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Introductory History of the Qin
By Xu Jian
琴史初編 1
許健 2

Translated sections have links, but links preceded by "discusses" are simply to where further information will be.

1. Beginnings to Qin dynasty (pp. 1 - 10; 中文)

A. Qin specialists (pp. 1 - 6)
     Discusses: Zhong Yi, Shi Cao, Shi Kuang, Shi Juan, Bo Ya and Yongmen Zhou.

B. Qin Melodies (pp. 7 - 10)
     Discusses: Zhi Zhao Fei, Yan Yi Ge and Yang Chun Bai Xue

 
2. Former and Latter Han (pp. 11 - 23; 中文)

A. Qin specialists
     Discusses: Sima Xiangru, Shi Zhong, Zhao Ding, Long De, Liu Xiang,
       Wang Zhengjun, Zhao Feiyan, Huan Tan and Cai Yong.

B. Qin Melodies
     Discusses: Yin Ma Chengcheng Ku (see Cai Yong's Qin Fu),
       Nie Zheng Ci Han Wang Qu (see Guangling San), and
       Bie He Cao (see Bie Gu Cao)

 
3. Wei and Jin (pp. 24 - 39; 中文)

A. Qin specialists
     Discusses: Cai Yan, Du Kui, Ruan Yu, Ruan Xian, Ruan Zhan,
       Ruan Ji, Xi Kang, Zuo Si and Liu Kun.

B. Qin Melodies
     Discusses:

  1. Guangling San
  2. Jiu Kuang
  3. Meihua Sannong
 
4. Northern and Southern Dynasties (pp. 40 - 51; 中文) A. Qin specialists Dai Yong and Dai Kui
Zong Bing
Liu Yun and Liu Shilong
Liu Xie

B. Qin melodies

  1. Jieshidiao You Lan
  2. Wu Ye Ti
  3. Aonong Ge

(Concluding remarks)

 
5. Sui and Tang (pp. 52 - 82; 中文) A. Qin specialists: Li Yi
Heruo Bi
Wang Tong
Wang Ji
Zhao Yeli
Dong Tinglan
Xue Yijian
Chen Kangshi
Chen Zhuo.

Concluding Remarks

B. Qin melodies

  1. Da Hujia and Xiao Hujia
  2. Zhaojun Yuan
  3. Fenglei Yin
  4. Yi Zhen
  5. Li Sao
  6. Yangguan Sandie
  7. Yuge Diao.

C. Qin tablature and Qin making

  1. Innovations in the style of tablature
  2. Development of the qin making craft

D. Qin in Tang poetry

 
6. Song and Yuan (pp. 83 - 121; 中文)

A. Qin specialists

  1. Qin monk teachers and disciples in the Northern Song dynasty
  2. Literati and Qin Masters
  3. Zhe(jiang) school of the Southern Song (1127-1280)
  4. Qin Experts of the Jin and Yuan Dynasties
  5. Emperors Addicted to the Qin

B. Qin Melodies

     I. Introduction to qin melodies, then (with most musical examples omitted):

  1. Chu Ge
  2. Hujia Shibapai
  3. Xiao Xiang Shui Yun
  4. Yu Ge
  5. Zui Weng Yin
  6. Zepan Yin
  7. Gu Yuan
  8. Huangying Yin.

    II. From Title Lists Looking at Qin Melody Performance Development

   III. Diaozi (short songs) and Caonong (instrumental melodies)

C. Qin Essays

     Introduction to the essays, then:

  1. Qin Shi (Qin History), by Zhu Changwen
  2. Qin Shu (Qin Narration), by Yuan Jue
  3. Qin Jian (Qin Commentary), by Cui Zundu
  4. Qin Yi (Qin Critique), by Liu Ji
  5. Qinlü Fawei (Investigation of Qin Tones), by Chen Minzi
  6. Jiezou, Zhifa (Rhythm and Finger Methods), by Zequan Heshang
  7. Lun Qin (Discussing Qin), by Cheng Yujian; compare Qin Lun
  8. Lun Tan Qin (Discussing Qin Play), by Zhao Xikuang
  9. Zhuo Qin Fa (Qin Construction Methods), by Biluozi; plus two anonymous essays
 

7. Ming (pp. 122 - 150; 中文)

A. Qin specialists (distinguishing the so-called Jiang and Zhe schools)

  1. Zhe(jiang) Melodies of the Xumen tradition (pp. 123 -125; 中文)
     Xu Hezhong
     Huang Xian (1485 - 1561; see also Wugang Qinpu)
     Xiao Luan (1487 - 1561; see also Taiyin Buyi and Taiyin Xupu)

  2. Yushan School (pp. 125 - 128; 中文)
     Yan Cheng; and Songxianguan Qinpu
     Xu Qingshan; and Dahuange Qinpu

  3. Shaoxing Qin School (pp. 128 - 129; 中文)
     Yin Ertao; see Huiyan Mizhi
     Zhang Dai; also see Huiyan Mizhi

  4. Creators of Qin Songs (pp. 130 - 131; 中文)
    (Concerns only the late Ming: see comment.)
     Chen Dabin
     Chen Shi
     Wu Guiyun
     Lu Yaohua
     Yu Qian

  5. Qin experts who opposed the Qing dynasty (pp. 131 - 132; 中文)
     Kuang Lu
     Hua Xia
     Li Yanshi (or Li Yanxia)
     Jin Qiongjie

  6. Craftsmen who played qin (pp. 132 - 133; 中文)
     Xu the dye craftsman (徐染匠 Xu ranjiang)
     A certain carpenter (某木匠 mou mujiang)
     The hat craftsman (補帽匠 bumaojiang)

  7. Skilled qin makers (pp. 133 - 134; 中文)
     Zhang Jingxiu 張敬修
     Shi Yanzhao 施彥昭
     Wu Shi 吳拭
     Yan Diaoyu 嚴調御

B. Qin Melodies. Discusses:

  1. Zhu Quan and the qin melody Qiu Hong (partial translation here) (pp. 134 - 139; 中文)
  2. Pingsha Luo Yan (pp. 139 - 141)
  3. Yu Qiao Wenda (pp. 141 - 143)
  4. Liangxiao Yin (p. 143)
  5. Shitan Zhang (p. 144)
  6. Yi Qiao Jin Lü (pp. 144 - 145)
  7. Boya Diao Ziqi (pp. 145 - 147)

C. Qin essays. Discusses:

  1. Leng Qian, 16 Methods for Qin Sounds (冷謙,琴聲十六法; pp. 147 - 149)
    Translated in Van Gulik, Lore, pp. 108 - 116
  2. Xu Qingshan, Qin Matters (徐青山,谿山琴況; pp. 149 - 150)
    24 such methods; mentioned in VG, Lore, p.107
 

8. Qing (pp. 151 - 171; 中文)

A. Qin Specialists

  1. Han Jiang and qin song composers (p. 152)

    Han Jiang (韓畕 ca. 1615 - ca. 1667)
    Zhuang Zhenfeng (ca. 1624 - after 1667)
    Cheng Xiong
    Jiang Xingchou (Shin-Etsu; 1639 - 1696)
    Shen Guan (see Qinxue Zhengsheng)
    Wang Xuan (Wang Fu; 1692 - 1759)
    Wang Shan (1678 - after 1758)

  2. Guangling School (p. 154)

    Xu Changyu
    Xu Qi
    Wu Hong
    Wang Mingchen 汪明辰 (studied from 先機和尚 a student of Wu Hong)
    Qin Weihan (1816-ca.1868; see Jiaoan Qinpu)

  3. Jin Tao and his followers (p. 157)

    Jin Tao
    Yun Zhigao
    Han Gui
    Dai Changgeng
    Jiang Wenxun

B. Qing dynasty Qin Melodies (p. 160)

  1. Shui Xian Cao
  2. Oulu Wang Ji (Xu Jian commentary)
  3. Longxiang Cao
  4. Wuye Wu Qiufeng

C. Qing dynasty Qin Essays (p. 165)

    Five essays

  1. Zhuang Zhenfeng, Fan Lie
  2. Dai Yuan, Eight rules for playing qin
  3. Wang Tan and Cao Tingdong's studies of qin tones
  4. Chen Youci's Qin studies
  5. Jiang Wenxun's Qinxue Cuiyan.
 

9. Recent (pp. 172 - 186; 中文)

A. Qin Specialists (pp. 172-6)

  1. Daring to take melodies from popular culture: Zhang Jutian
    Compiled/wrote
    Zhang Jutian Qinpu
  2. Zhu Tongjun (i.e., Zhu Fengjie) and his followers
    Zhu Tongjun; Zhang He (see Qinxue Rumen); Chen Shiji
  3. Zhang Kongshan and (his disciple) Gu Yucheng of the Chuanpai (Sichuan School 中文)
    For Zhang Kongshan see Tianwenge Qinpu
  4. The Wang family of 諸城 Zhucheng (west of Qingdao, Shandong province)
    (See the Zhucheng school handbooks such as Qinpu Zhenglü, Tongyin Shan Guan Qinpu and Mei An Qinpu)
    Wang Fuchang, Wang Zuozhen, Wang Yumen, Wang Lu, Wang Lubin (elsewhere Wang Binlu)
  5. Huang Mianzhi and qin masters in the capital
    Huang Mianzhi (1853-1919; in
    Zha chart) and (his students) Yang Zongji ("Jiuyi Shanren"; compiled Qinxue Congshu), Jia Kuofeng, Fu Tong, Shi Yinmei, Zhang Chunpu

B. Qin Melodies (pp. 177-81

  1. Liu Shui of 1876
  2. Zui Yu Chang Wan (later version but does not identify it)
  3. Changmen Yuan
  4. Guanshan Yue (says Yang Yinliu paired this with Li Bai lyrics)
  5. Qiu Feng Ci (mentions neither Li Bai nor the 1709 and 1840 occurrences)

C. Qin Essays (pp. 182-6)

    Three Essays
 

10. Contemporary (pp. 187 - 195)

A. Qin Specialists

  1. Zhou Qingyun
  2. Guan Pinghu
  3. Zha Fuxi

B. Qin Melodies

  1. Yi Guren
  2. Qi Yan Hui

C. Qin Essays

    Not separated into sections

D. The guqin in New China

 

Afterword (p. 196)

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a
separate page)

1 北京,人民音樂出版社 Beijing, Renmin Yinyue Chuban She, 1982.
(Return)

2 許健 Xu Jian lives in Beijing.
(Return)

 
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