio/ ). Sources cited: 陽曲志餘 Yangqu Zhiyu (Extra Annals of Yangqu, near Taiyuan in Shaanxi, 42673.58), 然脂餘韻
    Ranzhi Yuyun (q.v.).

    Xiu Yun was a 晉府樂長 (music leader? in Shanxi prefecture). Her sounds and appearance were tops in her day, and she was good at painting orchids. When playing qin her Han Gong Qiu was considered the best. She could also use the pipa lute to play Pu'an Zhou and it was as good as the qin original. All sorts of scholars traveled in her company and a saying about her went as follows,


    With men of letters they often brought out wine for her, and when they buried her (葬之__[a character that looks like an upside down Greek pi]) someone wrote a poem that said,

    漢宮秋是古琴文, Han Gong Qiu is an old qin song;
    幾個知音坐上聞。 Several music connoisseurs will sit and listen.
    流水不逢鐘子輩, Liu Shui is seldom played for people like Zhong Ziqi.
    當壚誰識卓文君。 At a thatch hut diner who would recognize Zhuo Wenjun?

    清 Qing dynasty

  375. 科德氏 Miss Kede
    Miss Kede (25502.xxx) was wife of #187 Hanlin College Reader 和素
    He Su. Source cited: 正始集 Zhengshi Ji.

    Miss Kede, a Manchu, was wife of Hanlin College Reader 和素 He Su, style name 存齋 Cunzhai. He took the Ming dynasty Yang Lun's Taigu Yiyin (<1609) and translated it as an 國書 official book called Qinpu Hebi, 18 folios, creating this especially for qin players. During 1736 - 96 it was selected for inclusion in Siku Quanshu. His wife was also able to play qin. Whenever she was with her husband they burned incense and played facing each other. There is a poem called Playing the Qin at Night by the Pond that says,

    初月掛林梢,     池水尚耿耿。
    The new moon hangs on the tree tops,     the pond water shines brightly.
    A light breeze comes from the east,     seeming to cut into small pieces the shiny reflections.
    The clouds want to soar high in the blue sky,     night comes peacefully and autumn makes it easy to sleep.
    I want to play the dry wutong tree limb (i.e., a qin),     先得情虛境 first attaining a lunar emptiness.

  376. 覺羅學誠 Gioro Xuecheng
    Gioro (35799.56 Jueluo) was a name given to Manchu royalty. Xuecheng (Bio/1593). 尚書蘇庫 Grand Secretary Suku (d. 1740; Bio/801). 雅爾哈善 Yarhashan (1689 - 1759; Bio/2298). Source cited: 安裘居隨筆 Anqiuju Suibi.

    Xuecheng, style name 丹奉 Danfeng, was a Manchu of the 正紅旗 Correct Red Banner. She was a daughter of 尚書蘇庫 Grand Secretary Suku, and a younger sister of Defeat Rebels General 雅爾哈善 Yarhashan (1689 - 1759). She was the eighth child so in her generation she was called 覺羅八姑 Eighth Gioro Girl. A good reader, she discussed patriotic affairs old and new. Thinking that she had an incurable disease she decided to stay with her parents to the end (and not get married). She died 1763. She was skilled at qin and wrote 素言一卷 Plain Words, in one folio. In it she mainly discusses qin studies. It said,

    琴為眾樂之宗... Qin has the chief place of honor among all types of music....

    It also said,


    It also said,


    Her elegant style and great knowledge were like this.

  377. 丁仙窈 Ding Xianyao
    Ding Xianyao (Bio/ ). 閻修齡 Yan Xiuling (42324.31) was a Ming official from 太原 Taiyuan in Shaanxi who discarded his rank after 1644 and lived in northern Jiangsu's 淮安 Huai'an district, gaining fame as a poet; he called himself 牛叟 Venerable Ox. Sources cited: 兌閣遺徽 Duige Yihui and 湖海樓集 Huhailou Ji.

    Ding Xianyao, style name 少姜 Shaojiang, was wife of 閻修齡 Yan Xiuling. She was (his?) 百詩母 "mother of 100 poems" (?). Skilled at qin, she did not learn from a teacher, but used her own ideas to create 譜 (notated?) melodies. They were beautiful and natural. 又善奕 She was also good at chess. Xiuling made a qin for her and 雙清圖陳其年等 with a "paired clarity diagram" wrote on it the year and so forth. It all had his 題詠 impromptu verses praising her.

  378. 趙氏 Ms. Zhao
    Zhao Shi (Bio/ ); 楊紫淵 Yang Ziyuan (15489.xxx); 管社山 Guanshe Mountains (26689.xxx). Sources cited for mother and daughter: 江蘇詩徵 Jiangsu Shi Zheng and 正始續集 Zhengshi Xuji.

    Ms. Zhao, from Wuxi, was married to the recluse 楊紫淵 Yang Ziyuan. By nature she loved landscape and she joined Ziyuan in reclusion in the 管社山 Guanshe Mountains. When old there was a poem 閒居鼓琴 Living in Reclusion and Playing the Qin that said,

    雨後清泉繞砌流....([7+7] x 2)
    After the rain the clear spring flows around the stone steps....)

    楊秋漪 Yang Qiuyi
    Yang Qiuyi (xxx), Ms. Zhao's younger daughter.

    (Ms. Zhao's) younger daughter, Yang Qiuyi, also could play the qin. There is a phrase which says 乍添雞舌理絲桐 Hastily add cloves (then? while?) playing the qin.

  379. 黃修娟 Huang Xiujuan
    Huang Xiujuang (xxx); 參議 Ming counsellor 陸震 Lu Zhen, style name 汝亨 Ruheng (1464 - 1519!? see Bio/1312); 沈希珍 Shen Xizhen (17529.136xxx); 沈光祚 Shen Guangzuo (xxx). Sources cited: 初月樓見聞錄 Chuyuelou Jianwen Lu and 杭郡詩緝 Hangjun Shiji.

    Huang Xiujuan, style name 媚清 Meiqing, was a daughter of 參議 Ming counsellor (陸)汝亨 Lu Ruheng, and wife of 沈希珍 Shen Xizhen, a son of 侍郎 senior official 沈光祚 Shen Guangzuo. When seven years old she could play the qin, when eight she could write poetry. (Her father) once patted her and said, This is a man; the best in our family." (Her husband Shen) Xizhen, style name 羽文 Yuwen, 劬學自勵 studied hard and was encouraging (?). After their marriage they had a small bamboo grove. Meiqing would often be there playing the qin with Yuwen for pleasure.

  380. 張鴻逑 Zhang Hongqiu
    Zhang Hongqiu (10026.1424). Source cited: 眾香詞 Zhongxiang Ci (23874.99xxx). Her bios only mention the Qingyin Ci].)

    Zhang Hongqiu, style name 琴友 Qinyou (Qin Friend), was from 慈谿 Ciqi (near 寧波 Ningbo) in Zhejiang. She was married to 姚(與祁) Mr. Yao (Yuqi). (Qin)you, while at 二京 Erjing hoping for a child, wrote 清音詞一卷 Clear Sounds Poems, One Folio. 孫蕙媛 Sun Huiyuan of 鴛湖 Yuanhu wrote a preface for it. (The preface) said,

    Qinyou, while still carried as a child, both parents taught her 占 to observe signs and familiarized her with the 四聲 four tones of Chinese poetry. Without having to study she could make rhymes. When 10 years old she learned to play the qin and loved its sound....

    (Translation incomplete.)

  381. 沈珮 Shen Pei
    Shen Pei (Bio/xxx); 石門吳青壇侍御 Censor Wu Qingtan, style name of 吳震方 Wu Zhenfang (Bio/1072: attained his 進士 Jinshi in 1679). Source cited: 眾香詞 Zhongxiang Ci (see previous entry.)

    Shen Pei, style name 飛霞 Feixia, from 桐鄉 Tongxiang (NE of Hangzhou), was a daughter-in-law of 石門吳青壇侍御 Censor Wu Qingtan of Shimen (near Tongxiang), and wife of (his son 吳 Wu) 起代 Qidai, then a student. She was very talented. Because she was often ill she nurtured a fondness for the qin. After studying the qin only one month she could play several melodies. When people in their leisure time discussed poems about spring flowers and the autumn moon, she would play nearby. It was peaceful, spiritual and better than others, and so it was not long before she was really good.

  382. 張佛繡 Zhang Foxiu
    Zhang Foxiu (10026.xxx); 青浦張梁
    Zhang Liang of Qingpu (43517.xxx); his entry mentions Qingpu but says he is from Huating, near Suzhou. Source cited for both: Ranzhi Yuyun.

    Zhang Foxiu, style name 抱珠 Baozhu was a daughter of 青浦張梁 Zhang Liang of Qingpu. (Zhang) Liang, style name 大木 Damu was a well-known jinshi graduate (in 1713). He also gained fame for his qin play, and Baozhu learned the finger techniques from her father, hence becoming quite good at playing the qin. Once when she was young she lit incense in her courtyard and played the piece 鶴舞天仙 He Wu Tianxian (Cranes Dance with the Heavenly Immortals; compare this with the story of her father). Suddenly two cranes flew down, calling in response to her rhythm. Everyone thought this quite extraordinary. Later she married 金山姚寺 Yao Si of Jinshan (?).

    姚允迪 Yao Yundi
    Yao Yundi (Bio/ ), sister of Zhang Liang's husband, Yao Si.

    Yao Si's younger sister Yao Yundi, style name 蘊生 Yunsheng, studied qin from her. Her finger technique was also marvelous. She wrote by hand (i.e., it was never printed?) a 秋琴閣詩 Poem on the Autumn Qin Apartments.

  383. 吳綃 Wu Xiao (mid-17th century)
    Wu Xiao (Bio/ ). Sources cited: 海虞苑 Hai Yu Yuan and 正始集 Zheng Shi Ji. See also
    Women Writers of Traditional China, pp.375 - 382 (seven poems).

    Wu Xiao, style names 素公 Sugong and 冰仙 Bingxian, nickname 片霞 Pianxia, was from 常州 Changzhou in Jiangsu province. She married 參政 government official 許瑤 Xu Yao of 常熟 Changshu. She was skilled at painting, a good qin player, and 擅吟詠 an innovative singer. Her family had an antique qin; when under a moon she would play it. Among the talented ladies of 吳 Wu, 徐(媛 style name) 小淑 Xu Xiaoshu (10363.444) was skilled at poetry and essays, 趙端容 Zhao Duanrong (xxx) was a good painter. Of those who were very famous only (Wu Xiao) and these two (other ladies) 難 really stood out, and all were good at qin. 馮(斑 Feng Ban, a poet, style name) 定遠 Feng Dingyuan praised them greatly.

  384. 黃婉璚 Huang Wanqiong
    Huang Wanqiong (Bio/ ). Source cited:
    Ranzhi Yuyun.

    Huang Wanqiong, style name 葆儀 Baoyi, was from 甯鄉 Ningxiang (22212.0 ?). When her brother (黃)虍癡 (Huang) Huchi studied qin from 沈素生 Shen Susheng (any relation to Shen Suqiong?), Baoyi listened from behind a curtain and so had very good technique. Qin melodies such as Shitan Zhang, with the most severe Buddhist recitation, Baoyi could learn at once. Some people would study a piece like Shuixian Cao (see Bo Ya) and would not learn it after three months. Baoyi could look at the tablature and sight read it, then the following night be able to play it fluently. Her poem 聽琴 Listening to the Qin said, (5 x 4; not yet translated). She so prized her old qin that she would sleep and rise with it. Family members buried her qin with her.

  385. 阮恩濼 Ruan Enluo or Enpo
    Ruan Enluo (42492.43: was wife of 沈霖元 Shen Linyuan and wrote poems; it mentions the hand-copied 慈暉館詞鈔 Zihuiguan Cichao, and has some general references). 阮元 Ruan Yuan, style name 文達 Wenda (1764 - 1849; jinshi). Source cited:
    Ranzhi Yuyun.

    Ruan Enluo, style name 媚川 Meichuan, was a grand-daughter of (阮)文達 (Ruan) Wenda (1764 - 1849); she was skilled at qin. (After) Ruan Wenda built his Wenxuan Tower in Yangzhou Meichuan spent time in the tower playing qin. Each time Wenda climbed the tower he had to tell (her) to play something, then play again. He called her his qin grand-daughter. He wrote matching scrolls for her that said,


  386. 高玖 Gao Jiu
    Gao Jiu (46302.xxx).
    Qinshu Cunmu #319 concerns her Qinpu, but it is almost verbatim to here, so there is no additional information about the contents. 蘭閨集一卷 Lan Gui Ji, one folio (33297.316xxx lan gui). Source cited: 四川通志 Sichuan Tongzhi.

    Gao Jiu was the daughter of 四川甯遠府會理州郎中高翀 the official Gao Chong of Huili region of Ningyuan district of (southwest) Sichuan province (near Yunnan). At marriageable age (lit.: 15, when the hair is put up) she was fluent with the 孝經 Classic of Filial Piety as well as many histories and biographies, and was good at poems and essays. She accompanied her father when he went as an official to 金陵 Nanjing. If one day she acquired some qin notation she would look at it and immediately understand its directions. Besides playing the qin she also understood music theory. After marriage she was filial to her mother-in-law and respectful to her husband; she didn't become proud because of her artistic abilities. Unfortunately did not live long, dying at age 23. She wrote 蘭閨集一卷 Lan Gui Ji, one folio, and 琴譜二卷 Qin Pu, two folios.

  387. 丁月鄰 Ding Yuelin
    Ding Yuelin (Bio/). Sources cited for all three: 靈芬館詩話 Lingfengguan Shihua and
    Ranzhi Yuyun.

    Ding Yuelin, style name 素娟 Sujuan, married into the 許 Xu family. Skilled at qin, she wrote a 頌琴樓詩草 Draft Poem for Praising the Qin Tower. At one time she was private tutor in small farm home of 嚴公 Mr. Yan, directing classes for his daughter 嚴迢 Yan Tiao (see below). Yuelin herself had a daughter named 許珠 Xu Zhu (see next).

    徐珠 Xu Zhu
    Xu Zhu (Bio/) was a daughter of Mrs. Xu, nee Ding Yuelin.

    Xu Zhu, style name 孟淵 Mengyuan, wrote (a melody called) 艸/憲宦吟 Xuan Huan Yin (33162.0 艸/憲 = 萱 32052.xxx Intonation of an Official looking after Day-lilies?). She was especially marvelous at qin studies.

    巖迢 Yan Tiao
    Yan Tiao was the daughter of Mr. Yan, where Ding Xuelin and her daughter Xu Zhu were tutors.

    Yan Tiao, style name 子孅 Zixian, also studied with Xu Mengyuan. There is a 琴餘小草春夜鼓琴詩 Poem on Playing the Qin on a Spring Evening...? (21570.xxx) that says,


  388. 胡相端 Hu Xiangduan
    Hu Xiangduan (Bio/xxx); Sources cited for #388: 耕硯田齋筆記 Gengyantian Zhai Biji, 正始集 Zheng Shi Ji 墨林今話 Molin Jinhua (same as
    #406 below), 畫林新詠 Hualin Xinyong and Ranzhi Yuyun.

    Hu Xiangduan, nicknamed 智珠 Zhizhu, from 大興 Daxing (Shaanxi?), was a daughter of 湖文銓 Hu Wenquan (Bio/xxx), governor of 常德 Changde (Northern Hunan); and wife of literary scholar 許蔭基 Xu Yinji (Bio/xxx) of 青浦 Qingpu (east of Suzhou), who was a younger son of a 穆堂侍御 palace official and skilled painter. Hu Zhizhu was good a playing qin, poetry, and painting. She wrote a 抱月樓集 Collection from Embracing the Moon Pavilion and a 散花天室稿 Sketches from the Scattered Flower Sky Room. The number of ladies who studied qin from her was very great. 師妙嫈 (last character replace 火s with 木s) Shi Miao___ and her younger sister 師霞裳 Shi Xiachang of 關中 Guanzhong (Shaanxi), and 倪文蘭 of 吳門 Wumen (Suzhou) were all female disciples in the Embracing the Moon Pavilion.

    徐淑慧 Xu Shuhui
    Xu Shuhui (Bio/xxx)

    Xu Shuhui, style name 定生 Dingsheng, was a daughter of Hu Zhizhu. Smart and quick from birth, she received training from her mother and within a few years was fluent on the qin. When grown up she married 鄭湖 Zheng Hu of 蘭陵 Lanling (southern Shandong?). She was widowed young and then used qin classes for her disciples to make a living.

    華韻蓮 Hua Yunlian
    Hua Yunlian (Bio/)

    Hua Yunlian of 吳門 Wumen (Suzhou) was most prominent student of Xu Shuhui.

  389. 蔡氏 Ms. Cai
    Ms. Cai (Bio/); Source cited for #389:
    Ranzhi Yuyun.

    Ms. Cai, from 太倉 Taicang (northeast of Suzhou), was a daughter of Mr. 蔡能一 Cai Nengyi and the wife of 彭禮 Peng Li. Cai Nengyi had broad knowledge of refined things. He studied the significance of the refined qin. Going against current trends he criticized the vulgar and eschewed the lewd when he wrote his book 雅琴精義 Yaqin Jingyi (QSCM #288: two folios; no details; also mentioned in 與古齋琴譜 Yuguzhai Qinpu, NFI). Ms. Cai continued her father's learning. Every spring she would pass the days in the 淑秋堂 Pure Autumn Hall. Late at night, when the wind whistled through her clothing and the moon was bright over the doorway, 茗甲欲坼爐香方酣拄指鉤弦 with top quality tea she enjoyed burning incense and without restraint strumming on a qin. Playing a few tunes peacefully and solemnly she would make people calm and display feelings that awakened the spirit and moved even the animals. Listeners would have thoughts of music from the moon and clouds. Her father never got his book (Yaqin Jingyi) printed, but Ms. Cai greatly valued these handwritten records (see her daughter, below). She gave them to her 子 son or daughter 彭兆蓀 Peng Zhaosun, who wrote a preface and had it published.

    彭湘蘅 Peng Xiangheng
    Peng Xiangheng (Bio/). The article does not specify who this is: perhaps it is the same person as the 彭兆蓀 Peng Zhaosun just mentioned.

    Some women said Peng Xiangheng could also play the qin.

  390. 吳氏 Ms. Wu
    Ms. Wu (Bio/). The melody mentioned,
    Si Qin Cao, is an ancient title, but it survives only in 8 handbooks from 1511 to 1802. Source cited: 太倉州志 Taicangzhou Zhi.

    Ms. Wu of 太倉 Taicang (northeast of Suzhou), the wife of 王發祥 Wang Faxiang, read heavily from the classicals, especially understanding the good and bad points in history. A good poet and qin player, she also filial. When her mother died she wrote (a version of) 思親操 Si Qin Cao. This has been played for generations.

  391. 柴靜儀 Chai Jingyi
    Chai Jingyi (Bio/) was daughter of (柴)世堯 (Chai) Shiyao (Chai Yunqian Bio/) and wife of 沈鏐 Shen Liu (Bio/), a 廣文 "professor". 麟慶 Lin Qing, 1791 - 1846, Manchu governor of various regions along the Yangzi (see Hummel) helped publish her 凝香室集 Ningxiangshi Ji, and (its?) 北堂集 Bei Tang Ji (2615.254xxx: are they connected to this?) Source cited: 杭郡詩輯 Hangjun Shiji (same as for
    #379 above). She was also a painter. See Women Writers of Traditional China, pp. 387 - 91.

    Chai Jingyi, style name 季嫺 Jixian, was from 仁和 Renhe (in Hangzhou district). She was the daughter of 孝廉 local investigator (柴)世堯 (Chai) Shiyao, and wife of Professor 沈鏐 Shen Liu. There is a 凝香室詩鈔 Ningxiangshi Shichao, and (its?) 北堂集 Bei Tang Ji. Her (or his?) father 雲倩 Yuqian was a good qin player. He had a qin named 老龍吟 Old Dragon's Hum which he gave to her, and he taught her the playing techniques. So when she copied out her own qin handbook he wrote a preface for it.

  392. 王珩 Wang Heng
    Wang Heng (Bio/). Source cited: Zhengshi Xuji (see
    #375 above.)

    Wang Heng, from 嘉定 Jiading (near Kunshan in Jiangsu), and wife of 陳定武 Chen Dingwu, was skilled at qin. Embroidery finished and studying over she would use the qin to amuse herself. As a result 夏日即事句 Xiari Jishi Ju (5845.xxx) has a couplet that says,


    This seems like a realistic description.

  393. 蘇始芳 Su Shifang
    Su Shifang, style name 幼馨 Youxin, from 江蘇山陽 Shanyang in Jiangsu, was a concubine of 盛京錦州知府烏程潘尚仁 Jinzhou (in Liaoning) prefect Pan Shangren (Bio/xxx) of Wucheng (north of Hangzhou). A skilled qin player, she presented a 拂琴篇 Playing the Qin Essay which had (the poem)

    (Total length: [5 + 5] x 6).

    This expressed her reserved elegance. (Source: 兩浙輶軒續錄 Liang Zhe Youxuan Xulu.)

  394. 姚雪初 Yao Xuechu
    Yau Xuechu (Bio/). Wu Lanxue is 吳嵩梁 Wu Songliang, 1766 - 1834, a noted poet and the husband of
    #395 Jiang Jinqiu. Source cited: 香蘇山館詩集 Xiangsushanguan Shiji, by Wu Songliang.

    Yau Xuechu, style name 翠濤 Cuitao, was a 姬人 concubine of the old drunkard 吳水部 Wu Shuibu. Shuibu's family for generations had been skilled at the qin. The elder sister called 桂林夫人 Madame Guilin (Cassia Forest; same as name of place in Guizhou), and the daughter called 小桂者 Little Cassia were especially good at qin. Cuitao studied from them but surpassed their skills. Shuibu made 聽琴圖 an illustration of listening to the qin, and 吳蘭雪 Wu Lanxue praised her in a poem that said,

    吾宗季重才誰匹,家世彈琴推第一。....(Total length: [7 + 7] x 12, ending)

  395. 蔣錦秋 Jiang Jinqiu
    Jiang Jinqiu (Bio/) was from 西江 Xijiang (? 35587.102 tells only of rivers in Guangdong and Guangxi). For her husband Wu Lanxue see
    #394. Sources cited for #395: Xiangsushanguan Shiji (as for #394 above), and Ranzhi Yuyun.

    Jiang Jinqiu, a poet from 西江 Xijiang, became the wife of Wu Lanxue after his first wife died. She was a skilled qin player. Lanxue's friend 李湛然 Li Zhanran could take Lanxue's poems and put them into qin melodies. Jinqiu was could also 傳之疊韻雙聲“芬流紗慢” set his couplets and alliteration to music, such as "Fragrance Flows from the Gauze Curtain".

    張尚玉 Zhang Shangyu
    Zhang Shangyu (Bio/).

    At the same time as above, (#290) Wu Jinghu acquired a qin from 謝疊山 Xie Dieshan. Wu and his wife Zhang Shangyu, style name 琴慧 Qinhui, were also good students of the qin. Jiang Jinqiu and Zhang Shangyu were qin friends within the women's apartments.

  396. 吳蕙 Wu Hui
    Wu Hui (Bio/); 漢槎 Han Cha (Bio/xxx); 費定烈 Fei Dinglie (37565.xxx). Sources cited: 吳江縣志 Wujiang Xianzhi and 松陵詩徵 Songling Shizheng.

    Wu Hui, style name 蘭質 Lanzhi, grand-daughter of 漢槎 Han Cha, married the zhusheng degree graduate 費定烈 Fei Dinglie. Besides chanting and composing poems she was good at the principles of qin. If old tablature had mistakes she could correct them according to their intentions. Unfortunately she died before she was 30 years old.

  397. 王韻梅 Wang Yunmei
    Wang Yunmei (Bio/). Source cited:
    Ranzhi Yuyun. (The McGill website has a 瑞鶴仙 Ruihe Xian by her that mentions qin near the end. Ruihe Xian is a 詞 ci form also used in a qin song.)

    Wang Yunmei, style name 素卿 Suqing, was from 昭文 Zhao Wen (i.e., 常熟 Changshu) in Jiangsu province. Skilled at qin, she wrote 問月樓稿 (Sketches from Ask the Moon Tower). Its qin poem said,

    (Total length: [5 + 5] x 9).

    Her writings were very fine: not only refined but beyond compare.

  398. 江鴻禎 Jiang Hongzhen
    Jiang Hongzhen (Bio/); Source cited:
    Ranzhi Yuyun.

    Jiang Hongzhen was from 福州 Fuzhou in Fujian province. When six years old she could play the qin, at nine her poetry was good. When she was 15 she dreamt that six or seven girls in purple clothing beckoned her to go traveling. They said to her, "Yue and we are 閬風侍女 Waiting Maids from Mount Langfeng (42251.11: abode of immortals; reference to Chu Ci). Won't you return with us?" When she awoke she told her mother.... (Translation incomplete.

  399. 李文慧 Li Wenhui
    Li Wenhui (Bio/xxx); source cited:
    Ranzhi Yuyun.

    Li Wenhui, style names 亦士 Yishi and 端之 Duanzhi, was from 永城 Yongcheng in Henan. Skilled at qin, she wrote a 畹思小寄吟 Wansi Xiaoji Yin. Its "Evening ripples in the winding river, not sleeping soundly and playing the qin" poem says,

    .....(Total length: [5 + 5] x 9).....

  400. 閔苧 Min Ning
    Min Ning (Bio/); source: 宋江府志 Songjiang Fuzhi

    Min Ning, nicknamed 蘿屏 Luoping, was from 南匯 Nanhui (now part of Shanghai), married the widower 黃大昕 Huang Daxin (Bio/xxx). When young she studied qin from her uncle. (She also studied other arts but was especially good at qin. After marriage household duties made it difficult to continue these arts.)

    閔蕙 Min Hui
    Min Hui (Bio/); same source as above.

    (Ming Ning's) younger sister Min Hui could also play the qin.

  401. 張如玉 Zhang Ruyu
    Zhang Ruyu (Bio/); source: 浦城縣志 County Records of Pucheng, in northern Fujian province

    Zhang Ruyu, from Pucheng, was a granddaughter of 張倫玉 Zhang Lunyu (Bio/xxx; 832.xxx), Minister of the Board of Revenue and Population. (When young she was filial, taking care of her mother in illness). When she grew up she married 監生 Inspector 吳芳榆 Wu Fangyu. Good at qin she wrote an 暗香琴譜 An Xiang Qinpu.

  402. 董琬貞 Dong Wanzhen
    Dong Wanzhen (Bio/); source: 琴隱園集 Qin Yin Yuan Ji.

    Dong Wanzhen, style name 容壺 Ronghu, was the wife of 都督 Commander 湯雨生 Tang Yusheng of 武進 (常州 Changzhou, Jiangsu). People said she was a granddaughter of 紅豆詞人潮 the Red Bean Poet of Chaozhou (? 吳綺 Wu Qi, 1619 - 94 [Bio/1041], nicknamed Red Bean Poet, was once magistrate of Chaozhou). Skilled at poetry and a good painter, she was especially good at the prinicples of qin. She once sketched a picture called 梅窗琴趣 Plum Window Qin Interest, and herself wrote one poem called 青玉案 Green Jade Table that said,


    董肅 Dong Su
    Dong Su (Bio/); Source: same as above. It is not clear why her surname is not 湯 Tang, after her father.

    (Dong Wanzhen's) daughter Dong Su studied qin from her mother. She also made extremely good progress. (Tang) Yusheng had a boat. At night he heard his daugther Su playing the qin and 詞調寄長命女 (wrote an instructive poem using "chang" for the rhyme?) that said,


  403. 何淑蘋 He Shupin
    Miss He (Bio/), Source cited: 邵武府志 Shaowu Fuzhi (Shaowu is in Fujian.)

    Miss He, style name 淑蘋 Shupin, was a daughter of 何長敦 He Changdun (Bio/xxx), 博野知縣 a government official serving in Boye (southern Hebei province). When young she studied poetry. She was very talented, especially at understanding music theory. Pipa lute, zheng zither and di transverse flute she would play a bit and at once be skilled. Her 從父 paternal uncle 何長聚 He Changju (Bio/xxx), a noted scholar, admonished her, saying, Those are not really good for you; he then presented her with a qin and taught her several old melodies. In a month she had learned well enough to carry the tunes and so her other instruments, like the pipa, all gathered dust, being unplayed. She died young. There is a 琴北詩鈔 Qin Bei Shi Chao which has passed down (about her?).

  404. 洪銑 Hong Xian
    Hong Xian (or Hong Xi; 17757.38xxx; Bio/1288 has no dates). Source cited: Zhang Xingjian's Biographies of Very Filial Women (張星鑑洪孝女傳 Zhang Xingjian Hongxiaonü Zhuan; 10026.675 張星鑑 puts this in
    Siku Quanshu, so Hong Xian must have lived earlier than 1780.)

    Filial Daughter Hong had the given name Xian. Her father, 坦 Tan, from 歙縣 She county (Anhui), was a businessman in Suzhou and thus familiar with what went on in 吳縣 that region. Her mother's maiden name was 潘 Pan and her elder brother was 潘鈞 Pan Jun. She was the fifth filial daughter (or woman in the book given below as source). From birth she had an excellent disposition. She was filial to her parents and respectful to her older brothers; she spoke honestly and did things correctly. She liked the Daoist sayings of the immortals and thus got the nickname Eagerly Looking for Immortals (企仙 Qixian). Her father died when she was young and so she and her mother were taken care of by her maternal grandfather. When she was nine she followed her mother, fleeing a catastrophe, to 青州 Qingzhou (central Shandong), where they were taken care of by relatives surnamed 徐 Xu. She dressed plainly, not using fine silks for her daily clothing. She was especially fond of the arts and her paternal uncle taught her the qin. After playing some pieces she got to the stage where she seemed not even to be using her hands when playing. Thus within a year she could already play 10 pieces. During 庚午冬 the winter of gengwu [1750, 1690, 1630, etc.] her brother Hong Jun's job as a bookkeeper took him to Hubei as a school investigator. Hong Xian then took care of her mother and they (also) went to the Chu region. Here she (or her music?) remained solemn, no different from the time in Qingzhou.

  405. 妙孁 Miao Ling
    Miao Ling (Ling 7025: a woman's character = 靈). Her handbook is in the
    2010 Edition of QQJC: Zha Fuxi had listed it as non-indexed work #27, attributing it to 師妙孁 Shi Miaoling (Bio/xxx) and saying it is a hand copy in the Shanghai Library. Source cited: 琴書存目 Qinshu Cunmu #320; almost verbatim to this.

    Miao Ling was a woman of 韓城 Hancheng (Hebei or Shaanxi). Good at qin, she wrote a 梅華仙館琴譜一卷 Plum Flower Immortals Hall Qin Handbook, one Folio. It had finger techniques at the front. Its melodies were selected from Deyintang Qinpu, Chuncaotang Qinpu, Baojinzhai Qinpu (Qinshu Cunmu #316, but it has no further information), Wuzhizhai Qinpu and Erxiangzhai (perhaps Erxiang Qinpu). She was probably the one who collected all these handbooks in order to make this one.

  406. 吳德韞 Wu Deyun
    Wu Deyun (Bio/) was second wife of 溫純 Wen Chun (Bio/2369: a well-known calligrapher and engraver; no dates given). Source cited: 墨林今話 Molin Jinhua (5615.73, by 蔣寶齡 Jiang Baoling, 1781 - 1840, and son; same as
    #388 above).

    Wu Deyun, style name 恒卿 Heng Qing, was the second wife of widower 溫純 Wen Chun, style name 一齋 Yizhai, of 烏程 Wucheng (north of Hangzhou). She was good at playing qin. Yizhai once wrote an engraving that said, 花中疑有曲絃外欲傳神句貽之 Leisure among the flowers has melody beyond the strings. He (I?) wanted to transmit spiritual phrases and present them to her. (??.)

  407. 纖纖 Xian Xian
    Xian Xian was the style name of 金逸 Jin Yi (1770 - 1794), a native of Suzhou.
    Women Writers of Traditional China, p.485ff, includes four poems and says her teacher, the noted poet and essaying 袁枚 Yuan Mei (1716 - 1798) wrote an inscription on her grave. It says her husband was a government student named Chen Ji, about whom I have found no further information; his style name must have been 竹士 Zhushi. The 廋吟廔集 Souyinlou Ji mentioned here should be 廋吟廔詩草 Poetry drafts from the Tower of the Slender Intoner. Tingyun Guan (845.50) had been a home of the poet-painter 文徵明 Wen Zhengming (1470 - 1559). Source cited here: 大鶴題跋 Great Crane Colophon.

    陳竹士 Chen Zhushi was a government scholar during the period 1796 - 1851 (嘉道, i.e. 嘉靖+道光). His wife, Madame Xian Xian, was good at poetry and skilled at qin. Her 廋吟廔集 Souyinlou Ji still exists. She once had in her collection a qin that was an old object from the 停雲館 Tingyun Guan. On the back was engraved 纖纖珍玩 Xian Xian enjoys the treasure. It was secretly stored in Chen Zhushi's womens' quarters.

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. 琴史續 Qinshi Xu; my copy is a photocopy from The Chinese Library, Taipei. It was bound together with Qinshi Bu, and indexes sometimes only list Qinshi Bu (Return)

2. 周慶雲 Zhou Qingyun (Return)

3. The earlier books quoted early histories which have sometimes been translated in whole or in part. The present volume quotes mostly local records. Unlike Zhu Changwen, Zhou Qingyun names his sources. He may edit somewhat the sources, but generally simply quotes them. (Return)

4. My comments on this are in Qin History, Footnote 1. (Return)

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