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Qin Shi Bu (Supplement to History of the Qin, 1919)
By Zhou Qingyun (1864 - 1933)
琴史補 1
周慶雲 2

Published in 1919, these 115 biographical essays supplement the 146 biographical essays of Zhu Changwen's 11th century Qin Shi. As with the earlier work, this one includes legends and biographies from the earliest days of the qin up to the mid-eleventh century CE. Twelve concern women players.3

The first six entries concern people said to have lived even earlier than the earliest people mentioned in Qin Shi. These are followed by stories which become more historical the later their date. Unlike Zhu Changwen, Zhou Qingyun gives the sources for much of his information. The entries consist mostly of quotes or paraphrases from these earlier sources, with little commentary or analysis from Zhou Qingyun.

Very few of these sources have been translated elsewhere.4 Most of my own translations here were done rather roughly in the mid and late 1970s.5

    卷一 Folio 1

  1. 太昊 Tai Hao (Great Magnificence, rule name of 伏羲 Fu Xi, traditional rule dates 2852-2737)
    See further

  2. 祝誦 Zhu Song (祝融 Zhu Rong)
    Zhu Song 25230.95 says see Zhu Rong: 25230.115 火神 a fire deity; an emperor of antiquity, deity of summer, deity of the south seas. Often considered the Fire God, he associated with the ancient state of Chu. Zhurong Peak in Hunan's Hengshan mountain range is mentioned in connection with
    Qiu Hong. Sources given here: 路史 Lu Shi; 古琴錄 Gu Qin Lu [?].)

    Zhu Song, also called 祝龢 Zhu He, was from the 祝融氏 Zhurong clan. He made music from the songs of birds; it harmonized people and helped make the world orderly. He made a qin out of 梓 zi wood. It conveyed the five colors and caused birds to dance in the courtyard. His qins were called 凰來 Huang Lai (Female Phoenix Arrives), 鸞來 Luan Lai (Luan Bird Arrives), and 鳳來 Feng Lai (Male Phoenix Arrives).

  3. 炎帝 Yan Di (神農 Shen Nong)
    炎帝 Yan Di (Fire Emperor; 19345.25 quotes "史記,三皇紀", i.e., 補史記·三皇本記 Shi Ji Supplement) came to be known by many names in addition to Shen Nong (25211.335; also his clan name 神農氏 Shennongshi); these include, for example, 朱襄氏 Zhuxiangshi (also a clan name) and 五穀先帝 Wuguxiandi (First Emperor of the Five Grains). He was originally the god of farming, and stories of him can be dated only from the Han dynasty; before that Yan Di was described as a different person (see Anne Birrell,
    Chinese Mythology). Subsequently the tradition arose (see, e.g., Wiki) that he lived 5000 years ago. Han dynasty sources such as the Book of History (which mentions Yan Di as a different person) generally connect him and his clan to the Yellow River basin, in particular areas of Henan province (see, however, a version of the legend connecting Shen Nong with the cultivation of tea). The legend developed that after succeeding Tai Hao as Yan Di, Shen Nong taught the people agriculture. Shen Nong, like Fu Xi, is often credited with having invented the qin; there is more on this under Origins of the Qin. Most commonly Shen Nong is said to have made a 五絃琴 five-string qin, fixing the standard measurements, but in Lüshi Chunqiu (see translation; here he is called 士達 Knight Da) it is said to be a 五絃瑟 5-string se. Another story (in Xin Lun?) says he made a seven-string qin. He is said to have given names to the strings, and Qin illustration 2 in Taiyin Daquanji claims to be a depiction of his qin. Sources given here are: 琴清英 Qin Qing Ying; 廣雅 Guang Ya; and 路史 Lu Shi.

    Yan Di was from the Shen Nong clan. His surname was 姜 Jiang. He used his fire virtues to govern and so was called the Fire Emperor....

  4. 黃帝 Huang Di (Yellow Emperor; Wikipedia)
    The Yellow Emperor, given name 軒轅 Xuanyuan, is a mostly or completely legendary (or cosmological) figure who came to be worshiped as a deity. He said to have been from 有熊 Youxiong ("Has Bears"), about 50 km south of what is today Zhengzhou in Henan province. He is credited with many inventions and as the originator of many practices. His "principle wife" 嫘祖 Leizu (also called 西陵氏 Xilingshi, frequently copied on the internet as "Si-Ling-Chi") is said to having invented and developed sericulture and weaving.

    As for music, according to tradition Huang Di, right after succeeding Yan Di, ordered Ling Lun6 to organize the musical notes and modes. Then after a dream he is said to have written the melodies 夢遊華胥引 Meng You Huaxu Yin and Baji You. Kongtong Wen Dao concerns his discussing the Dao with Guangchengzi. Qin illustration 3 in Taiyin Daquanji claims to be a depiction of his qin called 遞鍾 Dizhong, which he used to play melodies in the saddest mode, 清角 Qing Jiao. Later 師曠 Shi Kuang caused calamaties when playing melodies in this mode. Sources given: 網鑑 Wang Jian, 路史 Lu Shi, 古琴疏 Gu Qin Shu. See also Liexian Zhuan)

    Huang Di was originally 軒轅 Xuanyuan from the 有熊氏 Youxiong clan. He grew up 姬水 by the Ji River and so used Ji as his surname. The region was in Youxiong, so the clan was called Youxiong....

  5. 素女 Su Nü (White Maiden)
    separate entry.

  6. 帝嚳 Di Ku (Emperor Ku, r.2435-2365)
    Emperor Ku is sometimes named 高辛 Gao Xin; here he is said to have belonged to 高辛氏 the Gaoxin clan, with surname 姬 Ji and given name 夋 or 俊 (Jun or Qun or Zun). According to Shi Ji, Annal 1 (GSR I, p.5f), he was a great grandson of the
    Yellow Emperor and the father of Emperor Yao. Birrell discusses him as a God of Music, quoting 呂氏春秋 Lüshi Chunqiu (Book 5/5.7) as having ordered 咸黑 to compose several songs and 有倕 You Chui to create a number of wind and percussion instruments. Here he is discussed together with a 鄒屠氏 Zoutu Shi, a concubine of his son Yao; and 晏龍 Yan Long, another son (see in Shanhai Jing). The sources given are the Comprehensive Mirror (通鑑 Tong Jian) by Sima Guang7 and [古]琴疏 Gu Qin Shu.

    Emperor Ku, from the Gaoxin clan, had the surname 姬 Ji and given name 夋 Zun. Emperor Zun's qin was called Mother of Lightning (電母 Dian Mu). Every summer month when bright lightning would flash the strings would resound in sympathy.

    晏龍 Yan Long (also 宴龍 Yan Long)
    Yan Long (14213.xxx; 宴龍 7326.60 only quotes 古琴疏
    Gu Qin Shu. )

    The qins of Zun's son Yan Long were called Mushroom Head (菌首 Jun Shou), White Jade (白珉 Bai Min), Support Righteousness (義輔 Yi Fu), Luxuriant Bright (蓬明 Peng Ming), Bamboo ... (竹/開 開 Kai Kai), and Hand down Lacquer (垂漆 Chui Qi).

    鄒屠氏 Zoutu Shi
    Zoutu Shi (40445.80)

    Zoutu Shi, a concubine of Emperor Yao, used catalpa (梓 zi) of 碧瑤 biyao to make a qin. She adorned it using precious jade of Yu Fu (王+雩 琈) and so it was called Yu Fu.

  7. 毋勾 Mou Gou
    Mou Gou (17087.xxx Hooked Black Cap?) I haven't yet found elsewhere. Sources given here are 樂錄 Yue Lu (15829.xxx), 琴清英
    Qin Qing Ying and 路史 Lu Shi.

    Mou Gou was a vassal of 堯 Yao. Yao ordered Mou Gou to make 離聲 Departing Tones so he made a seven string qin (? 七弦徽). Great Tang (大唐, i.e., Yao) sang and the people's affairs were accomplished. Qin Qing Yin says, Shun played a five-string qin and the world was in order. Yao added two strings in order to harmonize 君臣之恩 the kindness of rulers and servants. It is commonly said that the seven string qin began later. Some think that they were added by Wen Wang and Wu Wang. This is a major error....

  8. 帝相 Di Xiang (Emperor Xiang, r.2146 - 2118)
    A commentary on Shi Ji #2 apparently tells how Yi drove Xiang from office in 2118, leading to a 40 year inter-regnum, but GSR I, p.37, doesn't include this. Sources given here 網鑑 Wang Jian, 古琴疏
    Gu Qin Shu.

    Emperor Xiang, surname 姒 Si, was a son of 仲康 Zhong Kang; Xiang was his given name. At the beginning of his reign the 條谷 Tiaogu (nomads) presented him with some tong wood and 芍藥 peony roots, so the emperor ordered 羿 Yi (29258.0/2/2) to plant the tong at 雲 Yun and 武羅伯 Wuluo Bo (16623.424?) to plant the peony in the back yard. Wu Luobo admonished him, saying, (The emperor should not allow himself to be tempted by exotic gifts. But the emperor did not listen.) Yi then cut down the tong tree, made a qin and gave it to the emperor, who enjoyed it. He called it Tiaogu and gradually focused his interest on music. He disregarded the affairs of state and so was driven off by 羿 Yi. The emperor then lived at 商丘 Shangqiu, where he played the qin and made the song 源水 Yuan Shui. Its lyrics are:


  9. 務光 Wu Guang
    Wu Guang is called 瞀光 Mao Guang in
    Xunzi, and 牟光 Mou Guang in Zhuangzi. Sources given here: 史說 Shi Shuo (世說新語 Shishuo Xinyu, 5th/6th c.); 路史 Lu Shi; 莊子 Zhuangzi.

    Wu Guang, a man of the Xia dynasty, is the same as Mao Guang and was also called Mou Guang. He played the qin and became a recluse, eating herbs and not growing old. At the time that 成湯 Cheng Tang overthrew 桀 Jie (to establish the Shang dynasty, Wu Guang refused to help Tang. After Tang succeeded he wanted Wu Guang to be emperor but Wu Guang not only refused, he said he didn't want to have to look at a person like Tang, and so he drowned himself.

  10. 師延 Shi Yan (Master Yan; 13th c. BCE)
    Shi Yan is also mentioned in the biography of
    Shi Kuang, which relates that a tune he had written for Zhou Xin was later heard by 衛靈公 Duke Ling of Wei, who carried to tune to 晉平公 Duke Ping of Jin, where it wreaked havoc. Sources here: 拾遺記 Shiyi Ji (12361.33 by 王嘉 Wang Jia, d. ca. 390; a more complete version of that account, connecting Shi Yan to a one-string qin, is quoted in QSDQ, Folio 17, #17); and 史記 Shi Ji.

    Shi Yan, a musician (at the end) of the 殷 Yin dynasty, was good at yin yang and at predicting the future. When he played the one-string qin the earth dieties would arise, and when he blew the jade tones the heavenly spirits would come down. At first (when he played in the court of the last Yin ruler 紂辛 Zhou Xin) he would play the sounds of 清商 Qingshang, 流徵 Liuzhi and 滌角 Dijiao. But Zhou Xin said, This is pure old far-off music, not what I want to hear; you must play the melodies 迷魂 Mihun and 淫魄Yinpo. When Wu Wang overthrew Zhou Xin, Master Yan went off east to (through?) 濮流 Puliu and drowned. Some say he died at 水府 Shuifu.

  11. 姜后 Jiang Hou (Queen Jiang; 9th c. BCE)
    Giles: Jiang was the queen of 周宣王
    King Xuan of Zhou (r. 827 - 781). As her husband led a dissolute life she took herself off to jail, saying she must be the cause of her husband's misbehavior and so she was awaiting punishment. King Xuan then repented. The sources given here are 列女傳 Lienü Zhuan and 古琴疏 Gu Qin Shu.

    Ms. Jiang, daughter of 齊侯 the Marquis of Qi, was the queen of King Xuan of Zhou. King Xuan had a qin named Melodious Wind (響風 Xiang Feng). On the back were inscribed "Walls have ears;" and, "There are robbers in hiding." She played this qin every day at the king's court and so he became more careful, thereby restoring power to the throne.

  12. 虞隨 Yu Sui
    Source: 歷代琴式注 Lidai Qinshi Zhu [?]. The Golden Cord story is also told with the melody
    Feng Lei Yin

    Yu Sui was a man of the Zhou period who made a qin called 伶官 Ling Guan. It was three chi six cun long and had a big sound. He presented it to Wen Wang. During the reign of (Wen Wang's grandson) Cheng Wang, when the two younger brothers slandered Zhou Gong, (the latter) wrote 周公操 Zhou Gong's Lament and presented it (by playing it for Cheng Wang on this qin). Crying without stopping, (Cheng) Wang finally, as a result, untied the Golden Cord (with the box of Zhou Gong's pledge of fidelity) and and used this qin to play , which restored him to favor.

  13. 齊桓公 Duke Huan of Qi (d. 643 BCE)
    Duke Huan was perhaps the most prominent of the five rulers at the time of Confucius; his rule extended from Qi in Shandong at least to parts of Henan, as he is said to have founded there the city of 鄴
    Ye, near 安陽 Anyang in Henan. His prime minister was Guan Zhong. At first Duke Huan strengthened his state through diligent rule, and Confucius said he had 正 integrity. But later he lost interest in governing. Source: 蓴湖漫錄 Chunhu Manlu. See also Qin Yao (QSCM, #3), Shang Ge, and the biography of his wife in Lienü Zhuan.

    Duke Xuan (of Qi 齊宣公), who had the given name 小白 Xiaobai and the surname 姜 Jiang, (reigned 455-405 as the) the noble lord of Qi. It is said that 鳴廉 Ming Lian, 修兄 Xiu Xiong and 籃脅 Lan Xie were the names of qin which all belonged to him. However, the one he particularly loved was called 號鐘 Hao Zhong. It is said that once the envoy 寧戚 Ning Qi beat on an ox horn and sang while the duke played the qin called Hao Zhong to accompany him. This brought tears to the eyes of all who were there. Qin experts say he once wrote 琴要 Qin Yao (Qin Necessities). This book has not been transmitted and this story is not reliable.

  14. 楚莊王 King Zhuang of Chu (r. 613 - 591)
    King Zhuang (15473.104) ruled from its capital, 郢
    Ying; 宋華元 Hua Yuan of Song (31910.17). Sources for the two biographies: 史記 Shi Ji; 古琴疏 Gu Qin Shu. The qin named Rao Liang is not depicted in Taiyin Daquanji but there is a brief description..

    King Zhuang, given name 侶 Lü and surname 芊? Qian, was son of 楚穆王 King Mu of Chu. He had a qin called Resonating around the Beams (繞梁 Rao Liang) given to him by Hua Yuan of Song. When (King Zhuang) played it the sounds resonated around the room so bewitchingly that he became infatuated and stayed away from the court for seven days to listen to it. His consort 樊姬 Fan Ji came in and said, My lord is fascinated with music. Formerly 桀 Jie (桀癸 Jie Gui, last Xia emperor) loved the se as played by (his concubine) 妹喜 Mei Xi (or Mo Xi), and thus perished. Xin (紂辛 Zhou Xin, the last Shang emperor) listened to 靡靡 extravagant sounds and thus lost his country. You have now listened to your Rao Liang for seven days without going into court. Do you want the music to destroy you and your country? She then used an iron 如意 ruyi sceptre to destroy his qin.

    王子無虧 Wangzi Wukui attached
    Wangzi Without Fault, 21295.xxx; source same as above.

    Wangzi Wukui had a qin called Fluttering into the Blue (青翻 Qing Fan). Later as a hostage in 秦 Qin, unable to go home, he played this qin and sang,

    Dongting Lake, autumn tress; Cenyang, withered grass. I am 1,000 li from home, making cotton clothing in Xianyang (the Qin capital).

  15. 張骼 Zhang Ge and 輔躒 Fu Li (ca. 548 BCE)
    The source for this story is the 左傳
    Zuo Zhuan, Duke Xiang, 24th year.

    Zhang Ge and Fu Li were two high officials in 晉 Jin. In the winter of the 24th year of 魯襄公 Duke Xiang of Lu (548 BCE), 楚子 the Viscount of Chu attacked (Jin's ally) 鄭 Zheng in order to save 齊 Qi. The Jin ruler ordered Zhang Ge and Fu Li to go into the Chu camp, and asked Zheng to provide a charioteer. The people of Zheng divined that 宛射犬 Yuan Shequan (7268.38 a 公孫 gongsun [scion of a noble family] of Zheng) would have luck (as their charioteer). 子大叔 Zi Dashu then admonished (Shequan), saying, These (two) are people of a large state; you cannot put yourself on the same level as them. (Shequan) answered, No matter whether or not a state is populous, we are on the same level. Dashu said, That is not so. A small hill has no pine or cypress trees. The two officials (did not treat their charioteer as an equal. They) remained in their tent while Shequan sat outside. They ate first, then fed him. They had him ride in a wide chariot while they got in a (four-horse?) cart. When they were about to arrive at the Chu camp they got behind him on his cart, crouched on a crossbeam and played the qin. As they got near (the Chu soldiers, Shequan) just dashed on without consulting (Zhang and Fu), who then took their helmets out of their bowcases and put them on. (Going into a trench) they got off the chariot, grabbed some men and threw them down and took some as captives. (Meanwhile,) the chariot rather than waiting had gone out (from the trench). Leaping up and getting on it (Zhang and Fu) took out their bows and began shooting. Having escaped they again squatted on the crossbeam and played the qin. They said, People who get on the same chariot with a gongsun become brothers. Why did you twice not consult us? He answered, At first I had only my focus on going into (the camp). But then I became afraid. (Zhang and Fu) laughed and said, the gongsun is too much!

  16. 師曹 Shi Cao (6th c. BCE)
    separate entry.

    師開 Shi Kai
    Shi Kai (9129.xxx)

    Shi Kai was also good at playing qin. He used sounds from east and west and knew 室之朝夕 inside a room if it was day or night. The information in Qin Shi Bu for both Shi Cao and Shi Kai comes from Guangbowu Zhi and 晏子 Yanzi (presumably 14213.1 晏子春秋 Yanzi Chunqiu, attributed to 晏嬰 Yan Ying, d.493 BCE.)

  17. 扈子 Huzi
    Huzi (12026.xxx). 荊 Jing is an alternate name for Chu, so perhap the "King of Jing" refers to 楚平王 King Ping (r. 528 - 516) or 楚昭王 King Zhao (r. 515 - 489) of Chu. The story mentions 闔盧 Helu, King of 吳 Wu and other people from the Shi Ji (#66) biography of 伍子胥
    Wu Zi Xu (GSR VII, p.49ff), here called 伍胥 Wu Xu; see also the story in Shi Ji 5 (GSR I, p.104) about Wu Xu and King Ping of Chu. As for Completely Plundered, 26190.52 窮劫 Chong Jie says that it was by a music master of Chu. The source given is the same as here: 吳越春秋,闔閭內傳 Wu Yue Chun Qiu, Helü Neizhuan (late Han).

    Huzi was a music master (of 楚 Chu). He disagreed with the belief 荊王 the King of Jing had in the slanders (of 費無忌 Fei Wuji, who wanted) to kill 伍奢 Wu She (father of 伍子胥 Wu Zi Xu). Ploughing in 白州 Bai Zhou then plundering without stopping at the borders. After arriving (in Chu) they dug a grave for King Ping's massacred corpse. Their wicked joy saddened Chu, lords and vassals both mourning. King Zhao was in distress, several times not being given respect in the world. He felt shame. So (Huzi?) took his qin and for Chu made the melody Completely Plundered (窮劫 Chong Jie 26190.52).... (quite a long article)

  18. 關尹子 Guan Yinzi
    Nickname of
    Yin Xi.

  19. 列子 Liezi
    Sources given are 劉別錄
    Liu Xiang Bie Lu; and Guangbowu Zhi. The place where Liezi is said to have lived, 鄭圃 Zhengpu (40513.281), was the 鄭 Zheng game preserve at 圃田 Putian (4877.2, in Henan province). The book of Liezi has stories connected to a number of qin melodies including Gao Shan (with Liu Shui), Huaxu Yin, Liezi Yu Feng, Baji You and Wang Ji. Other references include Kang Qu Yao, Yan Hui, Hu Ba and Rong Qiqi.

    Qin illustration 12 in Taiyin Daquanji shows what it says is Liezi's qin.

    Liezi was a man of Zheng. His learning began with the Yellow Emperor and Laozi. (The Book Liezi, Chapter 1, beginning), 號曰 says, "The Daoist (Liezi) lived in Zhengpu; for 40 years no one noticed him."

    Once while roaming around Mount Tai he saw lightning cut a tong tree. Because he used this to make a qin it had a large sound.

    He wrote two pieces (曲 qu) called 襄陵 Xiangling (see QS #3) and 枯魚 Ku Yu (Dried out Fish). He also 綴 continued 72 small melodies (小調 xiao diao) and 160 elegant airs (雅弄 ya nong).

  20. 陳仲子 Chen Zhongzi
    Chen Zhongzi 42618.275 does not mention qin, but it gives the same source as the one given here, 高士傳 Gaoshi Zhuan (46302.15 by 晉皇甫謐 Huangfu Mi 215 - 282); 塵外箋 Chenwai Jian (5497.7xxx).

    Chen Zhongzi was a man of 齊 Qi who lived at 陵 Ling. He wove coarse sandals while his wife twisted the threads. His fame as a qin player reached the Prince of Chu, who wanted him as a minister and thus sent him many gifts with the job offer. Zhongzi asked his wife for advice. She told him his joy lay in playing the qin and reading books....etc (so he turned it down.)

  21. 祝牧 Zhu Mu
    Zhu Mu 25230.xxx. Source: 古琴疏
    Gu Qin Shu

    Zhu Mu was a recluse during the Warring States period. Going into the mountains to find wood for fuel he obtained some strange wood that seemed qin-like. So he cut it and made one, giving in the name Great Antiquity. With his wife, who was secluded with him, he wrote a song and played it. The lyrics went,

    天下有道,我黻子佩。 When the earth has the Dao I wear my official robes.
    天下無道,我負子戴。 When the earth has no Dao I wear my self-sufficiency.
    優哉遊哉,聊以卒歲。 Let's have fun, for someday we will die.

    相樂以終身。(They spent the rest of their life enjoying themselves?)

  22. 賈午子 Jia Wuzi
    Source: 說苑 Shuo Yuan, by
    Liu Xiang.

    Jia Wuzi (37609.21xxx; 2749.xxx) played the qin and 應侯 Ying Hou (11599.xxx; Marquis Ying?) listened to this. He said, The qin today seems restrained. What sadness is there? Jia Wuzi responded, If you tighten the strings but lower the melody will this not cause people to be sad? A string tightened is good material (talent). A melody lowered is inferior material. Selecting good material but making it inferior, well, is that not enough to make one sad? Ying Hou said, Great!

  23. 周亮 Zhou Liang
    Zhou Liang 3597.xxx. Source: 真仙通鑑 Zhenxian Tongjian (23804.30xxx).

    Zhou Liang was light-hearted, lofty and free; he did not seek official position. 晉太子 The Jin ruler, having heard of him, summoned him to a meeting. They played the qin and the sheng (mouth organ) and together wandered in 商洛 Shangluo (a region in Shaanxi). Zhou Liang then used one string of the qin to play solo. The eight tones were all joyful, 100 birds danced. The Jin ruler admired him and gave him 九光七明之芝 fancy plants (fungus?)....

  24. 謝涓子 Xie Juanzi
    separate entry; compare Liu Juanzi, below, and Juanzi.

    劉涓子 Liu Juanzi
    separate entry; compare Xie Juanzi, above, and Juanzi

  25. 賀雲 He Yun
    He Yun 37569.xxx. The qin mentioned, Dragon's Forehead (龍額 Long E), is depicted in
    qin illustration 20 of Taiyin Daquanji, where it is called Dragon's Jaws (龍頷 Long Han). The melody Bright Moon (皎月 Jiao Yue) does not seem to be on any old lists. Many handbook have an Invocation of Wind and Thunder (風雷引 Feng Lei Yin). Source given here: 廣博物志 Guangbowu Zhi.

    He Yun, from 魯 Lu, made a qin called Dragon's Forehead (龍額 Long E). The top of the qin's shoulder was inclined to give one cun two fen (1.2 "inches"?) from the five strings. Once in the area near where the 淮泗 Huai and Si Rivers meet (northern Jiangsu province), when the night was peaceful, while he was playing the qin, suddenly three men came. They said, We are three immortals from the Shang dynasty. Your qin music is exceedingly wonderful. But it is a bit different from the ancient method. Thus they taught him the melodies Bright Moon and Invocation of Wind and Thunder.

  26. 姬剛 Ji Gang
    Ji Gang (6368.xxx [Ji seems here to be a surname, not "concubine"]; 2085.xxx) was apparently the 燕王剛 Gang, King of Yan who made a qin called 龍首 Dragon's Head: see
    qin illustration 18 of Taiyin Daquanji, which makes this attribution; other editions have the same as what is here. 周召公 Duke Zhao of Zhou was a son of Wen Wang by a concubine. The source mentioned here is Guangbowu Zhi.

    Ji Gang, a descendent of 周召公 Duke Zhao of Zhou, made a qin called Dragon's Head Between the double foreheads there is a sharp nature of 2.5 cun ("inches"). It has a 清實幽遠 clear, firm, deep, distant sound.

  27. 秦玨 Qin Jue
    Qin Jue 25578.xxx. The qin mentioned here, named Phoenix Tongue (鳳舌 Feng She) is
    qin illustration 18 in Taiyin Daquanji, which also gives the same description as here. Source given is Guangbowu Zhi.

    Qin Jue, a man of 衛 Wei, made a qin named Phoenix Tongue. (One end) slanted out 3 cun, forming a point below. If well-practised in the zhi mode, whenever you sit to play in the (wind and) snow suddenly (the weather) will become more temperate. 陳虞 Chen Yu (42618.954xxx) ordered (someone) to play the qin during the hottest part of summer. He played 南音 southern sounds. Suddenly from the east clouds arose. By the time the piece finished the snow was falling (elsewhere it says "there were three inches of snow.")

  28. 陳章 Chen Zhang
    Chen Zhang . The qin named Divine Sunshine (神暉 Shen Hui) is
    qin illustration 24 in Taiyin Daquanji. The source mentioned is Guangbowu Zhi.

    Chen Zhang, a man of 秦 Qin, made a qin called Divine Sunshine. Below the waist were four moons on the sides. It played beautifully in the yu mode. Suring the summer period as soon as one played this qin you could hear light breezes blowing.

  29. 杞梁妻 Wife of Qi Liang (Qi Liang Qi; also 芑梁妻 and 杞梁婦 Qi Liang Fu)
    The qin melody she is said to have played is called 芑梁妻歎 Qi Liang Qi Tan (Lament of the Wife of Qi Liang) in
    Qin Cao (#9), which says that in the 古詩十九 19 Old Poems (just below) it is called 杞梁妻歎 (same pronunciation). There is more detail on her in the two stories given under Qi Liang Qi Tan in Qin Shu Daquan, V/253 as well as a brief mention at V/379). References to her as 杞梁婦 Qi Liang Fu do not seem to havea music connection.

    The melody mentioned here, 杞梁妻歎 Qi Liang Qi Tan, does not survive in any tablature. The sources given here in Qin Shi Bu are 列女傳 Lienü Zhuan and 文選注 Notes on Wen Xuan.

    Qi Liang, from 齊 Qi, died during a battle at 莒 Ju. At his funeral his wife sighed and said, Before I had no father, now I have no husband, in the future I will have no children. At home I have no one to obey; outside I have no one to rely on. In the future how can I establish my purity? How can I 更二 (have another family?); I am already dead. So she took up a qin and played it. At the end of the melody she jumped into the river and died. Later people called this melody Lament of the Wife of Qi Liang.

    The 琴操 Qin Cao entry on her song mentions the following lyrics,


    古詩十九首 19 Old Poems, #5, according to 文選書 Wen Xuan Commentary, credits here with the following poem/lyrics (ctext). It is translated in HJAS 57, Ronald Egan, Music, Sadness and the Qin, pp. 6-7, as follows.

    西北有高樓,   To the northwest stands a lofty building,
    上與浮雲齊。   Its upper stories as high as the clouds.
    交疏結綺窗,   With patterned windows formed of latticework,
    阿閣三重階。   And roofs that rise three stories high.
    上有弦歌聲,   From above, the sound of strings and song,
    音響一何悲!   Oh, how sad are the sounds!
    誰能為此曲,   Who is it that sings such a melody?
    無乃杞梁妻。   It must be the wife of Qi Liang,
    清商隨風發,   The pure shang mode is carried forth on the wind.
    中曲正徘徊。   In the middle, the melody falters.
    一彈再三嘆,   She plucks once and sighs three times,
    慷慨有餘哀。   Ardent feelings with sorrow that lingers.
    不惜歌者苦,   I do not pity the singer for her bitterness,
    但傷知音稀。   But am distressed that so few understand her tune.
    願為雙鴻鵠,   If only I could join her as a pair of singing cranes
    奮翅起高飛。   Beating our wings, we'd rise to fly away.

  30. 孟姚 Meng Yao ("Eminent Elegance"; 7107.xxx, but see 6364.5 女娃)
    The biography begins, "Meng Yao was a concubine of 趙武靈王 King Wuling of Zhao (r. 325 - 299)." It then continues by quoting 史記 Shi Ji, Chapter 43 趙 Zhao, as follows (skipping [武陵王十六年]秦惠王卒 "In the 16th year [of King Wuling of Zhao], King Hui of Qin died.")

    King (Wuling) traveled to Daliang (capital of 梁 Liang). One day he had a dream in which he saw a virginal woman playing the qin and singing. The lyrics were,

    美人熒熒兮,顏若苕之榮。 The beloved shimmers, color sparkling like the tiao flower.
    命乎,命乎,曾無我贏。 Fate, fate, ....

    Another day the king was drinking wine for pleasure. Several times he spoke of the dream, wishing to see its form (see the woman?). 吳廣 Wu Guang (3453.781: from 秦 Qin) heard this. He responded 夫人而內其女娃贏 (something about it being his daughter Wa Ying), this is Meng Yao. Meng Yao had great favor with the king; she was called 惠后 Gracious Princess.

  31. 衛女傅母 Governess of Wei Nü
    The entry for the Governess (970.27) of the Woman of Wei (Wei Nü Fu Mu 34896.8xxx "Young woman of Wei", quoting
    Wen Xuan) has two stories, one related to the daughter of the Marquis of Wei (衛侯女 34896.87xxx), the other related to Du Muzi. Sources given are 琴清英 Qin Qing Ying (for the former story) and 琴操 Qin Cao (for the latter). See also Ms. Lu. Note that #52 in Qin Shi is a completely different 衛女 Wei Nü.

    The Governess of the Woman of Wei wrote the melody Zhi Zhao Fei. See 琴書 Qin Shu (?), which says, the daughter of the Marquis of Wei married the 齊太子 heir of Qi. On the way she heard that he had died. She asked her governess, What can I do? The governess answered, Go and mourn. When mourning was over (Wei Nü) was unwilling to return, and in the end she died (there). The governess regretted this. She tood the qin that the woman usually played and sitting on a quilt played it. Suddenly two pheasants came out together from the grave. The governess stroked one of the pheasants and said, Has the lady turned into a pheasant? Before she had finsished speaking (the birds) both flew up and went away. She could not see where they had gone. The governess with great sorrow took the qin and created a melody. Thus it was called Zhi Zhao Fei.

    Another explanation is that the melody was created because the bachelor 犢牧子 Du Muzi, who was old but had no wife, had an emotional reaction to seeing a male and female pheasant flying together.

    With traditionally told strange tales people don't know what is true and what is not.

  32. 秦始皇 Qin Shi Huang, First Emperor of Qin (259 - 210)
    Qin illustration 25 in Taiyin Daquanji (QQJC, I, p.48) shows a qin called simply 秦琴 Qin Qin, which it says was made by Qin Shi Huang, describing it as here. The parts of the qin said to have been made of 黑碧玉 black jade are always supposed to be made of a substance harder than the wood of the top and bottom planks; often it is ebony, though all but the bridge might be made of jade. This instrument is also mentioned in Qinqu Daquan, Folio 17, #52. The sources mentioned in Qin Shi Bu are 史世紀 Shi Ji (Chapter 6; see Watson, Records of the Grand Historian, pp. 35 - 44; this concerns the first part below); 琴疏 Qin Shu (? this is presumably for the part describing the qin, but Gu Qin Shu seems to mention Qin Shi Huang only in connection with Jing Ke, the next entry below); and 西京雜記 Xijing Zaji, presumably for the third part).

    The given name of Qin Shi Huang (who unified China by establishing the Qin dynasty in 255 BCE) was 政 Zheng; 實 Shi was his surname. His real surname was 呂 Lü (because his mother had become pregnant with him by 呂不韋 Lü Buwei (see Lüshi Chunqiu), who was then a merchant; but before he was born his mother married) 莊襄王 King Zhuangxiang (of Qin). Relying on Qin's wealth and power (Zheng) destroyed the six kingdoms and the world called him Emperor. He thought that the Zhou dynasty achieved its 德 energy from fire. Qin had replaced Zhou because it had what fire could not overcome, energy from water. (Water is associated with the color black so Qin) clothing, flags and banners all honored the color black.

    (Qin Shi Huang) once made a qin. Its tuning pegs, bridge, feet and tail were all made using black jade. 取其所尚 He used what he most honored (?).

    (In 206), when (the first Han emperor), Han Gaozu (劉邦 Liu Bang, 247 - 195) first entered the (Qin) palace he went into the treasury and saw a qin six chi ("feet") long (almost double the normal length), with 13 strings, 26 studs, and everything adorned with the seven precious gems. It was inscribed with the name 璠璵之樂 Fanyu zhi Yue (Music of Precious Jade). It was an object of 咸陽宮 Xianyang Palace. (Xianyang was the Qin capital, near Liu Bang's new capital, Chang An.)

  33. 文馨 Wen Xing
    The story of Wen Xing saving the king of Qin, who later became
    Qin Shi Huang, is said to come from 琴疏 Qin Shu; probably this should be 古琴疏 Gu Qin Shu, which does have it. The assassination attempt by Jing Ke resulted from a desire for revenge on the part of Prince Dan of Yan: see Shi Ji 86 (Assassin Retainers: see Watson, Records of the Grand Historian, Qin, pp.167 - 178), and Yan Danzi. The story inspired several qin melodies, none of them surviving. Thus, on melody lists one can find the titles (Du) Yi Shui, attributed to Jing Ke, and Qin Qi Ji, apparently referring to Wen Xing.

    It might be mentioned here that the same chapter of the Shi Ji tells of a later assassination attempt on Qin Shi Huang by a friend of Jing Ke named 高漸離 Gao Jianli, a skilled performer on the 筑 zhu. Gao hides a knife inside his zhu and then unsuccessfully tries to kill the emperor, who had blinded him; Gao is immediately killed. A fanciful re-telling of this story was made into a film in China called The Emperor's Shadow (秦頌 Qin Song, 1997); in it the zhu is replaced by a qin. The same thing seems to happen with a zhu melody said to have been created by Han Gaozu.

    Wen Xing was a 琴女 woman qin player in the Qin court. When (the would-be assassin) 荊軻 Jing Ke grabbed the king of Qin and was about to stab him the king said, I am fond of the qin. I would like to hear a song, then I can die. Permission was given, so he ordered Wen Xing to play a melody. The melody said,

    羅縠單衫,可裂而絕。 Thin silk shirt, you can tear it and it rips.
    八尺屏風,可超而越。 Eight foot high screen, you can leap and get over it.
    鹿盧之劍,可負而拔。 The sword with the jade disc hilt (48561.173/2), turn it over to draw it.

    The king followed these words (of instruction) and so made his escape. He later named this qin Screen Leaper (超屏 Chao Ping). It is also said that the King of Qin, having already killed Jing Ke, that night laid out his wine and ordered Wen Xing to play the qin and sing this song.

  34. 漢桓帝 Han Emperor Huandi (r. 147 - 168)
    Han Emperor Huandi's surname and given name were 劉志 Liu Zhi (133 - 168). He was a great-grandson of (劉炟 Liu Da, 57 - 89, who reigned as Emperor) 肅宗 Su Zong....(A good qin player, he was once greatly moved by the sound of a 楚琴 qin from Chu. Sources: 後漢書 Hou Han Shu, 阮籍樂論
    Musical Discourse, by Ruan Ji.)

  35. 霍去病 Huo Qubing (ca. 140 - 117 BCE)
    Huo Qubing (see
    Loewe; 43291.14 quotes Shi Ji 111 [RGH II/169-85]; his given name means Get-Rid-Of-Disease), an illegitimate son of the older sister of the great general 衛青 Wei Qing (d. 106 BCE), was from 平陽 Pingyang; he achieved great success as a general in central Asia (see Jiuquan). Huo's sister 子夫 Zifu was a singing girl who enamored Han emperor 武帝 Wudi (r.141 - 87). The qin song here is included in Yuefu Shiji, Folio 60, #23.

    Huo Qubing, a great general, was a son of the older sister of Wei Qing.... He wrote a qin song. Its lyrics were,

    四裔既護,諸夏康兮。 (四裔 = 四夷)
    親親百年,各延長兮。(Not yet translated).

    Qin Cao includes a 霍將軍渡河操 General Huo's Crossing the River Melody. It was written by Huo Qubing.

    Actually, 琴操 Qin Cao 河間雜歌 Hejian Zage #17 is 霍將軍歌 General Huo's Song (TKW Qin Fu, p.751.) The Qinshi Bu sources are given as 漢書 Han Shu, 古今樂錄 Gujin Yuelu (3308.70; 6th c.), and 古今圖書集成 Gujin Tushu Jicheng.

  36. 劉道強 Liu Daoqiang
    Liu Daoqiang (2270.xxx). Source:
    Xijing Zaji. As for Solo Swan Lonely Duck, 4061.286 單鵠寡鳧 Dan Gu Gua Fu only quotes the story given here.

    Liu Daoqiang , a man of 齊 Qi, was an excellent qin player. He was able to play the melody Solo Swan Lonely Duck so that all the listeners became helplessly sad.

  37. 揚雄 Yang Xiong (53 BCE - 18 CE)
    separate entry; also called 楊子雲 Yang Ziyun.

  38. 孫息 Sun Xi
    Source given is 琴清英
    Qin Qing Ying. However, the same story as here, as quoted in Qinshu Daquan, Folio 17, #27, writes the name of the player as 荀息 Xun Xi (31659.27). Qin Shi #41 has others who could make people cry with their qin play.

    7135.263 孫息 Sun Xi says only 子孫也 that it means "descendants", but a Sun Xi seems to have been mentioned in 說苑,佚文 3 Shuo Yuan, Yiwen 3, which says,

    Sun Xi learned emotional songs on an old qin, then taking his qin played sounds from Zheng and Wei.8 Duke Ling was greatly moved by this, and thus the melody The Duke of Wei was created. It was sung to accompany this.

    The text identifies its source as, "《北堂書鈔》卷一百六頁四零九 Folio 108, Page 409 of the Beitang Shuchao" (the Tang period encyclopaedia from which this fragment was copied). In fact the Beitang Shuchao adds its own comment, "案陳本脫古琴即三字琴作瑟 The Chen edition [of the Shuo Yuan] leaves out the three words 古琴即 and writes 瑟 instead of 琴" (thanks to Ulrich Theobald for pointing this out to me). This makes the text begin, "孫息學悲歌,引瑟... Sun Xi learned an emotional song, took his se and ...."

    The original Qinshi Bu text says:

    Sun Xi had an audience with the King of 晉 Jin. The King said, When you play the qin can you cause people to be 悲 sad? (Sun) Xi answered, Now you live in a place of high terraces, with deep canopies connecting rooms, heavy gates, chunks of meat, rich wine, with singers and musicians in front of you. It would be hard to cause you to be sad. Someone who when young lost his parents, when older had no 兄嫂當道獨坐暮無所止於此者, they could be sad. So he took his qin and played it. The King of Jin became sick at heart, wailed and cried. He said, 何子來遲也?

  39. 仲長統 Zhong Changtong (Zhongchang Tong?)
    Zhong Changtong (437.118 a minister during the Latter Han dynasty), style name 公理, was from 山陽高平 Gaoping (in today's southern Shandong.) By nature energetic, he dared to speak directly, not boasting or extravagant, speaking with reserve and not regularly. People at that time considered him 狂生 mad (?).... 樂志論 Yue Zhi Lun said, He played the elegant melody Nan Feng, and brought out the beautiful melody 清商 Qing Shang. (Sources: 後漢書 Hou Han Shu; 何氏語林 He Shi Yulin [489.48 Ming dynasty].)

  40. 黃憲 Huang Xian
    separate entry.

  41. 張機 Zhang Ji
    Zhang Ji (10026.1384) was a noted physician around the period 168 - 189. He became a prefect in Changsha and wrote an early work on medicine. He was originally from 棗陽 Zao Yang in 南陽 Nanyang (today in southern Henan). The mountain mentioned in the story, 嶧山 Yi Shan (8707.1b, in Jiangsu) was famous for having 桐 pawlonia wood good for making (the top board of) a qin. The source given for the story here is Strange Accounts 志奇 Zhi Qi (Accounts of Anomalies; see also QSDQ,
    Folio 17, #12).

    Zhang Ji, style name 仲景 Zhongjing, was from 南陽 Nanyang. He was skilled at treating disease. One day while in the 桐柏 Tongbo hills (of Henan) gathering medicine he came across a sick man, who asked to be examined. Zhongjing said, Your wrist has the pulse of an animal: why is that? The other man told him the truth, that he was an old gibbon from a cave in Yi Mountain. Zhongjing took out from his bag a pill and gave it to him. The (gibbon) swallowed it and recovered. The next day (the gibbon) brought him a tree trunk, saying, This is 10,000 year old pawlonia. I must give it to you as compensation. Zhongjing cut the wood and made two qin. One he called Old Gibbon, the other 10,000 Years.

  42. 荀淑 Xun Shu
    Xun Shu (83 - 149; 31659.31: a noted scholar and recluse; Vervoorn: he praised #40
    Huang Xian), style name 季和 Jihe, was from 潁川 Yingchuan (south of Luoyang). He had a qin name Dragon's Lips (龍唇 Long Chun). One day during a heavy rain and wind, he lost it. Three years later the great rain and wind returned, and a black dragon flew (with the qin) into the hall of 李膺 Li Ying (110 - 169 CE; Giles: upright minister; Vervoorn 李). Li examined it and said, It is an old object belonging to Xun Shu. He then returned it to Jihe. (Jiehe), afraid it would fly away again, inlaid it with a gold inscription on the back that said, 劉累 Liu Lei (a famous dragon tamer of antiquity), in order to keep it under control, has changed the name to 飛龍 Flying Dragon. (Source: 古琴疏 Gu Qin Shu).

  43. 張道 Zhang Dao
    Zhang Dao was a qin master of the Han dynasty. He made a qin named Melodious Spring (響泉 Xiang Quan (
    qin illustration 27 in Taiyin Daquanji shows what it says is this qin and has almost the same comment about it.) Three strings (?), doubled waist giving it a multi-moon shape. It is pleasurable to (use it to play) Liu Shui. I play it by the water's edge, and thus made (the melody) Fish Frisking in the Chilly Pond (魚躍冰泮 Yu Yue Bing Pan 47030.xxx), half section (the illustration says "20 sections"). (Source: 張[大命字]右袞琴經 Qin Jing [QSCM #194] by Zhang Daming, Ming dynasty].)

  44. 張(至+存) Zhang Jian (136 - 240 [Bio. 1240])
    Zhang Jian (10026.1029; Jian [30826.0/4, not in computer, also pronounced "Zun"]; from 鉅鹿 Julu [southern Hebei], style name 子明 Ziming; when young he studied widely but he then followed the Dao, turned down many offers of employment, instead spending his time in the mountains wandering in seclusion.) He lived at the time of the Wei dynasty of the 曹 Cao clan. He studied the uniting of the interior and exterior, nourished his will and did not hold office. 戴鵀(11983.200 q.v.)巢門陰 A hoopoe bird (once) nested on (Zhang Jian's) north doorway. Zhang Jian said, The hoopoe is a yang bird. For it to nest in the northern doorway is 凶象 an evil omen. So he took up his qin, sang for 10 days, then died. (Source: 小隱書 Xiao Yin Shu [7632.xxx].)

  45. 盧女 Ms. Lu
    The sources here are
    Gujin Zhu, Qin Jing (or #15 or #194?). A 盧女曲 Melody of Ms. Lu (23580.11; YFSJ, Folio 73, pp. 1038/9) relates that 梁簡文帝 Emperor Jianwen of Liang, r. 550-551, issued a notice saying it was unfortunate that Ms. Lu married so late; the lyrics are by 崔顥 Cui Hao, a friend of 王維 Wang Wei, who also mentioned her music.


    Another comment about Ms. Lu and Zhi Zhao Fei Cao is in Qinshu Daquan, Folio 16, #55.

    Ms. Lu (23580.10) was in the court of 魏武帝 (Emperor Wu of Wei, i.e., 曹操 Cao Cao, 155 - 220). She was a younger sister of General 陰叔 Yin Shu (elsewhere 陰升 Yin Sheng, 應叔 Ying Shu). When she was six she entered the Han palace and studied (excelled at) playing the qin. Her qin sounds stood out, but she was also extraordinary in all her talents. She excelled at new sounds. Mu Duzi had written Zhi Zhao Fei Cao (during the Warring States period), but its melody was 中絕 cut off. Only Ms. Lu was able to transmit it. After Emperor Ming of Wei died (in 240 CE) she left the palace and became 尹更生妻 the wife of Yin Gengsheng. Thus we have not lost this sound (presumably referring to Zhi Zhao Fei in particular, but perhaps also other music she played.)

  46. 謝鯤 Xie Kun (ca. 281 - ca. 323)
    Xie Kun, style name 幼輿 Youyu, was from 陽夏 Yangxia (modern 太康復in Henan) in the kingdom of Chen (i.e, Henan). When young he was famed for his knowledge, he was broad-minded with elevated understanding, not cultivating formality. He was fond of
    Laozi and the Yi Jing, could sing and was good at playing the qin, (amusing himself with qin and books.) 王衍 Wang Yan (256 - 311; 21295.916/1 Daoist scholar) and 嵇韶 Xi Shao (brother of Xi Kang) both marvelled at him. (In 265 司馬炎 Sima Yan [236 - 290] founded the 晉 Jin dynasty, with its capital in Luoyang. As 晉武帝 Emperor Wu he created eight princedoms. After he died they all struggled to succeed him.) Around 304 CE 長沙王乂 Prince Yi of Changsha (42022.155).... (Translation incomplete; Source Jin Annals [晉書 Jin Shu].)

  47. 公孫宏 Gongsun Hong (200-121 BCE)
    Gongsun Hong (1480.xxx) is said to have been a poor swineherd who studied hard, passed examinations and was appointed to office by Han Emperor Wudi. He is said to have built an 東閣 Eastern Chamber to entice worthy scholars into government service; he is also credited with playing a major role in establishing Confucianism as the official ideology. There is a 河陽 Heyang, mentioned in the text, across the river from 落揚 Luoyang, but he himself is said to have been from Shandong. The text says he 頗屬文, suggesting he wrote music, but it is unclear what that actually means. 潘岳
    Pan Yue (247 - 300) was a leading poet of the day, also famously handsome. (5 lines; source: Jin Annals [晉書 Jin Shu].)

    Gongsun Hong was a woodcutter. When young he was orphaned and poor, so he cultivated another person's field in Heyang. He was good at playing the qin, with some ability to write music. Pan Yue, then Magistrate of Hoyang, loved his talents.... (Translation incomplete)

  48. 董景道 Dong Jingdao
    Dong Jinbao (32204.171), style name 文博 Wenbo, was from 弘農 Hongnong (on the Yellow River east of Huashan). As a youth he enjoyed painting, and would spend the evenings reading, not meeting with other people. Around 291 CE he realized that there would be great disturbances all over, so he became a recluse in 商洛 the mountains of Shang and Luo prefectures (also around Huashan.)....(Translation incomplete; Source Jin Annals [晉書 Jin Shu].)

  49. 賀循 He Xun (260 - 319)
    He Xun (37569.93), style name 彥先 Yanxian, was from 會稽山陰 Shanyin, near Shaoxing. (His father had been executed by Sun Hao [242 - 283], the last Wu emperor, and his family exiled. As a youth He Xun wandered, but was well educated and eventually returned, passed the exams and, when things seemed to be settling down, took a position in Wu, by then a part of 晉 Jin, founded in 265 by 司馬炎 Sima Yan [236 - 290], with its capital in Luoyang. After being in and out of office for a while,) he entered Luoyang in obedience to a summons to be a 舌人 palace secretary for the first emperor (of Jin. But first [?]), as he was passing 閶門 Changmen (a gate in northwest Suzhou), in his boat he played the qin. 張(翰字)季鷹
    Zhang Han, who was not familiar with He Xun, heard from the Changmen Pavilion the very clear string sounds. (They became acquainted and Zhang Han, who was also going to the capital, joined him on the boat.... Source: 蓴湖漫錄 Chunhu Manlu.)

  50. 李廞 Li Xin
    Li Xin (14819.1582), style name 宗子 Zongzi, was from 江夏鍾武 Zhongwu in Jiang Xia district (north of Wuhan in modern Hubei.) An ancestor 康 Kang (李康 .1064?) had been regional inspector of 秦州 Qinzhou (in Gansu?). His father 重 Zhong (李重 .865?) was prefect of 平陽 Pingyang (in southern Shanxi); he was well-known at the time. Li Xin was fond of study and excelled at 草隸 both running and square style calligraphy. At this he and his older brother 李式 Li Shi (.330) were both well-known. When young Li Xin, being thin and weak, was unwilling to marry. As a government servant he sat around playing the qin and 讀誦 reciting songs without a break. Minister 王導 Wang Dao (style name 茂弘 Maohong; Giles: d.330; a friend and loyal minister of 司馬睿 Sima Rui, who became 晉元帝 first emperor of the Eastern Jin dynasty [r. 317 - 323], with Nanjing as its capital), 辟 dismissed (?) him from being 府掾 regional officer. When Li Xin received the official notice he laughed and 字 wrote Wang Dao a letter that said, Maohong has again made me into a 爵假人 noble sage. (Source: 世說新語 Shishuo Xinyu [as with
    #9; 何氏語林 He Shi Yulin [as with #39].)

  51. 王敬伯 Wang Jingbo
    Wang Jingbo meets an elegant woman. See
    separate entry.

  52. 段由夫 Duan Youfu
    Duan Youfu (xxx; you fu could mean something like "follow a sage" or "follow a husband"). The sources given here are: 雲仙散錄 Yunxian Sanlu (43170.53?) and 金徽變化篇 Jinhui Bianhua Pian (41049.1228xxx). The latter is also the source for this same story and three others in QSDQ,
    Folio 17, #44.

    Duan Youfu carried his qin around; when it was together with wind in the pines and babbling streams, these three were called the sounds of nature. 正合類聚羊曇節以金縷羊邀之。曲終不去.

  53. 趙正 Zhao Zheng
    Zhao Zheng ( = 38015.865 趙整, style name 文業 Wenye), was from 渭水 Wei river (others say 清水 Qing Shui or 濟陰 Ji Yin), during the 前秦 Former Qin (351 - 394, centered in Chang An), one of north China's 16 Kingdom's. The essay takes place 苻堅末年 at the end of the reign of Fu Jian (337 - 384; see Giles and 31551.12). Another version of this story is told in the Annals of the 16 Kingdoms
    ; see Qinshu Daquan, Folio 16, #12. Yuefu Shiji, Folio 60, #26 quotes 晉書 Annals of Jin. Source here is Guangbowu Zhi.)

    Zhao Zheng, style name Wenye, was from Wei river. 情度敏達性, and he was good at satirical remonstrances. During the last year of Fu Jian....(mentions two melodies).

  54. 劉元 Liu Yuan
    The account here is from Strange Garden (22369.109 異苑 Yi Yuan, Song dynasty). Liu Yuan is also mentioned in connection to the qin in
    Xu Qi Xie Ji

    Liu Yuan (2270.92xxx), style name 幼祖 Youzu, was as a youth friendly and light-hearted with (劉裕 Liu Yu, 356 - 422, a poor woodcutter from 彭城 Pengcheng [Xuzhou area] who became a general and in 420 founded the 劉宋 Liu Song dynasty, based in Nanjing, and reigned as) 武帝 Emperor Wu. Liu Yuan 何不忌遂不相得, and he travelled around Huqiu mountain (northwest of Suzhou in the Wu district. 心欲留焉 As night approached there was a soughing of the wind as he faced the moon and played the qin by the 劍池 Sword Pond. Suddenly he heard the sound of tinkling jade. A woman dressed in clothing of purple gauze and a hanging ornamental girdle said, The Prince of Wu's beloved would like to come for a visit. Liu Yuan answered, 吳王愛女豈非韓重妻紫玉耶? If you are the Prince of Wu's beloved why isn't this the purple jade of Han Chong wife? (??) 遂於元偕行. She then went along with Liu Yuan (??) She said to Yuan, I hear you are an acquaintance of Liu Yu....

    Translation incomplete.

  55. 周續之 Zhou Xuzhi
    Zhou Xuzhi (3597.892, during Liu Song), style name 道祖 Daozu, was from 鴈門黃武 Huangwu in northern Shanxi. Uncorrupted and unsullied, he did not hold office and never took a wife. He lived a leisurely live reading
    Laozi and the Yi Jing. He excelled at playing qin. He followed the tradition of the elevated gentleman Xi Kang and brought out its original beauty.... (Sources: 宋書 Annals of [Liu] Song; Chengyitang Qintan.

  56. 陸修靜 Lu Xiujing
    Liu Xiujing (42620.221 during Liu Song), style name 見寂 Jianji, was from 吳興東遷 Dongqian in Wuxing (south of Lake Taihu)....(Source: 吳興備志 Complete Annals of Wuxing.)

  57. 王文元 Wang Wenyuan
    Wang Wenyuan (21295.xxx) and his wife both excelled at the qin. 其閨詩 The poem from the women's quarters says,

    ... (Total length: [5+5] x 4)

    (Source: 張[大命字]右袞琴經 Qin Jing [QSCM #194] by Zhang Daming, Ming dynasty].)

  58. 齊明帝 Emperor Ming of Qi (r. 494 - 498)
    Emperor Ming of Qi had the surname and given name 蕭鸞 Xiao Luan (452 - 498). At first he was enfeoffed as 宣城王 Prince of Xuancheng (south of Nanjing). Over him was 蕭昭文 Xiao Zhaowen, the 海陵王 Prince of Hailing, whom Xiao Luan put into position (as the fourth emperor of the Southern Qi.) When Xiao Luan was still prince he had a qin which according to tradition dated from the 始元 Shiyuan period (6313.1: 86 - 80 BCE).... (There follows a description. Sources: 南齊書 Annals of Southern Qi; 古琴疏
    Gu Qin Shu.)

  59. 王仲雄 Wang Zhongxiong
    Wang Zhongxiong, from 晉陵南沙 Nansha in Jinling (north of Suzhou, near the Yangzi River), was a son of 王敬則 Wang Jingze (435 - 498; Bio.219; a famous general who helped found the Qi dynasty. He had retired to Shaoxing, but in 498 was killed when he rebelled, thinking
    Emperor Ming of Qi [Xiao Luan] was about to have him executed.) The biography of Wang Jingze is the source of the story of the Scorched Tail Qin in the imperial storehouse (102.40 主衣庫). Regarding Song of Vexation (懊儂曲 Aonong Qu, also called 懊儂歌 Aonong Ge), see YFSJ, Folio 46 and Xu Jian, QSCB, Chapter 4.B.3). Xu Jian apparently understands 上敕五日一給仲雄,仲雄於御前鼓琴 to mean that once every five days the emperor gave Zhongxiong the qin to play for him. Regarding the added song line, see the complete original version. Source: 蓴湖漫錄 Chunhu Manlu.)

    Wang Zhongxiong, from Nansha in Jinling, was a son of Wang Jingze. He excelled at playing qin, being one of the best players at that time in the Lower Yangzi region. There was a Scorched Tail Qin kept in the imperial storehouse. (Emperor Ming of Qi) gave it to him for five continuous days, (then) Zhongxiong played the qin in the emperor's presence, playing Aonong Ge. The lyrics said,

    I have always lamented your heartlessness; and now you have finally committed the deed. (Original: 常歎負情儂,郎今果行許。)

    (Another one said,

    When a gentleman's actions do not cleanse the heart, he is proclaimed an evil man. [君行不淨心,那得惡人題。])

    The emperor, although towards Jingze he outwardly emphasized his upright nature, inwardly he was suspicious (蓋帝於敬則雖外厚其禮,而內相疑備). And so Zhongxiong used the qin for satire (and so forth).

  60. 蕭鋒 Xiao Feng (475 - 494)
    Xiao Feng (32667.462), style name 宣穎 Xuanying, the 12th son of (蕭道成 Xiao Daocheng, 齊)高帝 Emperor Gao (of Qi, r.479 - 483), was enfeoffed 江夏王 Prince of Jiangxia (in Hubei). When he was four he was fond of studying writing without paper or a tablet, instead using a farm posts or dusty window sills as his book; when the "book" was full he would wash it....(He pleased his father with his writing, and was a good qin player, playing at the court of Emperor Wu [r. 483 - 494]).... 江祏 Jiang Shi (17496.249) once said to 王晏 Wang Yan (Bio. 23), The Prince of Jiangxia was very skilled. He was also good at hiding his traces. (However, Xiao Luan at the beginning of his reign executed Xiao Feng along with most of his brothers.)

    羊景之 Yang Jingzhi
    (Xiao Feng) used the Way of the Qin to teach Yang Jingzhi (xxx). Jingzhi was very well-known and after the Prince of Jiangxia was suppressed he could transmit not only his qin playing.... (Source: 南史 Nan Shi.)

  61. 王慈 Wang Ci
    Wang Ci (21295.xxx), style name 伯寶 Bobao, from 琅邪臨沂 Linyi, was a son of 司空僧虔 the Sikong monk Qian (sincere). When he was eight a relative on his mother's side 宋太宰江夏王義菾迎至內齊施寶物恣聽所取 (?) welcomed him and offered him a treasure of Qi. Wang Ci selected an 素琴 unadorned qin and an inkstone. 義菾 Yitian admired this. (Source: 南齊書 Nan Qi Shu.)

  62. 梁武帝 Emperor Liang Wudi (r. 502 - 550)
    separate entry

    (梁)元帝 Emperor Liang Yuandi (r. 552 - 555; Wiki)
    Xiao Yi 蕭繹 (508 - 554) became emperor after the defeat of the rebellion by 侯景 Hou Jing (502 552). Giles: he was defeated by the Western Wei and put to death after burning the imperial library. ICTCL p.658: A "key critical arbiter" of contemporary pianwen; wrote one of the most important articles on it, 金樓自 Jin Louzi. His Preface to (his brother Xiao Gang's) Linked Jade of the Dharma Jewel (法寶聯璧序 Fabao Lianbi Xu) mentions qin and sword. (See Xiao Yan for sources.)

    The seventh son (of Xiao Yan was) 蕭)繹 Xiao Yi, style name 世誠 Shicheng. This was Emperor Yuan. He edited Zuan Yao, a book that listed old qin names and the names of leading qin players. This book was often quoted by later people.

  63. 虞炎 Yu Yan (5th/6th c.)
    Yu Yan (33531.xxx). The story mentions immortal mushroom calligraphy (31398.34 芝英書 zhiying Shu), the famous scholar 沈約
    Shen Yue (441 - 513), the Qi dynasty heir apparent 文惠 Wenhui (i.e., 蕭長懋 Xiao Changmao [458 - 493], oldest son of 蕭賾 Xiao Ze, who was 齊武帝 Qi Emperor Wu; during the period 483 - 494 Wenhui would have been the heir apparent), and "Dirt in the Ground" (土離塵 Tulichen, 4975.xxx; "Dirt" [塵 chen] is written as "deer" [鹿 lu] over "ground" [土 tu]; perhaps the deer had been released from a pit). Source: 古琴疏 Gu Qin Shu.

    Yu Yan was from 會稽 Kuaiji (near Shaoxing.) When young he went to 秦望山 the Qinwang Mountains and saw hunter capture a deer. It called sadly to Yu Yan, who bought it and released it. Coming down the mountain he met a man who presented him with a qin, then suddenly disappeared. On the back of the qin there was some "immortal mushroom calligraphy". He couldn't figure it out. Later he showed it to (the famous scholar) Shen Yue (441 - 513). Shen Yue examined it and said, "It has 12 characters, 土離塵曾獲貝遇文惠至驃騎 Tulichen cenghubei yu Wenhui zhi piaoqi. At this time the (qin) was already valued by Wenhui, the heir apparent. His official rank had become Cavalry (Piaoqi) General." Shen Yue 歎異久之 sighed long, amazed at this (?). "Tulichen was the deer. Already captured treasure (cenghubei) means it was a gift. 始悟其為放鹿報 Now I see (the qin inscription) memorializes the release of a deer."

  64. 張弘靜 Zhang Hongjing 鼠畏 Shuwei: Scourge of the Rat
    Zhang Hongjing (xxx). Source: 廣博物志 Guangbowu Zhi; Van Gulik, Lore, p.154, translates the same story from another source.

    Zhang Hongjing had an old qin with bright lacquer that completely removed the color, so it looked like a black stone. Its inscription read, Falling flowers, Flowing streams. One night he heard the loud sound of a rat and was very anxious, so he ordered one of his female servants to shine a light on it. He saw that a string had broken and wrapped itself around the rat. Hongjing, amazed at this, changed the name (of the qin) to Scourge for Rats (鼠畏 Shu Wei).

    This story, with its rat strangled by a string (鼠畏 49381.xxx thus means something for rats to fear, not that rats are the danger), inspired the scene shown at right from the film House of the Lute (at 15.14), where the actor 任達華 Simon Yam Tat-wah (in his first starring role) looks at a qin, its name there translated as "Scourge of the Rat". This forebodes a violent scene near the end of the film.

    See under Minzi for another qin-related reference to rats.

  65. 賀思令 He Siling
    He Siling (Bio/xxx). Source: 兩浙名賢錄 Liang Zhe Mingxian Lu (1461.xxx). DeWoskin,
    Song, p.118, translates the same story from a different source.

    He Siling, from Kuaiji (near Shaoxing), excelled at qin play. Often at night he would sit under the moon, in a breeze, making the strings resound. Suddenly (one day) a man of majestic form appeared. Bound in fetters, he had a miserable demeanour. In the middle of the courtyard made the pronouncement "Good", then began a conversation. Saying that he was 嵇中散 Xi Zhongsan (i.e., Xi Kang), he told He Siling, Sir, you move your hands very quickly, but not in accord with the ancient techniques. He then taught He Guangling San. As a result He was able to carry on the transmission. This is the version (lit.: tablature) played today.

  66. 韋敻 Wei Xiong (502 - 578)
    Wei Xiong (44069.165 北周 of Northern Zhou, 557 - 689) was from a region in the capital district, Chang An. The Wei clan was quite prominent in this region for centuries: his brother 韋孝寬 Wei Xiaokuan (509 - 580; 44069.38) was a great general; his son 韋世康 Wei Shikang became a general under the Sui Dynasty, while other descendants became prominent during the Tang dynasty. Source: Northern Histories (北史 Bei Shi.)

    Wei Xiong, style name 敬遠 Jingyuan, was from 京兆杜陵 Duling in Jingzhao. He was the older brother of Wei Xiaokuan.... (Wei Xiong preferred living the in the countryside playing the qin and drinking wine with friends. He was 77 when he died.)

  67. 李謐 Li Mi (484 - 515)
    Li Mi (14819.1752; Bio.932) was from a town southeast of modern Shijiazhuang, Hebei province. His father 李安世 was a high Northern Wei military and civil official; so were his brothers 李郁 Li Yu (d.534) and 李瑒 Li Yang. Source: Northern Histories (北史 Bei Shi.)

    Li Mi, style name 永和 Yonghe, was from 趙郡平棘 Pingji. When young (Li Mi) enjoying study. He accepted office as 佐郎 an assistant, then left it in favor of his younger brother Li Yu . Li Mi then became a 秀才 regional candidate.... (He seems to have been a learned man who was also a teacher, particularly of qin and books.)

  68. 裴尼 Pei Ni (d. ca. 556)
    Pei Ni (35163.16) was from a town in southwest Shanxi province. His brothers 裴漢 Pei Han (514 - 572) and 裴寬 Pei Kuan served with the 魏 Wei and then 北周 Northern Zhou (557 - 589) armies. After 侯景 Hou Jing sacked the capital of the Liang (502-556), Nanjing, in 552, the Liang
    Emperor Yuan moved his capital to 江陵 Jiangling, on the Yangzi River in Hubei. The narration here concerns the period after Wei defeated the Liang here at Jiangling. Source: 古逸叢書 Guyi Congshu

    Pei Ni, style name 景尼 Jingni, was from 河東聞喜 Wenxi. By nature Pei Ni was lofty and refined, and naturally gifted. When the (Wei) 宮散騎常侍 government cavalry officers 謹平 pacified (conquered?) Jiangling, the 大獲軍實謹恣諸將校取之 conquering army (had to decide what to do). The other men all quarreled over the valuable objects they had found. Ni took only one plain qin that had belonged to the Liang Emperor Yuan. 謹深歎美之. He sighed with respect as he admired it.

  69. 丘公 Qiu Gong
    Qiu Ming (40.xxx; Bio. xxx) was called Qiu Gong (Master Qiu). Source given:
    Guyi Congshu

    Qiu Gong, style name 明 Ming, was from 會稽 Kuaiji. At the end of the Liang dynasty he hid in 九疑山 Jiuyi Shan (near what is now the border between Hunan and Guangdong provinces). Good at melodies of Chu, and especially good at the melody You Lan....

  70. 李疑 Li Yi (String of Pearls Qin images are shown here [source] as well as in the QF Taigu Yiyin).
    Qin Shi Bu lists as its source as Guangbowu Zhi; see also Xu Jian, Chapter 5A (p.53). Li Yi's qin is not included among the qin illustrations in Taiyin Daquanji, but it is in the version called 太古遺音 Taigu Yiyin (see TKW, Qin Fu, p.46). The text there (line 1), as well as in the other image linked above (line 2), has virtually the same content as the text in Qin Shi Bu.
    1. 琴史補:李疑,隋之逸士。作琴曰《連珠》。於玉女腰旁為連珠。彩絃。音操清亮。俗呼連珠先生。作《竹吟風》、《哀松露》、《草蟲子》《規山樂》。又綴三十六小調。
    2. 連珠琴式:隋李疑作。於玉女腰為連珠。_彩絃。撫則有清亮之。_呼連珠先生。作《竹吟風》、《哀松露》、《草蟲子》《規山樂》。又綴三十六小調。

    Li Yi was a disengaged gentleman during the Sui dynasty. He made a qin called String of Pearls. Along the jade lady waist is a string of pearls. There are colored strings. (When played) the melodies are clear and bright. (Li Yi was) commonly called Mr. String of Pearls. He wrote (the melodies) Zhu Yin Feng, Ai Song Lu, Cao Chongzi, and Guishan Yue; he also wrote 36 short tunes.

    卷二 Folio 2

  71. 仲長子光 Zhongchang Ziguang
    Sources for this article are 續高士傳 Xu Gaoshi Zhuan (28646.xxx; see 46302.15) and
    Chengyitang Qintan.

    Zhongchang Zikuang (437.117, originally from Luoyang, wandered along the Yellow River in Shanxi until around 600, when he settled in an isle in the river [河渚 hezhu] near) 王績里 the village of Wang Ji (in Longmen, southwest Shanxi. Zhongchang Ziguang) had no wife or children. He built a thatched hut on the north bank of the isle and feigned dumbness, playing the qin for his pleasure. For people who asked the way he used his sword to write the two characters 老易 Lao and Yi, (Laozi and the Book of Changes. Some years later) Wang Ji saw this and offered his services. He was so fond of Zikuang that he moved his home to be closer, but Zikuang remained dumb and never spoke with Wang Ji. Day and night they drank together, and they took friendly care of each other. (Ziguang) was called Mr. Hezhu.

  72. 王維 Wang Wei (701 - 761; famous poet)
    separate entry

  73. 李白 Li Bai (701 - 762; famous poet)
    separate entry

    負琴生 Fu Qin Sheng (The Qin Carrier 37504.xxx)
    (This section contains a long conversation between Li Bai and the qin carrier, not yet translated. Source: 蓴湖漫錄 Chunhu Manlu.)

  74. 李棲筠 Li Xijun (719 - 776)
    separate entry. This entry largely quotes Qin Hui Ji by 柳識 Liu Shi.

  75. 崔季真 Cui Jizhen
    Cui Jizhen (8405.xxx) was from Nanchang (old name Hongzhou) in Jiangxi province. The source for this story is given as 南昌苻志 Nanchangfu Zhi.

    Cui Jizhen, from 洪州 Hongzhou, had his home in the western part of the district. He excelled at playing qin and was skilled at drawing. During 766 - 780, in a big evening snowfall, he saw an old man sheltering himself from the snow in the doorway.... (The man gave him some medicines. Cui Jizhen later took them to 茅山 Maoshan, where 李和光 Li Heguang [xxx] said it could bring immortality).

  76. 雷威 Lei Wei
    separate entry.

  77. 石荊山 Shi Jingshan (Tang dynasty)
    Shi Jingshan (Bio/369), from 吳 Wu, is connected to
    Dugu Ji (725 - 777) in a story from Suzhou Prefecture Records (蘇州苻志 Suzhoufu Zhi; see also Qinshu Daquan, Folio 16, #55).

    Shi Jingshan excelled at qin. Dugu Ji respected him and they traveled together. Jingshan, with regard to the qin, was extensive and experienced. With each melody he would 以十合豆為準盡一升而移品 use 10 red beans to regulate his play. When he filled a pint he would change to another piece. (?)

    姚兼濟 Yao Jianji (Tang)
    Yao Yanji (Bio/1808) learned the tradition of Shi Jingshan in Suzhou then went to Yangzhou. His
    Qin Lun (Qin Discussion) is quoted in Qinyuan Yaolu. Source, as above, is 蘇州苻志 Suzhoufu Zhi.)

    Yao Jianji, from the same city, acquired the tradition of Shi Jingshan....

  78. 李約 Li Yue
    Li Yue (Bio/894; 14819.889) style name 在博 Zaibo (or 存博 Cunbo) was a son of
    Li Mian, thus a sixth generation descendent of 李淵 Li Yuan, founder of the Tang dynasty. He was also a noted painter as well as qin player. QSCM attributes to him a Tablature (?) for East Handle (東杓引譜 Dongbiao Yin Pu [Dongshao Yin?]; 14827.xxx), One Folio, a melody mentioned below. YFSJ, p.486, has three poems named Following the Army (從軍行 Cun Jun Xing) attributed to him. The sources for the story here are: 因語錄 Yin Yu Lu (4796.xxx), 唐詩紀事 Tang Shi Ji Shi, and 崇文總目 Chongwen Zongmu (8330.9 Song dynasty). Part of the story is told (garbled?) in QSDQ, Folio 17, #47.

    Li Yue was a Vice-Director in the Ministry of War but was 雅度簡遠 and had an interest in mountains and forests. He had refined achievements in the Way of the qin, the virtues of wine, and poetry. In 湖州 Huzhou (just south to Taihu Lake) he obtained a slab of old iron that, when hit, would produce a clear sound. He also raised a gibbon named 山公 Mountain Duke. On moonlit evenings he floated on the river, climbed 金山 Gold Mountain, hit the bell, and the gibbon would cry out and tip over a cup. Until daylight 不俟外賓 not wait for outside guests (?). 嘗患琴家無角聲 At the time it bothered qin experts that there were no melodies in the jue mode, so he wrote an East Handle Prelude, 7 Sections (東杓引七伯 Dongbiao Yin). It had 麟 unicorn sounds and 繹 unravelling silk sounds as it ordered the five tones.

  79. 楊收 Yang Shou (816 - 868)
    Yang Shou (15489.175), from an area northeast from Chang An, was a 進士 Jinshi and government official. Source: 唐書 Tang Shu.

    Yang Shou, style name 藏之 Zangzhi, lived during his generation in (同州)馮翊 Fengyi. Broad in knowledge, 強記至他藝 strong in writing about his art (?), understanding everything. He once said qin music.... (something comparing standard and non-standard tunings with dense trees that always have creepers on them.)

    安(水兌) An Sui
    An Sui (7221.xxx; 17958 sui is not in the computer). Source is still 唐書 Tang Shu.

    At that time there was someone called An Sui. Everyone said he excelled at qin and also understood music. Yang Shou asked him, Why were two strings added to the original five-string qin? An Sui said, People say that Zhou Wen Wang and Wu Wang each added one. Yang Shou said, Can you play Wen Wang Cao? An Sui then used the 黃鍾 the first string as 宮 do and played it. (There follows a lengthy discussion of modes in history.)

  80. 杜思溫 Du Siwen (8th/9th c.)
    Du Siwen (xxx). The story mentions a melody called Sinking in the Xiang River (沈湘 Chen Xiang). Seng's list of Most Ancient Melodies includes a Lament on Sinking into the Xiang River (沈湘怨
    Chen Xiang Yuan), attributing it to the wife of 屈原 Qu Yuan, but no such melody survives in tablature. Source given: 前定錄 Qian Ding Lu (by 鍾 Zhong Lu, 9th c.; see TKW Qin Fu, p. 1686).

    At the beginning of the period 785 - 805, Du Siwen was a student at the imperial college in Chang An; he was also an accomplished qin player. (He often visited in leading homes, making official visits, attending banquets, and always being accepted.) Once he went with guests traveling (and spending the night) in the southern part of the city at 苟家嘴中夜山月如晝 the Gou family home. As they were talking that evening, the hills under the moon were as day, and the wandering guests were all drunk. Du Siwen by himself took his qin by the water relaxed (and played). Suddenly an old man with his hand on a cheek came and listened. Siwen thought one it was one of the other guests who had sat down, and he didn't even turn his head. When the melody ended he spoke, and then realized this was not one of the accompanying wanderers. He quickly set down the qin and got up. The old man then said, Young man, don't be alarmed. I am the Qin dynasty governor of Henan province, 梁陟 Liang Zhi (15135.xxx). I encountered hard times and died in this place. "All my life I was fond of playing qin. Just now hearing (you play the qin, the strings had such clarity I came to listen. It is difficult to find someone who understands music. Don't leave, but play for me some more." Siwen played for him Sinking in the Xiang River. The old man said, This melody is just taking form. I used to try it. Its playing technique is somewhat different from the way it is done day." So Siwen tried to learn this difference. As a result he revised his play and it had a much more antique flavor. It was rather mournful. People at that time all listened to him.

  81. 呂渭 Lü Wei (735 - 800)
    separate entry. Also mentions Yuan Xiaoni, Li Liangfu and others.

  82. 趙璧 Zhao Bi
    separate entry.

  83. 崔曹長 Cui Caochang
    Cui Caochang (8405.xx) was from 湖州 Huzhou (just south of Lake Taihu). He had an official position as Section Director. He once wrote a poem about 三癖 three cravings. 劉禹錫
    Liu Yuxi, then lodging at 彭城 Pengcheng, gave his own opinion that the cravings were poetry, qin and wine. Yuxi reported this in a poem that said,


    (Source: 蓴湖漫錄 Chunhu Manlu).

  84. 潁師 Ying Shi (Reverend Ying)
    Reverend Ying (18611.xxx) was a monk well-known for his qin play. The poem quoted here from 李賀
    Li He (791 - 817) is an extract; the whole poem is in Qinshu Daquan, Folio 19B, #118 (QQJC V. pp. 434 - 5). The quote from 韓愈 Han Yu (768 - 824) is also an extract; the whole poem, which is in Qinshu Daquan Folio 19B, #35 (QQJC V. p. 424), has been set to music in the qin melody Ting Qin Yin. (The sources mentioned, 唐宋詩本 Tang Song Shiben, 歷代詩話 Lidai Shi Hua, suggest that perhaps the only information about Reverend Ying comes from these two poems.)

    Reverend Ying was a monk. Hearing Reverend Ying's Qin Song, by Li He includes the phrase, 竺僧前立當吾門,梵宮真相楣稜尊。 (Owen: The Indian monk stands before me at my gate, A sculpted arhat of a Buddha hall, august the arch of his eyebrows.) As a result a poem by Han Yu of 昌黎 Changli, Listening to Reverend Ying Play the Qin, says (in part), 昵昵兒女語,恩怨相爾汝。劃然變軒昂,勇士赴敵場。 (The passage quotes about half of the poem, breaking it up into five sections, with commentary in between.) Reading this you can see the beauty of Reverend Ying's qin play.

  85. 丁飛 Ding Fei
    Ding Fei (xxx), style name 瀚之 Hanzhi, was from 濟陽 Jiyang (downriver from modern Jinan in Shandong). He studied
    Laozi and Zhuangzi and lived in Hangzhou's 龍泓洞 Dragon Water Cave (in an area of Buddhist temples in the hills west of the lake [on 飛來峰 Feilai Peak on modern maps].) He took care of his wife and children through farming, like an ordinary person. Then late at night when the mountain was quiet he would take out his qin and play melodies. He slept little and seldom spoke with others.... (Source: 咸渟臨安志 Xianting Lin'an Zhi.)

  86. 裴說 Pei Yue (Shuo?)
    Pei Shuo (Bio. 2460 seems to be another Pei Shuo), from 絳州聞喜 Wenxi in southwest Shanxi, was a 姪孫 grand-nephew of 裴寬 Pei Kuan (a brother of
    #68, Pei Ni.) He was 佐 an assistant in the tent of 韋皋 Wei Gao (745 - 805, an army commander who as governor of Sichuan [also called 西川 Xi Chuan] successfully fought the Turfan tribes; Wei Gao was also a poet and patron of 薛濤 Xue Tao, and he once presented a jade ring to the singing-girl 玉簫 Yu Xiao). Pei Yue excelled at playing qin and was praised at the time. A mountain named 靈開 Lingkai (43483.181: name of an ancient qin, nothing about a mountain) had a beautiful pawlonia tree. He selected some and made (a qin) in a new style, calling it Lingkai.

    馬給 Ma Gei
    In Sichuan there was also a man named Ma Gei () who gained fame playing the qin. He was especially good at 大閒弦 Da Jian Xian and 小閒弦 Xiao Jian Xian (NFI; old books list a 上閒弦 Shang Jian Xian and a 下閒弦 Xia Jian Xian; 23/--/22, 間弦意 Jian Xian Yi is
    #166 in Xilutang Qintong.)

    楊子儒 Yang Ziru
    Yang Ziru (), from 吳 Suzhou area, was also very good at 悲風 sad airs. (Sources: 唐書 Tang Shu, 南部新書 Nanbu Xin Shu.)

  87. 沈虯子 Shen Qiuzi
    Shen Qiuzi was from 越 Yue. He was a good qin maker.... (Source: 斲琴志 Zhuo Qin Zhi.

  88. 溫庭筠 Wen Tingyun (ca. 812 - 870)
    Wen Tingyun (sometimes 溫廷筠 or 溫庭雲, but not "Wen Tingjun"; Bio/2363) 本名岐,字飛卿 was from 太原 Taiyuan in Shanxi province. See Paul F. Rouzer, Writing Another’s Dream The Poetry of Wen Tingyun. Stanford University Press, 1993. ICTCL, p. 895: He was a noted poet who excelled at all music instruments. Though famed for his skill at imperial examination fu verse, he never passed the examination. He had an undistinguished career, perhaps because of his reputation as a non-conformist who liked to frequent entertainment districts. He wrote in a variety of forms but is especially noted as the first great poet in the ci form. These often concerned neglected women languishing in their private rooms. He has been romantically associated with the leading female poet of the time, 魚玄機 Yu Xuanji. (See also
    Idema and Grant, p. 190). Website references include

    This entry has three lines; source: 唐書 Tang Shu, 珍珠傳 Zhenzhu Zhuan.

    Wen Tingyun, original name Qi, style name Feiqing, was from Taiyuan. Precocious as a youth, he was skilled at writing ci essays. He developed a style of writing fu for examinations that became known as "Wen Bacha". He excelled at playing the qin zither and di flute, but in fact whatever instrument had silk strings he could stroke it and if it had holes he could blow it. It didn't have to be the wonderful sort of bamboo Cai Yong used for flutes or wood he used for making qins.

  89. 王龜 Wang Gui
    The ancestors of Wang Gui (), style name 大年 Danian, were from 太原 Taiyan in Shanxi.... (He avoided office, enjoying poetry, wine, qin and books. Source: 舊唐書 Jiu Tang Shu,
    Chengyitang Qintan.)

  90. 王敬傲 Wang Jing'ao (9th c.?)
    Wang Jing'ao (Bio/xxx) presumably lived in the 9th c. CE, as 黃巢 Huang Chao was a rebel who caused much havoc before being killed in 884, and 李山甫 Li Shanbu (Bio/949; 14819.53) was a noted poet around that time. 鄴
    Ye, near Anyang in northernmost Henan, had once been a major city. 15 lines; source: 蓴湖漫錄 Chunhu Manlu.

    Wang Jing'ao was from Chang'an. While fleeing from the disorders of Huang Chao he wandered to and fro in the neighborhood of Ye. He once played qin for Li Shanbu....

  91. 姜宣 Jiang Xuan
    Jiang Xuan (6335.xxx; source: 蓴湖漫錄
    Chunhu Manlu) apparently played qin in the style of Dong Tinglan.

    Jiang Xuan, place of origin unknown, once played a golden stud qin made by the 蜀匠 Sichuan wood-working 雷 Lei family. He played Xiao Hujia Yin and thus 故桂府王推宮所藏也。 At that time 元稹 Yuan Zhen wrote a preface (and/to?) a song about him that said,

    Lei family gold-stud qin.... (see original text)

  92. 陳聖與 Chen Shengyu
    Chen Shengyu, from 山荏 Shanren, was named 知琴 Zhiqin ("know qin). During his youth in Hangzhou he borrowed a qin from 沈振 Shen Zhen () and played it. The name of the qin was Ice Clarity (冰清 Bingqing). The sound was very clear. On its waist was an inscription.... (Source: 國史補 Guo Shi Bu.)

  93. 陳用拙 Chen Yongzhuo
    Chen Yongzhuo (QSCM #47 suggests he is the same person as
    Chen Zhuo) was from 連州 Lianzhou (there is one in Guangdong). He excelled at playing qin. He wrote a 琴籍十卷 Qin Ji 10 Folios (QSCM #45 has this by Chen Zhuo).... (Source: 廣東新語 Guangdong Xinyu.)

  94. 于(由頁)嫂 Sister-in-Law of Yu Di
    Yu Di (44382.0 di is not in computer), style name 允元 Yunyuan, lived in the 10th c. (44382.0 says 後周 Latter Zhou dynasty;255.122 says Tang dynasty, from Henan). The source for this story is given as 唐書 Tang Shu and (Li Zhao's)
    Guoshi Bu

    The surname of the sister-in-law (his older brother's wife) of Yu Di is not known. Di once ordered a guest to play the qin. His older brother's wife, who understood music, listened through a curtain. She said, Of the (music's) three parts, one part is the sound of a zheng zither, two parts are the sound of a pipa lute. It is completely not the sound of a qin. Yu Di, whose style name was 允元 Yunyuan, served in the 司空 (Ministry of Public Works?). He once wrote music for According with the Sages (44315.156 順聖 Shun Sheng says it is a melody name, then describes the dance). Dance was offered up to the court.

  95. 黃崇嘏 Huang Chonggu (9 - 10th c.)
    Huang Chonggu (48904.710, a woman of the 前蜀 Former Shu Kingdom in Sichuan) was from 臨邛 Linqiong (southwest of Chengdu). 周庠 Zhou Xiang (d. ca. 920; Bio. 1523: a leading minister under 王建
    Wang Jian) 知邛州 was responsible for 邛州 Qiongzhou (the area around Linqiong. [Women Writers of Traditional China, p.532]: "daughter of a Tang commander, [Chonggu] dressed in male clothes from her childhood and was skilled in literary writing. Imprisoned on account of a fire, Chongjia) sent up a poem saying she was a locally designated (i.e., not from the exams) metropolitan graduate aged over 30. 衹對詳敏復獻長歌。庠益奇之召與諸生姪同遊. (He was so amazed he released her....) She excelled at qin and chess, and was beautifully skilled at painting and calligraphy .... (Zhou Xiang only learned she was a man after he offered her his daughter in marriage and she declined with a poem. Source: 玉溪紀事 Yuxi Ji Shi [21570.552 Yuxi, then a district in Sichuan].)

  96. 孫鳳 Sun Feng
    Sun Feng (xxx); 吐綬 Tushou must be 吐綬鳥 "turkey". Source: 虞琴疏 Yu Qin Shu (should be
    Gu Qin Shu of Yu Ruming). The same story is told in Van Gulik, Lore, pp. 156-7, with the thing in the qin correctly identified as a woodworm (蛀 zhu) rather than, as in the Qin Shi text, a frog (蛙 wa).

    Sun Feng had a qin named Turkey. When played it was not particularly good. But if only one person sang a song, the strings then resound by themselves in sympathy. As a result the name was changed to Resounds by Itself (自鳴 Zi Ming. But on the back of the qin there was a hole that looked like a woodworm. One day a Daoist came begging for food. Seeing the qin he said, "Inside there is a woodworm. If you don't get rid of it, the wood will become rotten." From his sleeve he took out a small bamboo tube and poured a small amount of black medicine beside the hole. Immediateley a green insect came out. On its back it had fine lines like golden thread. The Daoist put the insect into the bamboo tube and immediately left. After this if one sang a song the strings would no longer resonate. Sun Feng was amazed at this. A gentleman of wide knowledge came upon this affair he sighed and said, "This strange treasure was called an "examinator" (鞠通 jutong). If a deaf man puts his ear next to it for a short time he will be cured. It likes to eat pawlonia wood, but it especially likes old ink. Sun Feng then realized that the medicine in the Daoist's bamboo tube was powder from old ink.

  97. 錢俶 Qian Chu (929 - 988)
    Qian Chu (41448.220, posthumous name 錢忠懿 Qian Zhongyi: is Qian Shu 錢淑 41448.xxx the same person?) was the last King of 吳越 Wuyue, centered in Hangzhou (
    Wiki). He later helped 趙匡胤 Zhao Kuangyin establish and worked for the Song dynasty (centered in Kaifeng 960-1127). 霅川 Zha Chuan (43238 gives 霅 as a place name and family name), mentioned in the text below, is associated in online sources with 湖州 Huzhou in Zhejiang (example). Regarding the names of the two qin mentioned below, 洗凡 Xifan can be roughly translated as "washing away the commonplace", 清絕 Qingjue as "extremely pure". The Tongbo Palace (桐柏宫 Tongbo Gong) at 天台山 Tiantai Shan., which claims a connection to these two qin, says that Xifan is now in the USA, where it has been recorded. (QSB sources: 宋史 Song Shi, 九城志 Jiu Cheng Zhi, 稗篇 Bi Pian].)

    Qian Chu, style name 文德 Wende, from 杭州臨安 Lin'an in Hangzhou, was the ninth son of 金元瓘 Jin Wenguan, succeeding him as the King of Wuyue. Rather knowledgeable of books, he was an elegant singer and was especially excellent on the qin. He dispatched emissaries to find good material to make qins. An emissary arriving at the Tiantai (mountain region) spent the night in a mountain temple. At night he heard the sound of a waterfall just beyond the eaves. Arising in the morning he saw it was a waterfall cascading on rocks just in front of the cottage, with a (temple) pillar standing there facing the sun. Remembering his own needs he said, If the pillar is made of tong wood then there is a good qin within it. Cutting it he found it indeed was tong, so he gave gifts to the temple monks in exchange for taking it as material for the "yang side" (top piece) of two qins. They galloped home to make this known, and within a year it was cut and made (into qins). Called Xifan and Qingjue, they were treasures without equal for that time. Later when the Qian family joined Taizong's court these two qins returned to the imperial residence. After the Song dynasty moved south they 流轉至霅川 circulated around Zhachuan; 葉夢得上之 Ye Mengde praised them (presented them?).

  98. 趙宗萬 Zhao Zongwan
    Zhao Zongwan (38015.356), style name 仲淵 (淵 here written 囦) Zhongyuan, was a mountain recluse (during the Song dynasty). (#97) 錢忠懿王 Qian Chu had taken his measure.... (Source: 寶慶會稽續志 Baojing Kuaji Xuzhi.)

  99. 种放 Chong Fang (956 - 1015)
    Chong Fang (not Zhong Fang; 25519.5), style name 名逸 Mingyi, was a recluse associated with the 東明峰 Dongming Peak of 終南山豹林谷 Zhongnanshan's Baolin Ku ("Leopard Valley", in Shaanxi south of Chang'an; see also under
    Xu Shiqi). 37342.23 豹林谷 relates a story from 貴耳集 Guier Ji concerning Chong Fang and Chen Xiyi (Chen Tuan), who lived at Huashan, east of Chang'an and had connections with Song Taizong (r. 976-998). The first Song emperor died 976 so the story here must refer to Taizong, often considered the first real Song ruler. Chen Tuan is said to have given advice to several important Song court officials, including Chong Fang. According to Sung Biographies (in German), pp.297-301, after living as a recluse Chong Fang entered government service in 1002 as Remonstrator of the Left, then became Attendant Gentleman in the Ministry of Works. Eventually he retired again as a Daoist mountain recluse. (Sources: 宋史 Song Shi, Chengyitang Qintan.)

    Chong Fang, style name Mingyi, was from Luoyang in Henan. When young he and his mother went into reclusion at the Dongming Peak of the Baolin Valley in the Zhongnan Mountains (south of Chang'an). By nature he craved wine, and grew millet and fermented it himself. Each (time) he said, Empty mountains completely silent must nourish it well. As a result he was nicknamed Drunken Lord of Cloud Stream. With a strip of towel and a short piece of serge, carrying the qin and gobet, he'd go up the long stream, sit on a large rock, play the qin. Self-satisfied he would collect mountain herbs as an aid to drinking. Always at the end of the day he would check on the moon and stars, and leave when it was dark. He called himself a Gentleman-in-retirement. (Someone) wrote (this?) biography to describe his aims. The first Song emperor admired his regimen. He summoned him to the palace and presented him strings of cash to take care of his mother. This didn't take away his aims.

  100. 魏野 Wei Ye (960 - 1020)
    Wei Ye (46879.208: originally from Sichuan) was the father of
    Wei Xian. Sources: 宋史 Song Shi, 遺士紀聞 Yishi Jiwen. A similar version of this story is told in Van Gulik, Lore, p.155-6.

    Wei Ye, style name 仲先 Zhongxian, was 陝州陝人 from Shanzhou (today's Sanmenxia in Shaanxi east of Xi'an). He lived in the districts eastern section. Here he put bamboo trees, clear springs in a surrounding facing clouded mountains.... (Here he played the qin and wrote poetry.) When the 真宗 Zhenzong emperor (r.998 - 1023) went to perform sacrifices at 汾陰 Fenyin (some ways across the river), climbing a mountain he looked over and saw Wei Ye's cottage. He sent a messenger to summons (Wei Ye). At the time Wei Ye was playing the qin and teaching cranes to dance. When the messenger arrived he embraced his qin, slipped over the wall and went into hiding. When the messenger reported this to the emperor he sighed and respected Wei Ye. He died in 1020 at the age of 60.

  101. 林逋 Lin Bu (967 - 1028)
    Lin Bu (14856.234), also called 君復 Junfu and 和靖 Hejing, had the nickname 逋仙 Buxian (Fleeing Immortal). A well-known recluse, 杭州錢塘人 he lived in Hangzhou on an island in West Lake (Solitary Mountain [孤山 Gushan]; there is a modern
    grave marker and not far away is a Releasing Cranes Pavilion), and is said to have considered plum trees his wife and pet cranes his children. Because of this he has been connected to qin melodies about dancing cranes and, in particular, the melody Moon Atop a Plum Tree. Two melodies survive in Japan using his lyrics:

    1. Plum Blossoms (梅花 Mei Hua; has translation)
    2. Flying Snow Crystals Intonation (飛瓊吟 Fei Qiong Yin)

    Translations of his poems are included in several anthologies. (Sources: 宋史 Song Shi, Chengyitang Qintan.)

    Lin Bu, style name Junfu, was from Qiantang in Hangzhou. By nature quiet and solitary, he made a thatched hut on Solitary Mountain in West Lake and stayed there for 20 years without going into the city. He didn't marry or have children, but enjoyed playing the qin and singing. A poem of his about the qin includes the phrase,


    Lin Bu's qin and writing were skilled, exceeded only by his chess play. He once said, (something about this.)

  102. 黃延矩 Huang Yanju
    Huang Yanju (xxx; 18 lines), 黃處士 Retired Scholar Huang, style name 延矩 Yanju, was from 眉陽 Meiyang (23722.xxx; probably in 峨眉山 Emei Mountain of Sichuan. The entry deals first with
    Lei family qins, then five qin songs, then more. A comment on the Lei Family Qins is quoted in an article on silks strings by Wong Shu-Chee. Source: 茅亭客話 Maoting Kehua (31477.43 a book in 10 folios compiled by 宋黃休復 Huang Xiufu, 10th/11th c; Bio/2081).

  103. 桑景舒 Sang Jingshu
    separate entry

  104. 鄭文寶 Zheng Wenbao (953 - 1013)
    separate entry; also mentions his teacher, 崔諭 Cui Yu

  105. 魏閑 Wei Xian (980 - 1063)
    Wei Xian (46879.235), style name 雲夫 Yunfu, was a son of
    Wei Ye. (A good poet), when young he enjoyed writing poems and playing qin. He did not take office, but went into the wilderness.... (Source: 蓴湖漫錄 Chunhu Manlu.)

  106. 沈遵 Shen Zun
    (Lengthy entry, see
    separate entry)

  107. 江休復 Jiang Xiufu (1005 - 1060)
    Jiang Xiufu (17496.107 mentions his official positions), style name 鄰幾 Linji, was from 開封陳留 Chenliu in Kaifeng. What he wrote was pure and elegant. He especially excelled at writing poetry. He enjoyed qin, chess and drinking wine.... (Sources: 宋史 Song Shi, 紓清錄 Shu Qing Lu, 文忠集 Wen Zhong Ji.)

  108. 熊與和 Xiong Yuhe (熊與龢)
    Xiong Yuhe (19738.108 and Bio.2491 both write "和" as "龢", a rare alternate form). Here he is said to be from 新建 Xinjian (near Nanchang in Jiangxi); however, Bio.2491 says it was 江蘇江都 Jiangdu (near Yangzhou in Jiangsu).
    Rao Zongyi discusses him, saying he played in Jiang-Xi style. Regarding Jinbo Pavilion see 41049.284 金泊亭 Jinbo Ting. The source is given as 南昌苻志 Nanchang Fu Zhi (4 lines).

    Xiong Yuhe, style name 天樂 Tianle, was from 新建 Xinjian. By nature he was tranquil. He had no wife and did not eat meat. He only enjoyed wine. The most excellent 洪州 Hongzhou (Nanchang) wines were called 雙泉 Double Spring and 金泊 Golden Waves. Because Jinbo was the name of a famous pavilion, this was the one he wanted. Yuhe read through the classics, histories and everyone else's writing. With ordinary cotton garments and leather shoes he traveled to all the famous mountains carrying his qin. When there was the soughing of the wind in the pines he would play it. At the end of the day (his days?) he forgot to go home.

  109. 歐陽闢 Ouyang Bi (or Pi)
    Ouyang Bi (16539.149), style name 晦夫 Huifu, was from 桂州靈川 Lingchuan (near 桂林 Guilin). He was a friend of 梅聖俞 Mei Shengyu (i.e., the famous poet 梅堯臣
    Mei Yaochen 1002 - 1060. Mei Yaochen, with his friend Ouyang Xiu, initiated a "new realism" in Chinese Chinese literature; see ICTCL.) He excelled at using the qin to make himself happy. He was skilled at painting thatched cottages, and already lived in one with just one qin and a horizontal bed (or horizontal on the bed). 曹子方 Cao Zifang (? 14926.xxx; 7072.23xxx) and Su Dongpo (QSDQ, Folio 20B, #56) both mentioned him in poems. They say Ouyang Bi became a metropolitan graduate in 1091 and was a 令 district magistrate in 石康 Shikang southern Guangdong. Source: 宋詩紀事 Song Shi Jishi, 東坡集 Dongpo Ji, Chengyitang Qintan.)

  110. 李景仙 Li Jingxian
    separate entry.

  111. 知白 Zhi Bai (Realize Clarity)
    separate entry

  112. 演化 Yan Hua (18471.5 only defines: "evolving")
    Yanhua was a Buddhist monk who, according to "聽演化琴 Listening to Yan Hua (Play my) Qin" by the well-known poet 蘇舜欽
    Su Shunqin (1008 - 1048) was so good that he was summoned to play before the emperor himself (perhaps helped by the fact that he was a 內廷供奉 aka 奉候內庭: palace attendant [Hucker]). Nevertheless there seems to be very little information about him elsewhere (he is not mentioned in Chang Bide's comprehensive, 5-vol. dictionary of Song Dynasty biographies). The information here is said to come from 蓴湖漫錄 Chunhu Manlu (13 lines; however, all but the first 2.5 are the quoted poem).

    During the period 1008 - 1015 Yanhua was a palace attendant. His qin virtues were very high. When old he was ill and so returned home to rest. 無聊甚聞 In these poor circumstances he heard that Su Shunqin had in his collection a valuable qin. 求而揮弄 (Yan Hua), having made a request, played it and was then 不忍去 unwilling to leave. Shunqin thereupon wrote a song to describe the significance of this. His lyrics were as follows,

    The old master from Twin Pagodas (the garden in Suzhou?)....
    (The complete poem with a translation by Jonathan Chaves are included under Su Shunqin)

    These lyrics are also in Qinshu Daquan, Folio 19B, #83, but it had a mistake in the fourth couplet, changing some characters and adding two. The lyrics here are correct.

  113. 良玉 Liang Yu (31289.34 beautiful jade)
    Liang Yu, style name 蘊之 Yunzhi, was a monk at the 慧聚寺 Huiju Temple in Kunshan. His monkish actions were high-minded. Alongside this he was learned in the study of history as well being good at calligraphy and skilled at qin and chess. Because he travelled to the capital (Kaifeng), 梅聖俞 Mei Shengyu (famous poet 梅堯臣 Mei Yaochen, 1002 - 1060) saw and was pleased with him. As a result (Liang Yu's) name was heard throughout the kingdom. He presented him with a purple robe when he returned east. Shengyu used a poem to send him off. It said,

    (The rest of this entry quotes the poem by
    Mei Yaochen; doesn't seem to be in Qinshu Daquan).

    (Sources given: 中央記聞 Zhongyang Jiwen, 蘇州府志 Suzhoufu Zhi.)

  114. 義海 Yi Hai
    A monk; see
    separate entry

  115. 徐衍 Xu Yan
    Source given: 補夢溪筆談 Supplement to Mengxi Bitan by 沈括 Shen Gua. QSDQ,
    Folio 17, #45 is probably the same source. See also Folio 17, #23. And there are also stories of Xi Kang's teacher Sun Deng playing a qin with one string.

    Xu Yan was a 教坊伶人 musician in the Jiaofang (a sort of court performing arts academy). At a palace feast during the 熙寧 Xining period (1061 - 78) he was 戛 tapping on a Xi Kang-style qin as wine was being served and a string broke. Xu Yan didn't change his qin, but just used one string to finish the melody. This began the Xi Kang one-string qin style.

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. 琴史補 Qinshi Bu
My copy is a photocopy from The Chinese Library, Taipei.

2. 周慶雲 Zhou Qingyun was from 烏程 Wucheng (north of Hangzhou); another source gives his dates as 1861 - 1931. He was a great book collector and a friend of 楊宗稷 Yang Zongji, compiler of Qinxue Congshu.

3. Unlike Qin Shi Xu the biographies of women qin players are not placed together at the end. The entries here concerning women are:
#5, #11, #29, #30, #31, #33, #45, #51 (?), #57, #94 and #95.

4. Some of the quoted sources have been translated elsewhere. Unlike Zhu Changwen, Zhou Qingyun names his sources. He may edit somewhat the sources, but generally simply quotes them.

5. My comments on this are in Qin History, Footnote 1.

6. 伶 Ling Lun
Ling Lun, the reputed musical assistant of the Yellow Emperor, apparently has no mention in the Shi Ji. 545.13 伶倫 refers to 呂覽,古樂 Lü Lan, Old Music, and to 說苑,修文 Shuo Wen, Xiu Wen. On this site he is also mentioned in connection with the melodies Huaxu Yin and Huangzhong Diao.

"Ling" by itself can mean "music master" (as a teacher or government title), perhaps because of the fame of Ling Lun. Another one named Ling was 伶州鳩 Ling Zhoujiu, a blind music master for 周景王 King Jing of Zhou (6th c. BCE). It was said that through musical notes he was able to interpret the signs foretelling the overthrow of Shang by Wen Wang of Zhou (see Wen Wang Cao, online text from Guo Yu, and an online article [in Chinese] called "Guo Yu: Astronomical Phenomena and the Year and Calendar of King Wu’s Conquest Over Yin". There is some discussion of this in David Schaberg, A Patterned Past, Form and Thought in Early Chinese Historiography, p.113ff. As yet I do not see how the discussion of music there might help analyze any specific music (as compared to attitudes towards that music).

7. 司馬光 Sima Guang (1019–1086; Wiki)
A famous historian known in particular as the author of the 資治通鑑 Zizhi Tongjian (Comprehensive Mirror to Aid Rulers), completed in 1084. Also known simply as the 通鑑 Tong Jian, it is a history of China beginning with the Zhou dynasty. It was also intended as a book of guidance for those in power. Other important works by Sima Guang include his 歷年圖 Liniantu (Chart of Successive Years) and 類篇 Leipian (Classified Chapters).

Sima Guang was a contemporary of Zhu Changwen and is mentioned several times in an article by Robert Harrist that includes a discussion of Zhu Changwen's garden in Suzhou. And in Lore, p.240, Van Gulik translates the rules of a Japanese qin club that was inspired by the "True Simplicity Gatherings" (真率會 Zhen Shuai Hui) organized by Sima Guang and friends in Luoyang.

The 9-string qin melody Garden of Solitary Delight has lyrics by Su Dongpo about Sima Guang.

8. The Music of Zheng and Wei 鄭衛之音
Much was written about the music of Zheng and Wei, with fundamentalist Confucians criticizing it as too exciting while others praised it for the same reason. Unfortunately we know virtually nothing that would help us recover this music.

The earliest known mention the music of Zheng and Wei seems to be from the Annals of Music (樂記 Yue Ji). The debate on its character is recounted here from Barbara Mittler, Dangerous Tunes: The Politics of Chinese Music in Hong Kong, Taiwan and the People's Republic of China since 1949 (opera sinologica 3, 1997), pp. 40-41 (slightly edited and footnotes omitted):

A certain Prince Wen once complained to a disciple of Confucius, Zi Xia: "Whenever I am clad in festive robes and cap and listen to the ancient music, I have to be careful not to fall asleep." In his view, correct music was unimaginative. Zi Xia replied that other music such as "(t)he tunes of Zheng are cleverly made and corrupt the mind....The tunes of Wei are fast and excited and confuse the mind.... All these tunes lead the mind toward lechery and are harmful, therefore they cannot be used in the sacrificial rites." Prince Wen admitted, however: "When I listen to the music of Zheng and Wei, no tiredness befalls me....Why does the old music tire me and the new music please me?" He is instructed by his Confucian teacher that the most dangerous (yet apparently attractive) feature of this unorthodox musica nova is its lack of restraint. Yin (licentious) becomes synonymous with the music of Zheng and Wei, the "music of a perished country" (wangguo zhi yin). The ancient music, on the other hand, musica antiqua, is zheng (correct), because it is zhong (moderate, and jie (restrained).

Later, Li Si of the Qin dynasty spoke in praise of the music of Zheng and Wei, though he considered it foreign.

References on this site to the music of Zheng and Wei include:

It is not always clear whether this music is or is not being criticized.

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