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Guqin Handbooks Published in Japan   From QQJC   From Gyokudo   Japan Theme 首頁
"Correct Toko Kinpu"
Published 2001 by Sakata Shinichi,2 but based largely on Toko Kinpu of 1710?
東皋琴譜正本 1 
Donggao Qinpu Zhengben
  First page of the modern edition 3        
"Zhengben" in the title could also mean "orthodox version". In 2001 Sakata Shinichi published a limited edition of what was intended as a complete and correct publication of Shin Etsu's qin repertoire (though there is no evidence such a handbook existed in Shin Etsu's own day). I have not yet seen the full edition, only a photocopy of the Table of Contents.4 The following list was made from there:5
Table of Contents
Three categories of melody (not mutually exclusive):
  1. 調絃入弄 Tiao Xian Runong (仙翁操 Xian Weng Cao; ZG)
  2. 高山         Gao Shan (ZG)
  3. 流水         Liu Shui (not in Vol. XII; ZG)
  4. 鷗鷺忘機 Oulu Wang Ji (not in QQJC)
  5. 清平樂  (七夕) Qing Ping Yue
  6. 浪淘沙  (懷舊) Lang Tao Sha
  7. 東風齊著力 Dong Feng Qi Zhu Li (not 東風齋著力 Dongfeng Zhai Zhuli)
  8. 思賢操     Si Xian Cao (not in QQJC)
  9. 三才引     San Cai Yin
  10. 大哉引     Da Zai Yin
  11. 秋風辭     Qiu Feng Ci
  12. 歸去來辭 Gui Qu Lai Ci
  13. 子夜吳歌 Ziye Wu Ge
  14. 幽澗泉     You Jian Quan
  15. 久別離     Jiu Bie Li
  16. 醉翁操     Zui Weng Cao
  17. 八聲甘州 Ba Sheng Ganzhou
  18. 瑞鶴仙     Rui He Xian
  19. 鳳凰臺上億吹簫 Fenghuang Taishang Yi Chui Xiao
  20. 大平引 (太平引 Taiping Yin?)
  21. 鶴沖霄     He Chong Xiao
  22. 南浦月     Nan Pu Yue
  23. 飛瓊吟     Fei Qiong Yin
  24. 瑤芳引     Yao Fang Yin (Mei Hua)
  25. 偶成         Ou Cheng
  26. 石交吟     Shi Jiao Yin
  27. 滄浪歌     Canglang Ge
  28. 靜觀吟     Jing Guan Yin (not in QQJC)
  29. 鳳梧鳴佩 Feng Wu Ming Pei (not in QQJC)
  30. 鳴鳳朝陽 Ming Feng Chaoyang
  31. 釋談章     Shitan Zhang (not in QQJC)
  32. 雁落平沙 Yan Luo Pingsha (not in QQJC)
  33. 寄隱者     Ji Yinzhe (Wang Di #35, p.100: 送隱者 Song Yinzhe)
  34. 賀新郎     He Xin Lang (not in QQJC)
  35. 南薫歌     Nan Xun Ge: Nan Feng Ge? Nan Xun Cao? (not in QQJC?)
  36. 倚蘭操     Yi Lan Cao
  37. 嵇中散     Xi Zhongsan (not in QQJC)
  38. 平沙落雁 Pingsha Luo Yan
  39. 憶秦娥     Yi Qin E (not in QQJC; see below)
  40. 離別難     Li Bie Nan (What about #2?)
  41. 華清引     Hua Qing Yin
  42. 霹靂引     Pili Yin
  43. 月當廳     Yue Dang Ting
  44. 憶王孫     Yi Wang Sun
  45. 草堂吟     Caotang Yin
  46. 長相思     Chang Xiang Si
  47. 相思曲     Xiang Si Qu
  48. 竹枝詞     Zhuzhi Ci
  49. 小操         Xiao Cao
  50. 箕山操     Jishan Cao
  51. 熙春操     Xi Chun Cao (first of "seven 扶桑操 Fusang Cao")
  52. 思親引     Si Qin Yin
  53. 春野         Chun Ye (Haruno; first of four 和歌 waka? [Yang, p.70)]; not in QQJC)
  54. 富士         Fu Shi (Fuji; not in QQJC)
  55. 山里/山裏 Shan Li (Yama Sato; not in QQJC)
  56. 山櫻         Shan Ying (Yama Sakura; not in QQJC)
  57. 安排曲     An Pai Qu

Melodies from here not in the Qinqu Jicheng editions (QQJC)
The Japanese handbooks in QQJC are all in Vol. XII. Among the above 57 titles there seem to be 15 or 16 (I am not certain about Nan Xun Ge) that are not included there. It is perhaps noteworthy that, other than the Fusang melodies at the end, almost all of these are versions of full length melodies. While it is true that there are only a few full-length melodies in Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu or the other handbooks included in Qinqu Jicheng, if this "orthodox" Toko Kinpu actually included all these full length pieces it would suggest the level of play in Japan might have been higher than is commonly argued.

  1. 流水 Liu Shui (Zha Guide)
  2. 鷗鷺忘機 Oulu Wang Ji (Zha Guide)
  3. 思賢操 Si Xian Cao (Zha Guide)
  4. 靜觀吟 Jing Guan Yin (Zha Guide)
  5. 鳳梧鳴佩 Feng Wu Ming Pei (transcribed in Wang Di, Xian Ge Ya Yun #45, p.110)
  6. 釋談章 Shitan Zhang (Zha Guide)
  7. 雁落平沙 Yan Luo Pingsha (Zha Guide)
  8. 賀新郎 He Xin Lang (name of a cipai: "後赤壁,宋謙父填詞")
  9. 南薫歌 Nan Xun Ge: same as Nan Feng Ge/Nan Xun Cao?
  10. 嵇中散 Ji Zhongsan (Ji Kang: Xi Kang)
  11. 平沙落雁 Pingsha Luo Yan (Zha Guide)
  12. 憶秦娥 Yi Qin E (11558.7 name of a cipai, lyrics first mentioned are by Li Bai [簫聲咽....]); here lyrics are by Zhou Banyan; 1682 has same form, diff. lyrics and music; Zha Guide
  13. 春野 Chun Ye (see 琴譜雜錄)
  14. 富士 Fu Shi (Fuji; see 琴譜雜錄)
  15. 山里 Shan Li (see 琴譜雜錄)
  16. 山櫻 Shan Ying (see 琴譜雜錄)

Melodies from other early Japanese handbooks not included here
This 2001 edition of Toko Kinpu did not include the following six melodies: presumably the editor(s) thought they date from later than Shin-Etsu himself. The first five are in editions found in Qinqu Jicheng, two of them from Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu:
Le Ji Yin and Li Bie Nan #2. It would be interesting to know what the real origin of these is thought to be. I don't know from what edition Wang Di selected the last one.

  1. 陽關三疊 Yangguan Sandie
  2. 陽關曲     Yangguan Qu
  3. 漁樵問答 Yu Qiao Wenda
  4. 樂極吟     Le Ji Yin (ruibin; Liu Zongyuan)
  5. 離別難     Li Bie Nan #2
  6. 修竹吟風 Xiu Zhu Yin Feng (?6)

There is a chart dated 2009 (.xlsx; see pdf version) based on this book that mentions the first four of these melodies missing from the 1710 edition; I do not understand the significance of their mention here.

The same chart also mentions the following four melodies that were not included in the 1710 edition but were included in one of the handbooks connected to Tokugawa Motoko:

  1. 操縵     Cao Man (初和、大和、小和)
  2. 夜座     Ye Zuo
  3. 舟座     Zhou Zuo
  4. 南風歌 Nan Feng Ge

The origins of these four is uncertain. The Tiaoxian Runong in Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu has only the first section of most Cao Man as listed here. Nan Feng Ge does exist in one of the QQJC handbooks (q.v.).

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Orthodox/Correct Toko Kinpu (東皋琴譜正本 Toko Kinpu Shohon)
Unfortunately, neither this book, nor the earlier edition(s) on which it was based, were available to Zha Fuxi when he compiled the Qinqu Jicheng in the 1950s. In 2001 it was published in a limited edition (50 copies) by the senior Japanese qin specialist 坂田進一 Sakata Shinichi (information from the 秋月齋 Autumn Moon Studio).

This handbook is said to have been largely based on the Toko Kinpu of 1710 attributed to Sugiura Kinzen (1660-1711):

杉浦琴川1671-1711琴譜編纂。1710『東皋琴譜』版下完成。(譜は小野田東川1684-1763手寫)急逝につき未出版。"

Sugiura, along with 人見竹洞 Hitomi Chikudo (1620~1688), are the best known of Shin'etsu's students; 小野田東川 Onoda Tozen, a student of Sugiura, became a professional qin teacher with perhaps over 100 students. All the songs in this handbook has lyrics, so in this quote they are referred to as 和歌 waka, though this should actually refer to poetry in Japanese rather than Chinese.

Some other early Japanese handbooks were also consulted (The reference for this is "2001坂田版東皋琴譜正本(1.序:寒斎「坂田」本 +2.譜:妻鹿本=1,2の合本)", but I have not yet seen it (妻鹿 is 妻鹿友樵 Mega Yusho 1826-1896) ). Some of the other important early Japanese handbooks are discussed at the top of Guqin Handbooks Published in Japan, with some information on later ones given later on that page. The research by Sakata Shinichi apparently determined that several of the melodies from Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu (said to date from "before 1676", meaning they must have been brought to Japan by Shin-Etsu in 1677, but actually surviving from a much later copy) were probably not actually part of Shin-Etsu's own repertoire.

For an index of the works in 琴曲集成 Qinqu Jicheng, Volume XII/165-381, as well as other related information see Guqin Handbooks Published in Japan.
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2. 坂田進一 SAKATA Shinichi
Mr. Sakata is a musicologist, composer and violinist, but his deep love was for the guqin. Born into a family of biwa players, he became enamored of the qin in 1958 when he was able to have some lessons from Zha Fuxi while the latter was visiting Japan. At age 11 he met 劉老先生 an old Mr. Liu, who had been a student of 楊時百 Yang Shibai in China but had then moved to Japan, and for four years studied from Mr. Liu 洞簫 dongxiao and calligraphy as well as continuing to study guqin. Later, as an adult, Mr. Sakata studied qin from 田邊尚雄 Tanabe Hisao. In 1971 Sakata Shinichi founded the Tokyo Qin Society (東京琴社 Tokyo Kinsha).
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3. First page of the "Toko Kinpu Correct Edition"
Expand
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4. Table of contents
Sent to me from 秋月齋.
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5. List
Further introductions to these pieces are mostly where they are included in the handbooks published in Japan>.
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6. 修竹吟風 Xiu Zhu Yin Feng (Tall thin bamboo hums in a breeze)
This piece is transcribed in Wang Di, Xian Ge Ya Yun #48 (p.114). It is said to be from Toko Kinpu but no mention is made of the edition. It also has no apparent relation to 修竹留風 Xiu Zhu Liu Feng (XII/89; 16 sections, no lyrics).

The lyrics (source not given) are as follows,

"億昔淇園風弄音,渭川雨過作能吟。
子猷频顧何須問,千畝萬竿遂賞心。千畝萬竿遂賞心。"

Not yet translated.
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