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Taiyin Xupu  ToC  /   Annotated handbook list   Sun Yü-ch'in's repertoire   Such a Dialogue Listen to my recording 聽錄音   / 首頁
Dialogue between a Fisherman and Woodcutter
Standard tuning, shang mode ( 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 ) 2
漁樵問答 1
Yu Qiao Wenda  
  A dialogue 3 (more images)                
Yu Qiao Wenda has long been a popular qin melody, very actively played today and surviving in at least 40 handbooks from 1559 (Taiyin Xupu) to 1922 (see appendix below4). Although 1559 is a relatively late date, the melody was quickly included in many late Ming dynasty handbooks, the number and variety of versions which occured around then suggesting it might have existed for some time before it was written down.5 As for this, some of the commentaries in early handbooks state that it is quite an old melody; one of the handbooks, Yuwu Qinpu (1589), even seems to connect it with the famous 13th century compilation Zixiadong Qinpu.6 However, at present it is not possible to verify such claims. And although all available versions seem melodically related, this piece as played today is considerably expanded beyond the early versions.

The theme of the fisherman and woodcutter, friends who when they get together discuss the meaning of life, can be found in Chinese writings as early as the Tang dynasty and in painting at least from the Song dynasty;7 the continuing popularity of this theme is mentioned further below. As for fishermen and woodcutters individually, the qin melody title Song of the Woodcutter can be found in melody lists said to date from the Song dynasty (example), and versions of Song of the Fisherman have been attributed to Song dynasty players. Since there are suggestions that the melody Dialogue Between a Fisherman and Woodcutter has a similar age, its relatively late appearance in tablature form is somewhat puzzling.

Chinese traditional writing in general, as well as commentaries on versions of this qin melody, often convey the idea that, whereas most people talk about worldly matters that in the end mean little, the dialogue between the fisherman and woodcutter gets right to the essence. The Chinese system put a great emphasis on education. At the same time there was the Daoist idea that one could have great understanding through living in nature, without formal education. By convention, such understanding was often ascribed to fishermen (yu) and woodcutters (qiao, also translated as fuel gatherers).8 However, as can be seen here (for example, in the 1585 preface with its discussion of "making friends with the fish and shrimp"), the literati are not actually referring to real working people but to themselves escaping worldly cares.

At least 15 surviving versions of this melody have lyrics, including most of the versions between 1670 and 1864. The preface to the earliest of those with lyrics, dated 1585,9 says that the melody was quite old, but that there were no lyrics attached to it; on the other hand, there were appropriate lyrics (or indications there had been lyrics), but none of these was accompanied by tablature. The preface goes on to say the author applied lyrics to the melody. Unfortunately there is no suggestion one way or the other as to whether he wrote the lyrics himself, whether he took or adapted them from an earlier but now lost version of this melody, whether they once belonged to an unrelated melody on the same theme, or whether they have no earlier musical connection at all.

Until the 18th surviving published version, Qinyuan Xinchuan Quanbian (1670), almost all instrumental versions are in six sections while the ones with lyrics have 8 to 12 sections (most commonly 9). Since 1670 almost all versions, whether with lyrics or not, have had 8 or more sections, often 9 or 10 sections. However, the 1670 handbook tended to be rather conservative, copying old tablature (see in particuar the comment on this under Shen Qi Mi Pu); and most of the ensuing tablature until the mid 19th century seems either to have had lyrics or been closely connected to versions with lyrics. A comparison of the surviving editions until 1864 suggests that later ones omit or shorten some passages, extend or add others. However, the greatest expansion, beginning in the mid-19th century, added new material mostly to the last three sections. The earliest substantial additions are extended passages in the upper registers (above the 7th position) in sections added on at the end of the earlier versions.10 By the mid-19th century, also, there seems to have been a change in the modality: with the original tonal center being do (1) on the open first string, there is an increase in the occurrence of fa (4), open third string. This perhaps suggests that the open-string tuning should be considered as 5 6 1 2 3 5 6 rather than 1 2 4 5 6 1 2, in which case the tonal center has changed from do to sol.11

The pairing of fishermen and woodcutters is a theme which has remained popular in Chinese writing right up to the modern period. However, although it has been a common motif in Chinese poetry since at least the Tang dynasty,12 the earliest known literary occurrence of this title is perhaps for an essay attributed to the philosopher Shao Yong (1011 - 1077).13 Around the same time the famous poet Su Shi (1037-1101) also wrote on this theme.14

In popular literature the fisherman-woodcutter dialogues appear in at least one opera.15 And the popular novel Xi You Ji (Journey to the West), as attributed to Wu Cheng'en (1500 - 1582), contains such a dialogue in Chapter 10.16

Fishermen and woodcutters, separately and together, have long been a theme in the traditional paintings not just of China but also in Korea and Japan.17

Xu Jian discusses this melody in the chapter on Ming melodies in his Outline History of the Qin. The example he uses, though, seems to be late Qing dynasty, with passages not occuring in the Ming dynasty versions.18

Beginning with 1634 Yu Qiao Wenda is sometimes (also) called Jinmen Dailou.19

 
Original Preface (1559)20
Compare the preface in 1589 and also see the preface in the prelude, Kaigu Yin. Here in 1559 the preface is:

The Old Man of Apricot Farm says, Someone in the Tang dynasty said,

"Han palace affairs are nothing compared to flowing streams;
      Wei mountain streams have just half run their course."

Then and now rising and falling are as easy as turning the hand over, (but) green mountains and blue waters by nature remain unaffected. Whether or not there is gain or loss over a thousand years: this is just what what fisherman and woodcutter talk about, and that is all.

 
Music 21 (timings below are from my recording 聽錄音)
Six Sections, untitled
All melodies in Taiyin Xupu have preludes; the prelude for Yu Qiao Wenda is Kaigu Yin, which has its own preface and is an abbreviated and slightly modified version of the Sigh for Antiquity (慨古 Kai Gu) published in 1425.

  1. 00.00
  2. 01.05
    01.25 (1579 & 1589 Section 3)
  3. 02.00 (harmonics)
  4. 02.31
  5. 03.06
    03.18 (1579 & 1589 Section 6)
  6. 03.39
    04.15 Harmonic coda
    04.40 End

The recording was made on 5 October 2013 using a guqin newly made by Tong Kin-Woon and silk strings by Marusan Hashimoto, newly strung (24 September 2013). Comments below compare the timing of this version with some timings of modern versions. (Open first string = B flat; replaces recording of 27 September 2013, which had open first string = G#.)

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. References for Yu Qiao Wenda (QQJC III/433)
18586.103 漁樵問答: Name of an Essay, in one folio, by 邵雍 Shao Yong.

  Further references to the theme of fishermen and woodcutters include:

18586.99 漁樵 fisherman and woodcutter. There are quotes from four poems:

  1. 王維桃源記 Wang Wei, Peach Spring Record: 平明閭巷掃花開,薄暮漁樵乘水入。 "At first light in the alleys they swept the flowers from their gates. At dusk fishermen and woodmen came in on the stream." (G.W. Robinson, in Wang Wei, Poems, Penguin, 1973).
  2. 杜荀鶴,茅山詩 Du Xunhe (846-907), Poem of Maoshan: 漁樵不道處,麋鹿自成群。
  3. 杜甫,閣夜詩 Du Fu, Poem of a Night Chamber: 夜哭千家聞戰伐,夷歌幾處起漁樵。
  4. 蘇軾,赤壁賦 Su Shi, Red Cliff Ballad: 況吾與子,漁樵于江渚之上。

18586.101 漁樵記 Record of a Fisherman and Woodcutter
A Yuan dynasty play discussed in
LXS about the woodcutter Zhu Maichen and a fisherman named 王安道 Wang Andao.

None has a qin reference and I am not aware of it being in the Chinese opera repertoire today.
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2. Shang mode
For further information on shang mode see Shenpin Shang Yi and Modality in Early Ming Qin Tablature. The mode of this melody seems to change some time during the 17th century. There is further discussion of this in a footnote below.
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3. 漁樵問答圖 Dialogue Between a Fisherman and Woodcutter, by 謝時臣 Xie Shichen
Xie Shichen (1481 - ca. 1561) was a well-known Ming dynasty landscape artist from Suzhou; there are details on him with another online painting. The inscription on the present painting is a poem that says,

柳葉山前一浦通,不曾牧養辟西東;
催科不到漁樵地,贏得風光入畫中。
(Not yet translated)

Many thanks to 孙小青 Sun Xiaoqing for identifying this. The poem was presumably written by, or at least copied by, Xie himself. The image can also be found elsewhere on the internet, perhaps from it apparently having been auctioned from a private collection in 2005. There are more references and illustrations below.
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4. Tracing Yu Qiao Wenda
See Zha's Guide 24/203/398 and appendix below. Only four of the versions seem to have titles for individual sections: 1585, 1611 1625 and 1730.
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5. Age of the Yu Qiao Wenda melody
The variety within the tablature from the late 1500s suggest a piece that had been developing for some time: perhaps for a time no one wished to commit to paper something that had so many versions. Or perhaps the fact that some of the versions had lyrics might have also led to delays in writing it down, especially if sung versions or available texts did not fit the formula apparently required for qin songs.

In addition, if a melody was actively played, but not by a master whose disciples might have copied it down, this would likely lead to a variety of forms for that melody. Zha Fuxi's Guide, p. 24, says the melody is "明代嘉慶以前 Ming dynasty before the Jiaqing period (1522 - 67)"; it does not explain the reason for this conclusion about a piece first published in 1559, but one might assume it has to do with the logic that says that melodies in the oral tradition must have existed for some time before being written down. Tablature printed in many copies had a better chance of surviving than hand copied individual pieces or handbooks. And in addition to the known surviving handbooks, there would have also been hand-copied tablature for individual melodies and melody collections, copied out by/for teachers in various regions. But there is no specific information on such tablature for Yu Qiao Wenda.

Regarding the basic form and/or structure of the presumed original melody, I have personally written out transcriptions of the first three surviving instrumental versions, published in 1559, 1579 and 1589 respectively. From this I am not able to conclude that the latter two grew out of the former, rather than from another version, or other versions, then in existence, or at least being played. See also comments in the next footnote and in the chart below, as well as in the analysis in QSCB.
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6. Yu Qiao Wenda in Zixiadong Qinpu?
This 13th century compilation was handcopied and did not survive. The Yuwu Qinpu preface (1589) begins by saying, "紫霞洞考,唐人云.... According to Zixiadong (presumably Zixiadong Qinpu), someone in the Tang dynasty said...." It then quotes the 1559 preface verbatim. 1589 does not claim its music is from Zixiadong; since the music of 1589 is quite different from 1559 this leaves open the question of whether this comment suggests that the music of 1559 might have been copied from Zixiadong.
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7. Earliest paintings on theme of Dialogue between the Fisherman and Woodcutter
As yet I have only found specific references beginning from the Ming dynasty. These include:

  1. 謝時臣 Xie Shichen (above)
  2. 鐘禮 Zhong Li (ca. 1500; Bio/1723), in the 定勝寺 Josho Ji, 長野県 Nagano (view)

Also of potential interest is 吳偉,《漁樵琴酒圖 Wu Wei, Fisherman and Woodcutter with Qin and Wine. Some later images are discussed below.
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8. Famous fishermen and woodcutters
The most famous example of a knowledgeable woodcutter is Zhong Ziqi. See also the Woodcutter's Song and Fisherman's Song.
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9. Earliest surviving qin version with lyrics: 1585
The preface to the 1585 edition is as follows,

"漁樵問答,古操也。查遺譜有指訣無音文,考琴史有文音無指訣。今配定文音入譜,使善鼓者知其曲之古淡,韻調清高。喜漁樵,樂江山,友魚、蝦、麋鹿,對明月清風,物我兩忘。然微妙豈於貪徇嗜利輩能知乎?"
Yu Qiao Wenda is an old melody. Examining the tablature bequeathed to us, they had fingering but no words for the music; examining historical qin materials, there were words for the music but no accompanying fingering. Now are paired fixed lyrics for the tablature, so that those good at playing can know the melody's ancient subtlety, and a melody that is pure and elevated. Pleasure of fishermen and woodcutters, is enjoying rivers and mountains, making friends with fish, shrimp and deer, facing the bright moon and clear winds, and forgetting self and the material world. Moreover, with minutiae such as 貪徇嗜利 desire enquire addict advantage (????), how can they get closer to an understanding?

The 1585 melody is divided into 9 sections, with 3, 7 and 9 beginning with four doublestops then the rest in harmonics. Its lyrics form a dialogue (it begins, "The fisherman asked the woodcutter, 'What do you seek?' The woodcutter answered the fisherman, 'Many oaks and a thatched cottage....'"; compare 1589, which has the fisherman and woodcutter speaking in alternate sections but does not include the words "___ said"). In general the melody uses material of earlier published versions, but in adding lyrics in the form of a dialogue the melody becomes much changed, especially towards the end. Specifically, 1585 Section 1 begins with music very much like that of the other early versions. Then the first part of Section 2 seems to use material from what is Section 2 in 1579 and in 1589. This is followed by a passage very similar to what in 1559 is the beginning of Section 2; in 1585 this begins on the lyrics "木能生火" (i.e., at the beginning of a statement by the woodcutter) in the middle of Section 2, then a melody like that of the "Woodcutter to Fisherman theme" accompanies lyrics from "因木求財" (the beginning of a statement by the fisherman) to the end of Section 2. The double stops at the end of Section 2 of the other versions now begin Section 3 of 1585, but they do so in a strange way. Sections 3, 7 and 9 all consist of the same four double stops followed by an extended passage in harmonics. Sections 7 and 9 apply the lyrics "漁乃喜曰" to the double stops, fitting them perfectly. However, Section 3 begins. "樵曰:「昔日"; in other words it seems to confuse the character 曰 (said) with 日 (day). Otherwise it seems to suggest that the lyrics and music were of independent origin and do not quite fit in some places. After Section 3 the 1585 version continues to use motifs from the other versions, but the actual music is very different.

The 1585 lyrics are included in an appendix below. These are quite different from those of the second surviving version with lyrics, published in 1589 (also below), though the music is related. In fact, the lyrics adapted to the various versions of Yu Qiao Wenda are often very different from each other. There is further comment on this in the tracing chart below.
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10. Modern version vs. older versions of Yu Qiao Wenda
The timing of my present recording of the 1559 version is 04.40; timing of the previous recording was 04.21, but the melody could easily be played in under four minutes (perhaps suggesting that the conversation was rather agitated). Modern versions are all much longer.

The versions commonly played today seem to come either from the Yu Qiao Wenda in Qinxue Rumen (1864; Qin Fu/640-41) or the one in Qinxue Congshu (1910; Qin Fu/946-55). The latter seems to be an elaboration of the former; in particular, although both versions have 10 sections and in general are very similar, the 1910 tablature adds quite a bit in the latter part of Section 4, in the harmonics of Section 5, in the latter part of Section 9 and in the harmonics of Section 10. Both versions are available in recordings from the 1950s.

  1. The 1864 version is 5.22 in one recording by Xu Yuanbai, 7.53 in another: the only significant musical difference seems to be the speed at which it is played. The same melody, somewhat elaborated, is 7.01 in a recording by Wu Jinglue (7.12 according to the transcription in Guqin Quji, I, pp. 129-134);
  2. The 1910 version is 8.38 in a recording by Shen Caonong (10.25 according to the transcription of a performance by 楊葆元 Yang Baoyuan in Guqin Quji, II, pp. 98-105). In the recording by Sou Si-tai it is 10.19. Again the differences seem mostly to do with the speed at which the melody is played.

These two common modern versions both retain clear connections with the earliest surviving versions. This begins with the opening phrase, which is very similar; other connections are less obvious: e.g., examining the tablature one can see that Section 4 of both 1864 and 1910 begin with elaborations of the earlier fisherman and woodcutter theme, but if only listening to a recording this is harder to hear (in this regard it should be noted that the transcription in Guqin Quji, I, pp. 239-234, of Wu Jinglue's performance, though it is stated to be from Qinxue Rumen, is actually elaborated from it).

By contrast, the earliest versions have six sections and, according to my personal reconstruction, the earliest version (1559) should take about 4.20 to play. Later versions, in addition to elaborating on this base, began (perhaps with 1611) to add extensive passages in the upper register directly after the harmonics in the middle (usually Section 5). In all the earlier versions the sections after these harmonics have only a few notes played at 6.4 and 5.6; these are brief and it never goes higher.

In addition, although a version such as the one in Qinyuan Xinchuan Quanbian (1670; this handbook was particularly noted for copying earlier melodies from Shen Qi Mi Pu) has many characteristics of the earliest versions, after the harmonics it does have these extensive passages in the upper register. On the other hand, many of the versions from about 1600 until 1864 seem to be most closely connected to the 1585 and 1589 versions with lyrics (mostly the latter, in spite of the credit sometimes given to Yang Biaozheng, compiler of the former), even when they do not have lyrics. It should be noted that neither 1585 nore 1589 has extensive passages in the upper register.

It must be emphasized that these comparisons are very preliminary and this needs to be studied in greater detail, in particular by people with access to the full set of Qinqu Jicheng.
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11. Mode in Yu Qiao Wenda
As is common with Ming dynasty shang mode melodies, the main note in the early versions of Yu Qiao Wenda is 1 (do); secondary notes 2 and 5; many phrases are paired so that the first one ends on mi, the second one on do. The modern versions, though related, seem to have a somewhat different tonal sense. Already in the early versions 4 (fa) is more common than usual. Common contemporary understanding says that if a melody in standard tuning is played as 1 2 4 5 6 1 2, then the open third string must generally be avoided: could it be that a simple tendency to go ahead and play it anyway had led to the modal changes mentioned here? In the later versions of Yu Qiao Wenda the 4 becomes more important than 3. So in these later versions, to have the fewest number of notes outside the standard pentatonic scale 1 2 3 5 6 requires considering the open third string as do (i.e., the tuning becomes 5 6 1 2 3 5 6). In this case the main note is still the open first string but this has now become 5, with 2 as the secondary tonal center; all the 4s become 1 (later versions do retain some 3s, which now become flatted 7s, but they are less common than the new 1s). These note relationships now correspond most closely with the modality of old melodies in 徵調 zhi diao, though those early melodies all use the open first string as 1 (do).

An incomplete study of early tablature suggests that the new modal sense for Yu Qiao Wenda may survive earliest from the version published in 1670, where it is connected to 周東岡 Zhou Donggang (QQJC/XI, p.343). However, the melody remains grouped with shang mode melodies until 1836, where it is called 徵 zhi.

The change of modality seems somewhat different from the modal changes in the early Yushan School melody Qiujiang Yebo: the latter has the standard pentatonic scale (1 2 3 5 6), but in the earliest versions sometimes 3 is flatted; later the flatted 3s are replaced by 4s, but both non-pentatonic tones are dropped by 1673.

Another modal characteristic that should be mentioned is the flatted mi (3). Most shang mode melodies in Shen Qi Mi Pu (1425) have flatted 3s as well as non-flatted ones; these flatted 3s gradually or suddenly disappear from the versions published later. Yu Qiao Wenda has no flatted 3s to begin with. Perhaps it is also significant that the prelude in 1559 to Yu Qiao Wen Da, Kaigu Yin, has a flatted 3 in its 1425 version but in 1559 that note is changed to 2 (re).
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12. Fishermen and woodcutters as a motif in Chinese poetry
See Lundbaek (next footnote), p. 14; see also a footnote above.
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13. Shao Yong, Dialogue between a Fisherman and a Woodcutter 邵雍,漁樵問答 or 漁樵對問 or 漁樵問對
The essay is said to be an yiwen (佚文 532.3 = 逸文 39824.9), suggesting it is not among the standard works of Shao Yong, but rather available only in later texts attributed to him. It has been copied below as an appendix. The Wiki page on Shao Yong (1011–1077) does not at present (2009) mention this essay, but there is a translation by Knud Lundbaek (Hamburg, C. Bell Verlag, 1986 [details]). It uses the above title, but it might be better called A Fisherman Lectures a Woodcutter. The woodcutter asks a few questions, but it is mostly the fisherman (Shao Yong himself) discussing his philosophical ideas.
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14. Su Shi, Leisurely Conversation between a Fisherman and Woodcutter (蘇軾,漁樵閑話 Su Shi, Yu Qiao Xianhua)
The original 佚文 casual essay has been copied below as an appendix (any translations?)
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15. Dialogue between a Fisherman and Woodcutter: Stories in Chinese opera
LXS has two entries with related titles. However, the first of these seems more focused on the conversation:

  1. Leisurely Conversation between a Fisherman and Woodcutter (漁樵閑話 Yu Qiao Xianhua, p. 130; as above)
    The story involves the four occupations of 漁、樵、耕、牧 fisherman, woodcutter, ploughman and herdsman. (四___? Not 四業﹕士、農、工、商.; there are references to a 漁樵耕牧四詠 by 郭真順 Guo Zhenshun [1312 - 1436 ! ; Bio/2024; writer, wife of 周伯玉]).
  2. Record of a Fisherman and Woodutter (漁樵記 Yu Qiao Ji, p.93; see also 18586.101)
    Also called 風雪漁樵記; full title 朱太守風雪漁樵記; once called 王鼎臣風雪漁樵記. Story begins with the friendship of 朱買臣 Zhu Maichen with the woodcutter 楊孝先 Yang Xiaoxian and fisherman 王安道 Wang Andao. Early in the play they drink and talk on a snowy evening. They main story concerns Zhu's activities after this.

In these I have not found any references to qin.
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16. Journey to the West (西遊記 Xi You Ji)
See separate page. A number of websites have the complete Chinese original novel online. The version used here is from www.millionbook.net/gd/w/wuchengen/xyj/index.html, with the dialogue being Chapter 9.
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17. Fisherman and Woodcutter Dialogue: Images from art (See also older images, in particular the one at top)
The left image here is by Yi Myong-uk (see below); the right one is attributed to 松亭 Shotei (1912)

Here are some current online references:

18. Analysis of Yu Qiao Wenda in Qinshi Chubian
QSCB, Chapter 7b (pp.141-3, Ming dynasty melodies), includes examples from a modern performance based on the version in Qinxue Rumen (1864). The first example (see also the transcription of the Wu Jinglue performance in Guqin Quji Vol. 1, pp. 129-134) is the phrase at the end of Section 1 (GQQJ/129), repeated up a fifth in Section 2 (GQQJ/130) and up an octave in Section 6 (GQQJ/132). There are hints at this beginning with the second surviving version (1579; also in 1589), but this phrase is not developed until much later.
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19. Awaiting for an Imperial Audience at the Palace Gates (金門待漏Jinmen Dailou)
Beginning with Guyin Zhengzong (1634) Yu Qiao Wenda is sometimes (also) called Jinmen Dailou. 41049.xxx; 3/945 only dailou. I am not yet sure why this would be another title for Dialogue between a Fisherman and Woodcutter, unless that is a topic that came up in one of their conversations.

There is also a melodically unrelated Jinmen Dailou in 1876. It has no commentary other than a note under the first section that says, "琴史亦唐狄梁公所作 Created by Duke Di of Liang during the Tang dynasty."
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20. Original 1559 preface
The original preface (QQJC III/433) is (translation):

杏莊老人曰:唐人云,
      「漢家事業空流水,魏國山河半夕陽」。
古今興廢有若反掌,青山綠水則固無恙,千載得失是非,盡付之漁樵一話而已。

The couplet at the beginning seems clearly to refer to the second line of a poem by 李益 Li Yi (748-827; ICTCL; Wiki) called "同崔邠登鸛雀樓 With Cui Bin climbing Stork Pavilion", as follows:

鸛雀樓西百尺牆,汀洲雲樹共茫茫。 West of Stork Pavilion is a 100 foot wall; sandbanks, clouds and trees are boundless.
漢家簫鼔空流水,魏國山河半夕陽。 Han palace flutes and drums are as nothing compared to flowing streams; Wei mountain streams have just half run their course.
事去千年猶恨速,愁來一日即為長。 Affairs 1000 years past seem to have gone quickly; yet if sadness comes for one day it seems long.
風煙並是思歸望,遠目非春亦自傷。 Wind and smoke: it is like longing to return; gazing in the distance it is not springtime and this brings grief.

Cui Bin (崔邠,字處仁,貝州武城人) was another Tang poet. Stork Pavilion is 48475.9 鸛雀臺 Guanque Lou, on the north side of Xi'an. "汀洲 Dingzhou" in the poem seems to mean "sand bank" (17488.8 水中沙土積成之小平地也; compare 汀州 Dingzhou, in Fujian). 漢家 18531.150. In ancient times the 魏國 State of Wei had extended east of Xi'an, i.e., not in the direction of the setting sun; however, 5875.57 says 夕陽 can refer to the west side of a mountain or the end of life. (半夕陽 2752.xxx.)

Further regarding the second line of this poem 孙小青 Sun Xiaoqing suggests that "漢家簫鼔 The Han court's piping and drumming" might have been an allusion to 夕阳簫鼔 Xiyang Xiaogu, well-known pipa music. He says the change to "漢家事業 The Han court's undertakings" conforms to the style of the poem.
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21. Music of 1559 version
My teacher Sun Yü-ch'in originally taught me the standard 19th century version of Yu Qiao Wenda. Since leaving Taiwan my focus has been learning the earliest versions of any particular melody. For a long time I was not able to reconstruct this earliest known version to my satisfaction. Two issues causing me problems were:

  1. Uncertainty: I have not worked on other pieces from this handbook, and so wondered whether this tablature accurately described the melody as played by someone: each of the other early versions had some appealing motifs that seem to have contributed eventually to the modern version, but also seem to be missing something for their lack of other motifs. I thought perhaps in this case I would eventually do a version that combined music from several early handbooks, but as yet I have never done this.
  2. Textual issues: possible mistakes in the 1559 tablature. The first of these somes at the end of the third phrase of Section 1, which ends on a 7th diad (c over D): no other version has a diad here, some ending the phrase on c, others on d (my solution is to play the dissonance but then slide from the c to d, making an octave). Then the first two phrases of Section 4 have a left thumb "cover" (罨 yan ) on the 6th string followed by a left thumb pluck (對起 duiqi) written with the number 7 underneath it: i.e, played on the 7th string, suggesting something is missing; since writing the string number under duiqi is not idiomatic, I have moved it to before the duiqi and added a pluck. Other than these two problems there are two of three places where something is not written clearly, but the intended figures are easily determined. More important, quite a few of the phrasing indications seem to be missing: structures needed to be found that would reveal this phrasing.

The textual issues are in fact quite minor, and in late 2011, while adding commentary and art references (in particular the image at top), I focused again on the 1559 tablature and this time found I was able to come up with an interpretation based solely on the 1559 version that to me made it into a complete and logical whole that did not need additions from other versions (although that could also be interesting). A recording should follow soon.
(Return)

Return to the annotated handbook list or to the Guqin ToC.

 
Appendix I: Chart Tracing Yu Qiao Wenda 漁樵問答;
based mainly on Zha Fuxi's Guide, 24/203/398.

      琴譜
    (year; Vol/page)
Further information
(QQJC = 琴曲集成 Qinqu Jicheng; QF = 琴府 Qin Fu)
 1. 太音續譜
      (1559; III/441)
6 sections; preface; (plus prelude with its own Preface); shang mode (1245612); sections 1-3 have some similarity to 1-5 of modern 10-section versions; opening of 4th hints at modern's 6th; 2nd section has "fisherman to woodcutter" theme ("F-W" theme), with first half repeated in 5th and 6th (compare 1579 and 1589); 3rd and end of 6th are in harmonics.
 2. 五音琴譜
      (1579; IV/221)
6 sections; no commentary; quite different from 1559, but sections 1-4 are recognizably similar to 1-5 of modern version; 5th section starts like modern's 6th, but in 1579 (and 1589) the 6th repeats the "F-W" theme from 3rd, then closes with harmonics
 3. 重修真傳琴譜
      (1585; IV/369)
9 sections, titled; 3, 7 & 9: four doublestops then harmonics; 商 shang mode; melody uses material of earlier published versions, but in adding lyrics in the form of a dialogue the structure is much changed (details); not in 1573. See also the 1585 preface; not in 1573.
 4. 玉梧琴譜
      (1589; VI/32)
6 sections; music is more like 1579 than 1559, but preface (after saying "according to Zixiadong", presumably referring to Zixiadong Qinpu) quotes the 1559 preface verbatim. 3rd section bracketed by "漁 (fisherman)...樵 (woodcutter)": this is the F-W theme); 6th is then "漁至樵 fisherman to woodcutter"
 5. 真傳正宗琴譜
      (1589; VII/92)
In 楊倫太古遺音 Yang Lun Taigu Yiyin, reprinted 1609; 商音 shang yin; 8 sections, titled simply by who speaks (contrast 1585): 1. 漁樵問敘; 2. 漁; 3. 樵; 4. 漁 (泛音 harm.); 5. 樵; 6. 漁; 7. 樵; 8. 漁樵並樂符(ends with 泛音 harm.). New lyrics (like 1625, 1709 and 1730). The preface begins, "按斯曲,想亦隱君子所作也....It seems as though this piece was also created by a recluse...." Reconstructed by Zha Fuxi (recording).
 6. 琴書大全
      (1590; V/478)
6 sections; similar to 1589, though sectioning is different
 
 7. 文會堂琴譜
      (1596; VI/217)
6 sections; similar to earlier versions
 
 8. 藏春塢琴譜
      (1602; VI/343)
6 sections; same preface and music as 1589
 
 9. 陽春堂琴譜
      (1611; VII/460)
8 sections (3 and 8 in harmonics), titled; lyrics ("問今古幾經蕉鹿....", again different from previous)
In 太古正音 Taigu Zhengyin  
10. 理性元雅
      (1618; VIII/242)
12 sections; new lyrics
 
11. 太音希聲
      (1625; IX/164)
8 sections, titled; lyrics (both are completely different from 1585, but related to 1589, 1709 etc.);
Sections 2-7 alternate between fisherman and woodcutter (also as in 1589, 1709, etc.)
12. 樂仙琴譜
      (1623; VIII/376)
8 sections and new preface, but music is like older versions: compare Secs. 1-3 to 1559 Sec. 1;
Section 4 has F-W theme; 5th and 8th sections are harmonics
13. 古音正宗
      (1634; IX/295)
6 sections; 4 and end of 6 are harmonics; Section 3 has modified F-W theme; "also called 金門待漏 Jinmen Dailou"
14. 義軒琴經
      (late Ming; IX/427)
5 sections; 3 and end of 5 in harmonics; Section 2 has F-W theme
 
15. 陶氏琴譜
      (late Ming; IX/465)
9 sections (unnumbered); lyrics as 1589
 
16. 徽言秘旨
      (1647; X/85)
Called 漁樵 Yu Qiao; 8 sections;
Guide says lyrics as 1589 but I cannot find them
17. 徽言秘旨訂
      (1692; fac.)
Same as 1647?
 
18. 琴苑新傳全編
      (1670; XI/351)
9 sections, 5 & 9 harmonics; F-W theme in 4 and 8; further comment. Still "商 shang", but see mode: more fas; latter half has extended passages above 7th position: compare modern version? Preface says, "是曲周東岡譜,蓋述隱者隨遇自樂之意,其聲優裕平順,出落自然,得隱逸之風調。 This melody uses the tablature of Zhou Donggang. It desribes the idea of recluses who, although they enjoy themselves, their sounds are magnanimous and smooth....(rest not yet translated)".
19a. 一峰園琴譜
      (1709; XIII/502)
Called 漁樵意 Yu Qiao Yi but related to above; its lyrics, only here, begin "執長斤,劈破崐崙....";
3 sections, unnumbered; mode not stated; attrib. 毛仲翁
19b. 一峰園琴譜
      (1709; XIII/508)
Called 漁樵話 Yu Qiao Hua but music and lyrics as 1611;
6 sections, unnumbered and diff. from 1611; mode not stated
20. 東皋琴譜 (Japan)
      (1709; see XII/276)
8 sections, 2-7 alternating between fisherman and woodcutter; lyrics as 1589, music also seems same; "商 shang"; 1898 edition: copy of? 1709
21. 立雪齋琴譜
      (1730; XVIII/21)
8 sections; "商 shang"; lyrics as 1589
Facsimile edition, Folio 1, p.24
22. 琴書千古
      (1738; XV/372)
8 sections
楊表正 Yang Biaozheng version; lyrics as 1585
23. 琴劍合譜
      (1749; XVIII/316)
8 sections; "商音 shang yin"
 
24. 穎陽琴譜
      (1751; XVI/81)
8 sections; 商音 shang yin; no lyrics, but 2-7 alternate between "fisherman" and "woodcutter";
same commentary as 1589; music very simlar but not identical; it counts phrases and 點 dian (strokes)
25. 蘭田館琴譜
      (1755; XVI/--)
Guide says 8 sections; "商意 shang yi"; new lyrics, beginning "問坤古往今來,任桑田滄海悠悠...."
(missing from QQJC edition)
26. 裛露軒琴譜
      (>1802; XIX/251)
8 sections, titled; 商音 shang yin
"太古遺音 Taigu Yiyin": same as 1589 but without lyrics?
27. 琴譜諧聲
      (1820; XX/201)
8 sections
 
28. 琴學軔端
      (1828; XX/467)
8 sections; lyrics: almost same as 1585
"楊表正作 by Yang Biaozheng"
29. 悟雪山房琴譜
      (1836; XXII/325)
8 sections; "中呂均徵音 zhonglüjun; zhi yin": first to say "zhi"?
"古岡遺譜 Gugang Yipu" (not 東岡)
30. 琴學入門
      (1864; XXIV/344)
10 sections; "中呂均徵音 zhonglüjun; zhi yin"; gongche notation added (also p.354). There are modern recordings based on this version, which is the one I learned from Sun Yü-Ch'in. With 1st string as do: many fa; if third string = do: main note sol (see mode and compare early versions)
31. 琴瑟合譜
      (1870; XXVI/152)
7 sections
 
32. 以六正五之齋
      XXVI/238 (1875)
8; 宮調 gongdiao
 
33. 天聞閣琴譜
      (1876; XXV/374 & 423)
Two versions, both 徵 zhi; #1 (Folio 7, 8 sections) no commentary but in margin has "空山彈 as played by (Zhang) Kongshan"
#2 (Folio 8, 10 sections) has afterword saying "周東岡譜 Zhou Donggang tablature", but in margin has "松仙 Songxian"
34. 希韶閣琴譜
      (1878; XXVI/355)
Two: has one in 8 sections with lyrics almost same as 1589 (but 徵音 zhi yin!).
XXVI/335: 金門待漏 Jinmen Dailou (ToC has 金門待詔 Jinmen Daizhao): 商音 shang yin, 9 Sections; see 1634
35. 雙琴書屋琴譜集成
      (1884; XXVII/295)
Two? Has one in 8+1 sections; 徵音 zhiyin;
XXVII/287: 金門待漏 Jinmen Dailou; 6+1 sections
36. 綠綺清韻
      (1884; XXVII/399)
10+1; 商音 shangyin; afterword same as 1670
 
37. 枯木禪琴譜
      (1893; XXVIII/101)
9+1; 宮音 gongyin; quite similar to 1864 (most differences in 4, 8, 9 and coda);
preface attributes melody to 楊表正 Yang Biaozheng (1585), but no lyrics
38. 琴學初津
      (1894; XXVIII/265)
8+1; 徵音 zhiyin; "又名山水清音 also called Shanshui Qingyin"
Zha (190[232]): almost same as 1864; afterword here says, 「曲意深長,神情灑脫,而山之巍巍,水之洋洋,斧伐之丁丁,櫓聲之欸乃,隱隱現於指下,迨至問答之段,令人有山林之想,奏斯者,必修其指,而静其神,始得。志在漁樵者,此消遣,移情非淺,是曲,傳自何君桂笙,古越之高人,文章蓋世,無學不通,而著述之富,足冠古今,暇更以琴書自樂,綽有安道之風,愧余才疏藝劣,何幸屢荷青眼,教我良多,而奏斯曲者,不亦感君之惠授乎?按楊表正所作遇仙吟,漁樵問答等曲,作正文對音捷要譜,而是曲雖近時趨,然其用意,實深景仰,摹寫漁樵,形容畢露,足為製曲師法。德松客識。」 (See also next.)
39. 琴學叢書
      (1910; XXX/212)
10; 宮調徵音 gong diao, zhi yin; has gongche
"抄本 hand copy"; modern recordings based on this version show it to be an elaboration of 1864. The recording by Sou Si-tai has a translation of what it says is the preface in 1910, but I cannot find that preface. It seems very similar to the beginning of preface in 1894 (The translation is, "This is a profound melody which is nonetheless unconstrained and of open expression. It evokes high mountains and flowing rivers. He who listens carefully may even perceive in the play of the musician the stroke of the axe and the rustling of the paddle; but it is mainly the sequences where fisherman and woodcutter converse with each other that inspire the listener with a feeling of profound nostalgia for this idyllic lifestyle.")
40. 山西育才館雅樂講義
      (1922)
Lyrics almost same as 1589
 
41. 夏一峰傳譜
      (1957)
p.27 (TKW/2081)
Largely follows 1864
42. 研易習琴齋琴譜
      (1961)
Folio 2, #5
 
43. 愔愔室琴譜
      (2000)
page 173
Largely follows 1910
44. 虞山吳氏琴譜
      (2001)
page 24
 

 
Appendix II: Lyrics for Yu Qiao Wenda 漁樵問答;
As paired to the music in 重修真傳琴譜 Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu (1585; earliest)

1.

漁問樵曰: 「子何求?」

樵答漁曰: 「數椽茅屋,綠樹青山,時出時還。生涯不在西方;斧斤丁丁,云中之巒。」

2.

漁又詰之曰: 「草木逢春,生意不然不可遏;代之為薪,生長莫達!」

樵又答之曰: 「木能生火,火能熟物,火与木,天下古今誰沒?況山木之為性也當生當牿;伐之而后更夭喬,取之而後枝葉愈芝。」

漁乃笑曰:     「因木求財,心多嗜欲;因財發身,心必恒辱。」

3.

樵曰:「昔日朱買臣未遇富貴時,攜書挾卷。登山落徑行讀之。一旦高車駟馬驅馳,趨芻蕘脫跡,于子豈有不知?
            我今執柯以伐柯,云龍風虎,終有會期;云龍風虎,終有會期。」

4.

樵曰:             「子亦何為?」

漁顧而答曰: 「一竿一釣一扁舟;五湖四海,任我自在遨游;得魚貫柳而歸,樂觥籌。」

5.

樵曰:     「人在世,行樂好太平。魚在水,揚鬐鼓髡受不警;子垂陸具,過用許機心,傷生害命何深!」

漁又曰: 「不專取利拋綸餌,惟愛江山風景清。」

6.

樵曰: 「志不在漁垂直釣?心無貪利坐家吟。子今正是岩邊獺,何道忘私弄月明?」

7.

漁乃喜曰: 「呂望當年渭水濱,絲綸半卷海霞清。有朝得遇文王日,載上安車齎闕京;嘉言儻論為時法,大展鷹揚敦太平。」

8.

樵擊擔而對曰: 「子在江兮我在山,計來兩物一般般;息肩罷釣相逢話,莫把江山比等閑。
                            我是子非休再辯,我非子是莫虛談;不如得個紅鱗鯉,灼火新蒸共笑顏」。

9.

漁乃喜曰: 「不惟萃老溪山;還期异日得志見龍顏,投卻云峰煙水業,大旱施霖雨,巨川行舟楫,衣錦而還;嘆人生能有幾個何。」

 
Appendix III: Lyrics for Yu Qiao Wenda 漁樵問答;
From 真傳正宗琴譜 Zhenchuan Zhengzong Qinpu (1589; QQJC VII/88; second)
Copied in 1625? See chart and compare earliest.

1. (漁樵問敘)清隱高譂

靠舟崖,整頓絲釣,入山濯足溪流。駕一葉扁舟,往來江湖裏行樂,笑傲也王侯。但見白雲坡下,又見綠水灘頭。相呼相喚,論心商榷也不相尤。寵寵寵辱無關,做個雲外之叟。

2. (漁)垂論秋渚

長江浩蕩,舉棹趁西風,篛笠簑衣,每向水深際侶漁蝦,湖南湖北是生涯。只見白蘋紅蓼,滿目秋容也交加。放情物外兮堪誇,櫓聲搖軋那咿啞,出沒煙霞。

3. (樵)山居雅趣

飲泉息石在山中,此江山不換與三公。只見矗崎嶇猶有路通,野客並那山翁,竹徑更有鬆風。遁世逍遙,茫然不知南北與那西東。山無歷,寒到便知冬。山寺遠,回不聞鐘聲。仰觀那懸崖峭壁,峻坂高峰,飛泉瀑布,隨意縱橫。逃名天地外也,有甚麼那愁容。大嘯一聲,山谷皆鳴。無掛礙,別紅塵,卻疑身在五云中。

4. (漁)獲魚縱樂

得魚時將來細剖,需此斗酒,乘月泛滄浪,盡醉而休。高歌那一曲,信口胡謅。無腔笛,雅韻悠悠。撇卻許多閒愁,又何憂。

5. (樵)危岡禁足

看他步入雲窩,過些羊腸鳥道,聞些猿啼鶴唳,恍似王質也爛柯。雪深泥滑兮,怎奈如何。險危坡,要斟酌,不如輕輕束擔免蹉跎。

6. (漁)驚濤罷釣

三江五湖,任我遨遊。有時下絲綸,獨鉤寒江,方涉江浦也,卻又行到那巴丘。淺水汀洲,懶見那鷸蚌相持,向午也就歸舟。誠恐風波突起處,灘瀨漲惡,要休時,急忙怎得休。

7. (樵)浮雲當貴

山林居士,原不愛去趨朝。煙霞老叟,清操絕欲轉高。披粗衣,食淡飯也,草舍團瓢。閒談今古,何羨重茵鼎食,懸佩紫授,並那戴著金貂,月白風清,受用不了。

8. (客漁樵並樂)鳴和彌清

漁翁樵子也,俱是嚴陵、呂望輩,振起乎那高標。樂山樂水樂陶陶,(泛音)看漁樵樂意多饒。幕天席地風騷,戴月推敲。

 
Appendix IV: Original text of 漁樵問對 Yu Qiao Wendui by Shao Yong
(Source: www.ncc.com.tw/fate/paleo/bv/bv_10.htm)

漁者垂釣於伊水之上。樵者過之,弛擔息肩,坐於磐石之上,而問於漁者,曰「魚可鉤取乎?」

曰:「然。」

曰:「鉤非餌可乎?」

曰:「否。」

曰:「非鉤也,餌也。魚利食而見害,人利魚而蒙利。其利同也,其害異也。敢問何故?」

漁者曰:「子樵者也,與吾異治,安得侵吾事乎?然亦可以為子試言之。彼之利,猶此之利也;被之害,亦猶此之害也。子知其小,未知其大。魚之利食,吾亦利乎食也;魚之害食,吾亦害乎食也。子知魚終日得食為利,又安知魚終日不得食為害?如是,則食之害也重,而鉤之害也輕。子知吾終日得魚為利,又安知吾終日不得魚不為害也?如是,則吾之害也重,魚之害也輕。以魚之一身,當人之一食,則魚之害多矣;以人之一身,當魚之一食,則人之害亦多矣。又安知釣乎大江大海,則無易地之患焉?魚利乎水,人利乎陸,水與陸異,其利一也;魚害乎餌,人害乎財,餌與財異,其害一也。又何必分乎彼此哉!子之言,體也。獨不知用爾。」

樵者又問曰:「魚可生食乎?」

曰:「烹之可也。」

曰:「必吾薪濟子之魚乎?」

曰:「然。」

曰:「吾知有用乎子矣。」

曰:「然則子知子之薪,能濟吾之魚,不知子之薪所以能濟吾之魚也。薪之能濟魚久矣,不待子而後知。苟世未知火之能用薪,則子之薪雖積丘山,獨且奈何哉?」

樵者曰:「願聞其方。」

曰:「火生於動,水生於靜。動靜之相生,水火之相息。水火,用也;草木,體也。用生於利,體生於害。利害見乎情,體用隱乎性。一性一情,聖人能成子之薪。猶吾之魚,微火則皆為腐臭朽壞,而無所用矣,又安能養人七尺之軀哉?」

樵者曰:「火之功大於薪,固已知之矣。敢問善灼物,何必待薪而後傳?」

曰:「薪,火之體也。火,薪之用也。火無體,待薪然後為體;薪無用,待火然後為用。是故凡有體之物,皆可焚之矣」。

曰:「水有體乎?」

曰:「然。」

曰:「火能焚水乎?」

曰:「火之性,能迎而不能隨,故滅。水之體,能隨而不能迎,故熱。是故有溫泉而無寒火,相息之謂也。」

曰:「火之道生於用,亦有體乎?」

曰:「火以用為本,以體為末,改動。水以體為本,以用為末,故靜。是火亦有體,水亦有用也。故能相濟,又能相息。非獨水火則然,天下之事皆然,在乎用之何如爾!」

樵者曰:「用可得聞乎?」

曰:「可以意得者,物之性也;可以言傳者,物之情也;可以像求者,物之形也;可以數取者,物之體也。用也者,妙萬物為言者也,可以意得,而不可以言傳。」

曰:「不可以言傳,則子惡得而知之乎?」

曰:「吾所以得而知之者,固不能言傳。非獨吾不能傳之以言,聖人亦不能傳之以言也。」

曰:「聖人既不能傳之以言,則六經非言也耶?」

曰:「時然後言,何言之有?」

樵者贊曰:「天地之道備於人,萬物之道備於身,眾妙之道備於神,天下之能事畢矣,又何思何慮!吾而今而後,知事心踐形之為大。不及於之門,則幾至於殆矣!」

乃析薪烹魚而食之飫,而論《易》。

漁者與樵者遊於伊水之上。漁者歎曰:「熙熙乎萬物之多,而未始有雜。吾知遊乎天地之間,萬物皆可以無心而致之矣。非子則孰與歸焉!」

樵者曰:「敢問無心致天地萬物之方?」

漁者曰:「無心者,無意之謂也。無意之意,不我物也。不我物,然後定能物物。」

曰:「何謂我,何謂物?」

曰:「以我循物,則我亦物也;以物徇我,則物亦我也。我物皆致,意由是明。天地亦萬物也,何天地之有焉!萬物亦天地也,何萬物之有焉!萬物亦我也,何萬物之有焉!我亦萬物也,何我之有焉!何物不我,何我不物!如是則可以宰天地,可以司鬼神。而況於人乎?況於物乎?」

樵者問漁者曰:「天何依?」

曰:「依乎地。」

曰:「地何附?」

曰:「附乎天。」

曰:「然則天地何依何附?」

曰:「自相依附。天依形,地附氣。其形也有涯,其氣也無涯。有無之相生,形氣之相息。終則有始,終始之間,其天地之所存乎?天以用為本,以體為末;地以體為本,以用為末。利用出入之謂神,名體有無之謂聖。唯神與聖,能參乎天地者也。小人則日用而不知,故有害生實喪之患也。夫名也者,實之客也;利也者,害之主也。名生於不足,利喪於有餘。害生於有餘,實喪於不足。此理之常也。養身者必以利,貪夫則以身循利,故有害生焉。立身必以名,眾人則以身循名,故有實喪焉。竊人之財謂之盜。其始取之也,唯恐其不多也。及其敗露也,唯恐其多矣。夫賄之與贓,一物也。而兩名者,利與害故也。竊人之美謂之徼。其始取之也,唯恐其不多也。及其敗露,唯恐其多矣。夫譽與毀,一事也。而兩名者,名與實故也。凡言朝者,萃名之所也;市者,聚利之地也。能不以爭處乎其間,雖一日九遷,一貨十倍,何害生實喪之有耶?是知爭也者,取利之端也;讓也者,趨名之本也。利至則害生,名興則實喪。利至名興,而無害生實喪之患,唯有德者能之。天依地,地附天,豈相遠哉!」

漁者謂樵者曰:「天下將治,則人必尚行也;天下將亂,則人必尚言也。尚行,則寫實之風行焉;尚言,則詭譎之風行焉。天下將治,則人必尚義也;天下將亂,則人必尚利也。尚義,則謙讓之風行焉。尚利,則攘奪之風行焉。三王,尚行者也;五霸,尚言者也。尚行者必入於義也,尚言者必入於利也。義利之相去,一何如是之遠耶?是知言之於口,不若行之於身。行之於身,不若盡之於心。言之於口,人得而聞之;行之於身,人得而見之;盡之於心,神得而知之。人之聰明猶不可欺,況神之聰明乎?是知無愧於口,不若無愧於身;無愧於身,不若無愧於心。無口過易,無身過難;無身過易,無心過難。既無心過,何難之有!籲!安得無心過之人,與之語心哉!」

漁者謂樵者曰:「子知觀天地萬物之道乎?」

樵者曰:「未也。願聞其方。」

漁者曰:「夫所以謂之觀物者,非以目觀之也;非觀之以目,而觀之以心也;非觀之以心,而觀之以理也。天下之物,莫不有理焉,莫不有性焉,莫不有命焉。所以謂之理者,窮之而後可知也;所以謂之性者,盡之而後可知也;所以謂之命者,至之而後可知也。此三知者,天下之真知也,雖聖人無以過之也。而過之者,非所以謂之聖人也。夫鑒之所以能為明者,謂其能不隱萬物之形也;雖然鑒之能不隱萬物之形,未若水之能一萬物之形也;雖然水之能一萬物之形,又未若聖人之能一萬物情也。聖人之所以能一萬物之情者,謂其聖人之能反觀也。所以謂之反觀者,不以我觀物也。不以我觀物者,以物觀物之謂也。既能以物觀物,又安有我於其間哉?是知我亦人也,人亦我也,我與人皆物也。此所以能用天下之目為己之目,其目無所不觀矣;用天下耳為己之耳,其耳無所不聽矣;天下之口為己之口,其口無所不言矣;用天下之心為己之心,其心無所不謀矣。夫天下之觀,其於見也,不亦廣乎!天下之所,其於聞也,不亦遠乎!天下之言,其於論也。不亦高乎?天下之謀,其於樂也,不亦大乎!夫其見至廣,其聞至遠,其論至高,其樂至大,能為至廣、至遠、至高、至大之事,而中無一為焉,豈不謂至神至聖者乎?非唯吾謂之至神至聖者乎,而天下謂之至神至聖者乎?非唯一時之天下謂之至神至聖者乎,而千萬世之天下謂之至神至聖者乎?過此以往,來之或知也已。」

樵者問漁者曰:「子以何道而得魚?」

曰:「吾以六物具而得魚。」

曰:「六物具也,豈由天乎?」

曰:「具六物而得魚者,人也。具六物而所以得魚者,非人也。」

樵者未達,請問其方。

漁者曰:「六物者,竿也,綸也,浮也,沈也,鉤也,餌也。一不具,則魚不可得。然而六物具而不得魚者,非人也。六物具而不得魚者有焉,未有六物不具而得魚者也。是知具六物者,人也。得魚與不得魚,天也。六物不具而不得魚者,非天也,人也」。

樵者曰:「人有禱鬼神而求福者,福可禱而求耶?求之而可得耶?敢問其所以。」

曰:「語善惡者,人也,福禍者,天也。天道福善而禍淫,鬼神豈能違天平?自作之咎,固難逃已;天降之災,禳之奚益?修德積善,君子常分。安有餘事於其間哉!」

樵者曰:「有為善而遇禍,有為福而獲福者,何也?」

漁者曰「有幸與不幸也。幸不幸,命也;當不當,分也。命一分,人其逃乎?」

曰:「何謂分?何謂命?」

曰:「小人之遇福,非分也,有命也:當禍,分也,非命也。君子之遇禍,非分也,有命也;當福,分也,非命也」。

漁者謂樵者曰:「人之所謂親,莫如父子也;人之所謂疏,莫如路人也。利害在心,則父子過路人遠矣。父子之道,天性也。利害猶或奪之,況非天性者乎?夫利害之移人,如是之深也,可不慎乎?路人之相逢則過之,固無相害之心焉,無利害在前故也。有利害在前,則路人與父子,又奚擇焉?路人之能相交以義,又何況父子之親乎!夫義者,讓之本也;利者,爭之端也。讓則有仁,爭則有害。仁與害,何相去之遠也!堯、舜亦人也,桀、紂亦人也。人與人同,而仁與害異爾。仁因義而起,害因利而生。利不以義。則臣弒其君者有焉,子弒其父者有焉。豈若路人之相逢,一目而交袂於中逵者哉!」

樵者謂漁者曰「吾嘗負薪矣,舉百斤而無傷吾之身,加十斤則遂傷吾之身。敢問何故?」

漁者曰:「樵則吾不知之矣。以吾之事觀之,則易地皆然。吾嘗釣而得大魚,與吾交戰。欲棄之,則不能捨;欲取之,則未能勝。終日而後獲,幾有沒溺之患矣。非直有身傷之患耶!魚與薪則異也,其貪而為傷則一也。百斤,力分之內者也;十斤,力分之外者也。力分之外,雖一毫猶且為害,而況十斤乎!吾之貪魚,亦何以異子之貪薪乎!」

樵者歎曰:「吾而今而後,知量力而動者、智矣哉!」

樵者謂漁者曰:「子可謂知易之道矣。吾也問易有太極,太極何物也?」

曰:「無為之本也。」

曰:「太極生兩儀,兩儀天地之謂乎?」

曰:「兩儀,天地之祖也,非止為天地而已也。太極分而為二,先得一為一,後得一為二。一二謂兩儀。」

曰:「兩儀生四象,四象何物也?」

曰:「四象謂陰陽剛柔。有陰陽然後可以生天,有剛柔然後可以生地。立功之本,於斯為極。」

曰:「四象生八卦,八卦何謂也?」

曰:「謂乾、坤、離、坎、兌、艮、震、巽之謂也。疊相盛衰終始於其間矣。因而重之,則六十四由是而生也,而易之道始備矣。」

樵者問漁者曰:「複何以見天地之心乎?」

曰:「先陽己盡,後陽始生,則天地始生之際,中則當日月始周之際,末則當星辰始終之際。萬物死生,寒暑代謝,晝夜變遷,非此無以見之。當天地窮極之所必變,變則通,通則久。故象言先王以至日閉關,商旅不行,後不省方,順天故也。」

樵者謂漁者曰:「無妄,災也。敢問何故?」

曰:「妄則欺他,得之必有禍,斯有妄也。順天而動,有禍及者,非禍也,災也。猶農有思豐而不勤稼稻者,其荒也,不亦禍乎?農有勤稼穡而複敗諸水旱者,其荒也,不亦災乎?故象言先王以茂對時育萬物,貴不妄也。」

樵者問:「姤,何也?」

曰:「姤,遇也,柔遇剛也,與夫正反。夫始逼壯,姤遇壯,陰始遇陽,故稱姤焉。觀其姤,天地之心,亦可見矣。聖人以德化及此,罔有不昌。故象言施命告四方,履霜之慎,其在此也。」

漁者謂樵者曰:「春為陽始,夏為陽極;秋為陰始,冬為陰極。陽始則溫,陽極則熱;陰始則涼,陰極則寒。溫則生物,熱則長物,涼則收物,寒則殺物。皆一氣別而為四焉。其生萬物也亦然。」

樵者問漁者曰:「人之所以能靈於萬物者,何以知其然耶?」

漁者對曰:「謂其目能收萬物之色,耳能收萬物之聲,鼻能收萬物之氣,口能收萬物之味。聲色氣味者,萬物之體也。目耳鼻口者,萬人之用也。體無定用,惟變是用;用無定體,惟化是體。體用交而人物之道於是乎備矣。然則人亦物也,聖亦人也。有一物之物,有十物之物,有百物之物,有千物之物,有萬物之物,有億物之物,有兆物之物。生一一之物,當兆物之物,豈非人乎?有一人之人,有十人之人,有百人之人,有千人之人,有萬人之人,有億人之人,有兆人之人。生一一之人,當兆人之人者,豈非聖乎?是知人也者,物之至者也;聖也是者,人之至者也。物之至者,始得謂之物之物也;人之至者,始得謂之人之人也。夫物之至者,至物之謂也;而人之至者,至人之謂也。以一至物而當一至人,則非聖而何?人謂之不聖,則吾不信也。何哉?謂其能以一心觀萬心,一身觀萬身,一物觀萬物,一世觀萬世者焉;又謂其能以心代天意,口代天言,手代天工,身代天事者焉;又謂其能以上識天時,下盡地理,中盡物情,通照人事者焉;又謂其能以彌綸天地,出入造化,進退今古,表裏人物者焉。噫!聖人者,非世世而效聖焉,吾不得而目見之也。雖然吾不得而目見之,察其心,觀其跡,探其體,潛其用,雖億萬年亦可以理知之也。人或告我曰:天地之外,別有天地萬物,異乎此天地萬物。則吾不得而知已。非唯吾不得而知之也,聖人亦不得而不知之也。凡言知者,謂其心得而知之也。言言者,謂其口得而言之也。既心尚不得而知之,口又惡得而言之乎?以心不可得知而知之,是謂妄知也;以口不可得言而言之,是謂妄言也。吾又安能從妄人而行妄知妄言者乎?」

漁者謂樵曰:「仲尼有言曰:殷因於夏禮,所損益可知也;周因於殷禮,所損益可知也。其或繼周者,雖百世可知也。夫如是,則何止於百世而已哉!億千萬世,皆可得而知之也。人皆知仲尼之為仲尼,不知仲尼之所以為仲尼。不欲知仲尼之所以為仲尼則已,如其必欲知仲尼之所以為仲尼,則捨天地將奚之焉?人皆知天之為天地,不知天地之所以為天地。不欲知天地之所以為天地則已,如其必欲知天地之所以為天地,則捨動靜將奚之焉?夫一動一靜者,天地至妙者歟?夫一動一靜之間者,天地人至妙至妙者?是知仲尼之所以能盡三才之道者,謂其行無轍跡也。故有言曰:『予欲無言』,又曰:『天何言哉!四時行焉,百物生焉。』其此之謂與?」

漁者謂樵者曰:「大哉:權之與變乎?非聖人無以盡之。變然後知天地之消長,權然後知天下之輕重。消長,時也;輕重,事也。時有否泰,事有損益。聖人不知隨時否泰之道,奚由知變之所為乎?聖人不知隨時損益之道,奚由知權之所為乎?運消長者,變也;處輕重者,權也。是知權之與變,聖人之一道耳」。樵者問漁者曰:「人謂死而有知,有諸?」

曰:「有之。」

曰:「何以知其然?」

曰:「以人知之」。

曰:「何者謂之人?」

曰:「目耳鼻口心膽脾腎之氣全,謂之人。心之靈曰神,膽之靈曰魄。脾之靈曰魂,腎之靈曰精;心之神發乎目,則謂之視;腎之精發乎耳,則謂之聽;脾之魂發乎鼻,則謂之臭;膽之魄發乎口,則謂之言。八者具備,然後謂之人。夫人也者,天地萬物之秀氣也。然而亦有不中者,各求其類也。若全得人類,則謂之曰全人之人。夫全類者,天地萬物之中氣也,謂之曰全德之人也。全德之人者,人之人者也。夫人之人者,仁人之謂也。唯全人,然後能當之。人之生也,謂其氣行,人之死也,謂其形返。氣行則神魂交,形返則精魄存。神魂行於天,精魄返於地。行於天,則謂之曰陽行;返於地,則謂之曰陰返。陽行則晝見而夜伏者也,陰返則夜見而晝伏者也。是故,知日者月之形也,月者日之影也,陽者陰之形也,陰者陽之影也,人者鬼之形也,鬼者人之影也。人謂鬼無形而無知者,吾不信也。」

樵者問漁者曰:「小人可絕乎?」

曰:「不可。君子稟陽正氣而生,小人稟陰邪氣而生。無陰則陽不成,無小人則君子亦不成,唯以盛衰乎其間也。陽六分,則陰四分;陰六分,則陽四分。陽陰相半。則各五分矣。由是知君子小人之時有盛衰也。治世則君子六分。君子六分,則小人四分,小人固不勝君子矣。亂世則反是。君君,臣臣,父父,子子,兄兄,弟弟,夫夫,婦婦,謂各安其分也。君不君,臣不君,父不父,子不子,兄不兄,弟不弟,夫不夫,婦不婦,謂各失其分也。此則由世治世亂使之然也。君子常行勝言,小人常言勝行。故世治則篤實之士多,世亂則緣飾之士眾。篤實鮮不成事,緣飾鮮不敗事。成多國興,敗多國亡。家亦由是而興亡也。夫興家與興國之人,與亡國亡家之人,相去一何遠哉!」

樵者問漁者曰:「人所謂才者,有利焉,有害焉者,何也?」

漁者曰:「才一也,利害二也。有才之正者,有才之不正者。才之正者,利乎入而及乎身者也;才之不正者,利乎身而害乎人者也。」

曰:「不正,則安得謂之才?」

曰:「人所不能而能之,安得不謂之才?聖人所以惜乎才之難者,謂其能成天下之事而歸之正者寡也。若不能歸之以正,才則才矣,難乎語其仁也。譬猶藥之療疾也,毒藥亦有時而用也。可一而不可再也,疾愈則速已不已則殺人矣。平藥則常日用之可也,重疾非所以能治也。能驅重疾而無害人之毒者,古今人所謂良藥也。《易》曰:『大君有命,開國承家,小人勿用』。如是,則小人亦有時而用之。時平治定,用之則否。《詩》云:『它山之石,可以攻玉』。其小人之才乎!」

樵者謂漁者曰:「國家之興亡,與夫才之邪正,則固得聞命矣。然則何不擇其人而用之?」

漁者曰:「擇臣者,君也;擇君者,臣也。賢愚各從其類而為。奈何有堯舜之君,必有堯舜之臣;有桀紂之君,而必有桀紂之臣。堯舜之臣,生乎桀紂之世,猶桀紂之臣。生於堯舜之世,必非其所用也。雖欲為禍為福。其能行乎?夫上之所好,下必好之。其若影響,豈待驅率而然耶?上好義,則下必好義,而不義者遠矣;上好利,下必好利,而不利者遠矣。好利者眾,則天下日削矣;好義者眾,則天下日盛矣。日盛則昌,日削則亡。盛之與削,昌之與亡,豈其遠乎?在上之所好耳。夫治世何嘗無小人,亂世何嘗無君子,不用則善惡何由而行也。」樵者曰:「善人常寡,而不善人常眾;治世常少,亂世常多,何以知其然耶?」

曰:「觀之於物,何物不然?譬諸五穀,耘之而不苗者有矣。蓬莠不耘而猶生,耘之而求其盡也,亦未如之何矣!由是知君子小人之道,有自來矣。君子見善則喜之,見不善則遠之;小人見善則疾之,見不善則喜之。善惡各從其類也。君子見善則就之,見不善則違之;小人見善則違之,見不善則就之;君子見義則遷,見利則止;小人見義則止,見利則遷。遷義則利人,遷利則害人。利人與害人,相去一何遠耶?家與國一也,其興也,君子常多而小人常鮮。其亡也,小人常多而君子常鮮。君子多而去之者,小人也;小人多而去之者,君子也。君子好生,小人好殺;好生則世治,好殺則世亂。君子好義,小人好利。治世則好義,亂世則好利。其理一也。」

釣者談已,樵者曰:「吾聞古有伏羲,今日如睹其面焉。」拜而謝之,及旦而去。

 
Appendix V: Original text of 漁樵閑話 Yu Qiao Xianhua by Su Shi
(Source: zh.wikisource.org/zh-hant/漁樵閑話錄)

A.

有客謂漁樵曰:「二老之談,於治世之鄙事,民間之俗務可也。不然,則議論几席之間,有清風明月,可以嘯詠,有素琴尊酒,可以娛樂,高談而遣累忘懷,陶然以適物外之情可也,奈何其間往往輒語及朝政故事,非所謂漁樵之閑話者,吾所以不取焉。獨不聞莊叟曰:『庖人雖不治庖,尸祝不越尊俎之間而代之。』所以各存其分也,子得無失其分者乎?」

二老相顧而笑曰:「是客也,烏知吾閑話之端哉?伊尹耕於有莘之野,呂望釣於渭水之濱,世俗徒見其跡於耕釣之間而不知之人也,心存乎先王之道。大率古者有道之士,雖不見用於時,而退處深山窮谷,亦未嘗暫忘聖人之道,今之所談,果有毫銖可補於見聞,亦足以發也,又且何間於野人之論哉!」客深然之而退。

漁曰:「人之有禍福成敗,盛衰得失,窮達榮辱,興亡治亂,莫非命也。知之由命,則事雖毫銖之微,皆素定也。一遇之,而理不可以苟免,勢不可以力回,豈非命歟?豈非素定歟?景雲初,有僧萬回者,善言人吉凶禍福,寓跡塵間,而出處言語不循常而持異於人。自恐因此見疑於時,或佯狂以自晦也,然而人見之,莫非恭敬,亦不敢以狂而見忽。是時明皇為臨淄郡王,因卻左右而見之。萬回輒拊其背曰:『五十年太平天子,已後不可知之,願自重。』言訖佯狂而去。及明皇即位,開元、天寶中,可謂太平矣,至祿山之亂,果五十年也,萬回之言,驗如符契。然至於翠華西幸,蒙塵萬里,登橋望遠,納麴充饑,而困亦甚矣。揮涕馬嵬,馳雨棧道,貽羞宗社,受恥宮闈,辱亦至矣。華清蕭索,南內荒涼,節物可悲,嬪婜零落,氣亦憊矣。此皆人生至困至苦、至危至厄之事也,何為萬回無一言以及之?抑知之而不言耶?如何?」

樵曰:「非萬回之不知也,命之所有,分之所定,不可逃也,使當時言之,亦不足為戒也,雖戒亦不能免也。天命之出,其可易乎!嗚呼,攬天下之權,擁天下之勢,賞罰號令,速於雷霆,一喜則軒冕塞路,一怒則伏尸千里,天下豈有貴勢之可敵哉!不幸一旦時違事變,艱戚萬端。大都興廢成敗,雖出乎天,係乎命,然亦必先有其兆以成其事也。開元中,用姚崇、宋璟,則天下四方熙熙然豐富娛樂,無羡於華胥。天寶末,委國政於李林甫,此其所以召亂也;歸事權於楊國忠,此其所以召禍也。盛衰得失,豈不有由而然也?」

漁曰:「天寶末,明皇倦於萬機,思欲以天下之務決於大臣,而且將優游於宮掖之間以自適也,無何得李林甫,一以國政委之。自此姦謀詭論,交結以熾,而忠言讜議,不復進矣,日以放恣行樂為事。一夕,因乘月登勤政樓,命梨園弟子進《水調歌》,其間偶有歌曰:『富貴榮華能幾時,山川滿目淚沾衣。不見只今汾水上,惟有年年秋雁飛。』是時明皇春秋已高,遇事多感,聞此歌,悽然出涕,不終曲而起。因問:『誰人作此歌?』對曰:『李嶠詩。』明皇歎曰:『李嶠真才子也。』及范陽兵起,鑾輿幸蜀,過劍門關,登白衛嶺,周覽山川之勝,遲久而不懌,乃思水調所歌之詞而再舉之,又歎曰:『李嶠真才子也。』感慨不已,扶高力士而下,不勝嗚咽。」

樵曰:「天下之物,不能感人之心,而人心自感於物也,天下之事,不能移人之情,而人情自移事也。李嶠之詩,本不為明皇而作也,亦不知其詩他日可以感人之情如此也。蓋明皇為情所溺而自感於詩也。莊叟所謂山林歟?皋壤歟?使我忻忻然而樂歟?夫山林之茂,皋壤之盛,彼自茂盛爾,又何嘗自知其茂盛而能邀人之樂乎?蓋人感於情,見其茂盛而樂之也。此謂之無故之樂也。有無故之樂,必有無故之憂,故曰樂未畢也而哀又繼之,信哉是言也。」

漁曰:「舊事有傳之於世,而人或喜得之可以為談笑之資者,時多尚之,以助燕閒之樂。然而歲月浸遠,語及同異,有若明皇嘗燕諸王於木蘭殿,貴妃醉起舞《霓裳羽衣曲》,明皇大悅。《霓裳羽衣曲》說者數端。《逸史》云:羅公遠引明皇遊月宮,擲一竹枝於空中為大橋,色如金,行十數里,至一大城闕。羅曰:『此乃月宮也。』仙女數百,素衣飄然,舞於廣庭中。明皇問:『此何曲?』曰:『《霓裳羽衣曲》也。』明皇素曉音律,乃密記其聲。及歸,使伶人繼其聲作《霓裳羽衣曲》。及鄭愚作《津陽門》詩云:『蓬萊池上望秋月,萬里無雲懸清輝。上皇半夜月中去,三十六宮愁不歸。月中秘樂天半聞,玎璫玉石和塤箎。宸聰聽覽未終曲,卻到人間迷是非。』釋云:『葉靜能嘗引上入月宮,時秋已深,上苦悽寒不堪久。回至半天,尚聞天樂。及歸,但記其半,遂於笛中寫之。西涼都督楊敬述進婆羅門曲,與其音相符,遂以月中所聞為散序,用敬述所敬腔名《霓裳羽衣曲》。』又,劉禹錫詩云:『開元天子萬事足,惟惜當時光景促。三鄉陌上望仙山,歸作《霓裳羽衣曲》。仙心從此在瑤池,三清八景相追隨。天上忽乘白雲去,此間空有秋雁辭。』」

樵曰:「不然,非欲天下之人皆愚也。當戰國之時,諸子紛然,各持詭異之說,惑於當世,且欲游聞於諸侯,以張虛名而求其用矣。故誕妄邪怪之說充塞於道路,天下之人不識其是非可否,於是各安於習尚,以為耳目之新,既非聖人道德之言,又非先王仁義之術,宜乎焚之。又恐其徒呼噪不已以亂天下,於是玩之,有何不可?」

B.

漁曰:「世常傳云:『欲人不知,莫若不為。』此謂既為之也,安得人之不知。夫至隱而密者,莫若中冓之事,豈欲人之知耶,然而不能使人不知,以此知凡事而不循理者,雖毛髮之細不可為也。明皇舊置五王帳,長枕大被,與兄弟同處於其間。無何,妃子輒竊寧王玉笛吹之。始亦不彰。因張祐詩云:『梨花靜院無人處,閑把寧王玉笛吹。』妃因此忤,明皇不懌,乃遣中使張韜光送歸楊銛宅。妃子涕泣謂韜光曰:『託以下情敷奏,妾罪固當萬死,衣服之外,皆聖恩所賜,惟髮與膚生從父母耳。今當即死,無以謝上。』乃引刀剪髮一結,付韜光以獻。自妃之一逐,皇情憮然,至是韜光取髮搭之肩上以奏。明皇見之大驚惋,遽令高力士就召以歸。嗟乎,道路之言,亦可畏也。使張祐不為此詩,事亦何由彰顯之如此。然張亦何從得此,以此可驗其『欲人不知,莫若不為』,亦名言也。」

樵曰:「床簀之事,至隱密也,尚且暴揚於外,而況明目張口,公然為不道之事,宜何如哉!隱衷潛慮,傾人害物,而謂人不知,誠自欺也。人其可欺乎?世有為是者,不可不戒。」

漁曰:「明皇以八月誕降,酺會於勤政樓下,命之曰千秋節,大合樂,設連榻,使馬舞於其上。馬皆衣紈綺,被鈴鑷,驤首奮鬣,舉跋翹尾,變態動容,皆中節奏,故養之頗甚優厚。末年,祿山寵數優異,遂將數匹以歸而習之。後為田承嗣所得,而承嗣殊不知其為馬舞也。一日,大享士伍作樂,其馬於櫪上輒奮首舉足以舞。圉人惡之,舉足以擊,其馬尚謂不盡技之妙,愈更周旋宛轉,以極其態度。廝役以狀告承嗣,承嗣以為妖而戮之。天下有舞馬,由此絕矣。」

樵曰:「禍之與福,命也。遇與不遇,時也。命之與時,禍福會違者,幸不幸在其間也。是馬也,當明皇之時,衣紈綺,被鈴鑷,論其身之所享,可不謂之福乎?謂其見貴於時,可不謂之遇乎?不幸一旦失之於廝役之手,而箠楚遽苦其體,可謂不遇也。既而欲求免於箠楚,愈竭其能,而反為不知己者戮之,可謂禍矣。莊叟又嘗稱禍福相倚伏,誠哉至言也!嗚呼,馬之遇時則受其福,及夫不為人之所知,則身被其禍。士之處世,豈不然哉?伸於知己,屈於不知己,遇與不遇,乃時命也。」

漁曰:「張君房好誌怪異,嘗記一人:『劍州男子李忠者,因病而化為虎也。忠既病久,而其子市藥歸,乃省其父,忠視其子,朵頤而涎出。子訝而視父,乃虎也。急走而出,與母弟返閉其室。旋聞哮吼之聲,穴壁而窺之,乃真虎也。』悲哉!忠受氣為人,俄然化之為獸,事有所不可。審其來也,觀其涎流於舌,欲啖其子,豈人之所為乎?得非忠也久畜慘毒狠暴之心而然耶?內積貪惏吞噬之志而然耶?素有傷生害物之蘊而然耶?居常恃凶悖,恣殘忍,發於所觸而然耶?周旋宛轉,思之不得。」

樵曰:「有旨哉!釋氏有陰騭報應之說,常戒人動念以招困果,若已向所述之事,遂失人身而托質於虎,是釋氏之論勝矣。子知之乎?昂昂然擅威福,恣暴亂,毒流於人之骨髓,而禍延於人之宗族者,此形雖未化而心已虎矣。傾人於溝壑,以徇一己之私意,非虎哉?剝人之膏血,以充無名之淫費,非虎哉?使人父子兄弟,夫妻男女,不能相保,而骸骨狼藉於郊野,非虎哉?吾故曰:『形雖未化而心已虎矣。』於戲,以仁恩育物,豈欲為是哉;然而不能使為之者自絕於世,又何足怪也!」

漁曰:「唐末,有宜春人王轂者,以歌詩擅名於時,嘗作《玉樹曲》,略云:『碧月夜,瓊樓春,連舌泠泠詞調新。當時狎客盡豐祿,直諫犯顏無一人。歌未闋,晉王劍上黏腥血。君臣猶在醉鄉中,一面已無陳日月。』此詞大播於人口。轂未第時,嘗於市廛中,忽見有同人被無賴輩毆擊,轂前救之,揚聲曰:『莫無禮,識吾否,吾便解道「君臣猶在醉鄉中,一面已無陳日月」者。』無賴輩聞之,斂恥慚謝而退。噫,無賴者乃小人也,能為此等事,亦可重也。方其倚力恃勢,勃然以發凶暴之氣,將行毆擊,視其死且無悔矣。及一聞名人,則慚謝之色形於外,斯亦難矣。有改悔之恥,向善之心,安得不謂之君子哉!」

樵曰:「此亦一端也,古今富於詞筆者,不為不多矣。然或終身憔悴而不遇,士大夫雖聞之,亦未嘗出一言以稱之;兄有服膺樂善之心哉!以此知其無賴者,跡雖小人,而其心有愈於君子之所存也,又豈知跡雖君子,而其心不有愈於小人之所存哉!」

漁曰:「裴硎《傳奇》,嘗記一事甚怪者,云:『有唐魏博大將聶鋒,有女方十歲,名隱娘。忽一日,為乞丐尼竊去。父母不知其所向,但日夜悲泣嘆思而已。後五年,尼輒送隱娘還,告鋒曰:「教已成矣,卻領取。」尼亦遂亡矣。父母且驚且喜。乃詢其所學之事。隱娘云:『攜我至一岩洞中,與我藥一粒服之,便令持一寶劍,教之以習擊刺之法。一年後,刺猿猱如飛,刺虎豹如無物。三年,漸能飛騰以刺鷹隼。四年,挈我於都市中,每指其人,則必數其過惡,曰:為我取其首來。某應聲而首已至矣。自此日往都市中刺人之首,置於大囊中而歸,即時以藥消之為水。後五年,忽曰:大僚某人者,罪已貫盈,欺君罔民,殘賊忠良,為國之害,故已甚矣,今夜為我取其首來。隱娘承命而往,伏於大僚居室之梁上,移時方持其首至。尼大怒曰:何太晚如是?隱娘再拜云:為見前人戲弄一兒可愛,未欲下手。尼叱之曰:已後遇此事,先斷其所愛,然後決之。隱娘拜謝。尼曰:汝術已成,可歸。遂還家。父母聞其語甚怪,但畏懼而終不敢詰,亦不敢禁其所為。後至陳許節帥之事,尤更怪異。噫,吾聞劍俠世有之矣,然以女子柔弱之質,而能持刃以決凶人之首,非以有神術所資,惡能是哉?」

樵曰:「隱娘之所學,非常人之能教也。學之既精,而又善用其術,世有險詖邪怪者,輒決去其首,亦一家之正也。嗟乎,據重位厚祿,造惡不悛,以結人怨者,不可不畏隱娘之事也。及尼之戒曰:須先斷其所愛,然後決之,是欲奸凶之人絕嗣於世,尚恐餘毒流及於後,深可懼也。」

漁曰:「長壽中,有處士馬拯,與山人馬紹,相會於衡山祝融峰之精舍。見一老僧,古貌龐眉,體甚魁梧,舉止言語,殊亦朴野。得拯來甚喜。及倩拯之僕持錢往山下市少鹽酪,俄已不知老僧之所向。因馬紹繼至,乃云在路逢見一虎食一僕,食訖,即脫斑衣而衣禪衲,熟視乃一老僧也。拯詰其服色,乃知己之僕也。拯大懼。及老僧歸,紹謂拯曰:『食僕之虎,乃此僧也。』拯視僧之口吻,尚有餘血殷然。二人相顧而駭懼,及默為之計,因紿其僧云:『寺井有怪物,可同往觀之。』僧方窺井,二人併力推入井中,僧墜乃變虎形也,於是投之以巨石,而虎斃於井。二人者急趨以圖歸計。值日已薄暮,遇一獵者,張機於道旁,而居棚之上,謂二人曰:『山下尚遠,群虎方暴,何不且止於棚上。』二人悸慄,相與攀援而上,寄宿於棚。及昏瞑,忽見數十人過,或僧或道,或丈夫,或婦女,有歌吟者,有戲舞者。俄至張機所。眾皆大怒曰:『早來已被二賊殺我禪師,今方追捕次,又敢有人張機殺我將軍。』遂發機而去。二人聞其語,遂詰獵者:『彼眾何人也?』獵者曰:『此倀鬼也。乃疇昔嘗為虎食之人,既已鬼矣,遂為虎之役使,以屬前道。』二人遽請獵者再張機,方畢,有一虎哮吼而至,足方觸機,箭發貫心而踣,逡巡。向之諸倀鬼奔走卻回,俯伏虎之前,號哭甚哀,曰:『誰人又殺我將軍也。』二人者,乃厲聲叱之曰:『汝輩真所謂無知下鬼也,生既為虎之食,死又為虎之役使,今幸而虎已斃,又從而哀號之,何其不自疚之如此耶!』忽有一鬼答之曰:『某等性命,既為虎之所食啗,固當拊心刻志以報冤,今又左右前後以助其殘暴,誠可愧恥而甘受責矣,然終不知所謂禪師、將軍者乃虎也。』悲哉,人之愚惑,已至於此乎,近死而心不知其非,宜乎沉沒於下鬼也。」

樵曰:「舉世有不為倀鬼者,幾希矣。苟干進取以速利祿,吮疽舐痔無所不為者,非倀鬼歟?巧詐百端,求為人之鷹犬以備指呼,馳奸走偽,惟恐後於他人。始未得之,俯首卑辭,態有同於妾婦。及既得之,尚未離於咫尺,張皇誕傲,陰縱毒螫,遽然起殘人害物之心。一旦失勢,既敗乃事,則倉皇竄逐,不知死所。然終不悟其所使,往往尚懷悲感之意,失內疚之責。嗚呼哀哉,非倀鬼歟?」

漁曰:「李義山賦三怪物,述其情狀,真所謂得體物之精要也。 其一物曰;臣姓猾狐氏,帝名臣曰巧彰,字臣曰九規,而官臣為佞「鬼虛」焉。佞「鬼虛」之狀,領佩水漩,手貫風輪,其能以鳥為鶴,以鼠為虎,以蚩尤為誠臣,以共工為賢主,以夏姬為廉,以祝駝為魯,誦節義于寒浞,贊韶曼于嫫母。 其一物曰:臣姓潜弩氏,帝名臣曰携人,字臣曰衔骨,而官臣为讒霝{霝鬼}。讒霝之狀,能使親为疏、同為殊,使父膾其子、妻羹其夫。又持一物,狀若豐石,得人一惡,乃鑱乃刻;又持一物,大如長篲,得人一善,掃掠蓋蔽。謟啼偽泣,以就其事。 其一物曰:臣姓狼貪氏,帝名臣曰欲得,字臣曰善覆,而官臣为贪魃{鬼委}。贪魃之状,顶有千眼,亦有千口,鼠牙蠶喙,通臂众手。常居于仓,亦居于囊,颊钩骨箕,环聯琅璫。或時败累,囚于牢狴,拳梏履校,藂棘死灰;僥倖得释,他日复为。呜呼,義山状物之怪,可谓中時病矣!

樵曰:「然。夫怪物之為害,充塞於道路矣,何所遇而非怪也。傳聲接響,更相出沒,捃摭人之陰私,窺伺人之間隙,羅織描畫,惟恐刺骨之不深,非怪物之為害乎!殊不知此亦豸蝨之義也,何足以怪而自恃哉!」

 
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