You Lan Melody List
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Melody List
Appended at the end of Jieshidiao You Lan
碣石調幽蘭後 1
  You Lan melody list: You Lan is at bottom of 2nd column from right      
This list of 59 entries is one of three said to date from the Tang dynasty or earlier; the other two are Qin Cao (57 or 60 titles) and Qin Li (38 titles; see Appendix). Published together with the original You Lan manuscript, the list is thought also to date from the 6th or 7th century CE. The first four entries are the names of four modes, Chu, Qianjin, Hujia and Ganshen. After this the melodies may be considered as having been arranged according to these modes.2 If this is true, then the melodies should be grouped after the names of the modes as follows:

Having this list at the end of the tablature for You Lan suggests the possibility that these melodies were all published together at one time. Is it also possible that they were brought over to Japan together with You Lan, the subsequently lost? Yang, p.50 reports that an inventory compiled by the Japanese court in the 9th century claimed that they had in their possession "various types of qin/kin notations, in toal 120 scrolls." Such a collection could well have included many or most of those melodies listed here. But what happened to them? Were they, like the You lan scrolls, eventually all given away?

The complete list of melodies attached at the end of You Lan is as follows:

  1. 楚調 Chu Diao
    (Modal prelude for
    #5 to #9? See comments above and footnote below.)

  2. 千金調 Qianjin Diao
    (Modal prelude for
    #10 to #18? See comments above and footnote below, but compare Qianjin Qing)

  3. 胡笳調 Hujia Diao
    (Modal prelude for
    #19 to #28? See See comments above and footnote below.)

  4. 感神調 Ganshen Diao
    (Modal prelude for
    #29 to end? See See comments above and footnote below.)


  5. 楚明光 Chu Mingguang (begin Chu Mode?)
    (See his biography)

  6. 鳳歸林 Feng Gui Lin
    Xianmen Gao)

  7. 白雪 Bai Xue
    Yang Chun! See commentary with 1425 Bai Xue)

  8. 易水 Yi Shui
    Du Yishui)

  9. 幽蘭 You Lan
    ("第五 The fifth melody")

  10. 遊春 You Chun (begin Qianjin Mode?)
    (Cai Shi Wunong #1)

  11. 淥水 Lu Shui
    Cai Shi Wunong #2; lyrics)

  12. 幽居 You Ju
    Cai Shi Wunong #3)

  13. 坐愁 Zuo Chou
    Cai Shi Wunong #4)

  14. 秋思 Qiu Si
    Cai Shi Wunong #5)

  15. 長清 Chang Qing
    (Xi Kang 4 Melodies, #1)

  16. 短清 Duan Qing
    (Xi Kang 4 Melodies, #2)

  17. 長側 Chang Ce
    (Xi Kang 4 Melodies, #3)

  18. 短側 Duan Ce
    (Xi Kang 4 Melodies, #4)

  19. 上上舞 Shang Shangwu (begin Hujia Mode?)
    (17.54xxx shangshang; no shang shangwu or shang wu; see QSCB, p.64 for possible connections to Zhaojun Yuan)

  20. 下上舞 Xia Shangwu
    (11.7xxx xiashang; see previous entry)

  21. 上間絃 Shang Jianxian
    (Only 17.549xxx 上閒 shangjian; Jianxian 42164 =; see
    Ma Gei; 1525 has a Jianxian mode with a Ming Jun seemingly unrelated to Zhaojun)

  22. 下間絃 Xia Jianxian
    (See previous entry)

  23. 登隴 Deng Long
    Liu Kun)

  24. 望秦 Wang Qin
    Liu Kun)

  25. 竹吟風 Zhu Yin Feng
    Liu Kun)

  26. 哀松路 Ai Song Lu
    Liu Kun)

  27. 悲漢月 Bei Han Yue
    Liu Kun)

  28. 辭漢 Ci Han
    (; "Leave Han"; see, e.g.,
    Longshuo Cao, Section 2; also QSCB, p.64)

  29. 跨鞍 Kua An (begin Ganshen and Other Modes?)
    (Astride a Saddle;

  30. 望鄉 Wang Xiang
    (Looking at the Countryside; 14697.134 has no musical references)

  31. 奔雲 Ben Yun
    (Scattering Clouds;

  32. 入林 Ru Lin
    (Entering the Forest;

  33. 華舜十遊 Hua Shun Shi You

  34. 史明五弄 Shi Ming Wu Nong

  35. 董揩五弄 Dong Kai Wu Nong
    (32204.187xxx [Song dynasty person])

  36. 鳳翅五路 Feng Chi Wu Lu
    (Phoenix Wings, 5 Roads;

  37. 流波 Liu Bo
    (See in
    Feng Ru Song)

  38. 雙流 Shuang Liu
    (Paired Waves;

  39. 三挾流泉 Sanxia Liu Quan
    (See commentary in

  40. 石上流泉 Shishang Liu Quan
    (See commentary in

  41. 蛾眉 E Mei
    (Moth Eyebrows; 33914.5xxx; an E Mei Yuan is in YFSJ,
    Folio 43 [p. 631], at the end or after songs about Ban Jieyu)

  42. 悲風拂隴頭 Bei Feng Fu Long Tou
    Bei Feng Yin Long Tou, Long Tou and Bei Feng Yin)

  43. 風入松 Feng Ru Song
    1511 commentary)

  44. 遊弦 You Xian (游弦)
    (; in repertoire of
    Xue Yijian; YFSJ reference in Wang Shixiang article)

  45. 楚客吟秋風 Chu Ke Yin Qiu Feng
    (Two melodies? See
    Qiu Feng but compare QSDQ and QYYL; 15473.67 only 楚客 Chu ke)

  46. 東武太山 (= 東武泰山) Dongwu Taishan
    (Two melodies? See
    footnote the Wang Shixiang article; sometimes attributed to Confucius.)

  47. 招賢 Zhao Xian
    (12212.136 has nothing on music; compare
    Zhao Yin)

  48. 反顧 Fan Gu
    (Look Back; 3191.234 has nothing on music)

  49. 閑居樂 Xian Ju Le
    (Sometimes attributed to

  50. 鳳遊園 Feng You Yuan
    (; compare 鳳遊雲操)

  51. 蜀側 Shu Ce

  52. 古側 Gu Ce
    (; see also this list)

  53. 龍吟 Long Yin (十弄 Shinong?)
    (49812.163 qin melody played by
    Zheng Shuzu)

  54. 千金清 Qianjin Qing
    (2744.226 melody name;
    Qinqu Pulu attributes it to Wen Wang; see also Qianjin Mode)

  55. 屈原歎 Qu Yuan Tan
    (see footnote to
    Li Sao)

  56. 烏夜啼 Wu Ye Ti
    1425 version)

  57. 瑟調 Se Diao
    (21625.20 a type of Xianghe Ge; see YFSJ,
    Folios 36 - 40, pp. 534 - 598)

  58. 廣陵止息 Guangling Zhixi
    Guangling San, in particular section 2)

  59. 楚妃歎 Chu Fei Tan
    (See in Qin Cao,
    Hejian Yage #19 and other lists; same as 湘妃歎 Xiang Fei Tan?)

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. See the original layout or the end of the original You Lan manuscript.

2. This analysis comes from Yuan Jung-Ping; see also the General Introduction to You Lan.

3. 楚調 Chu Diao (#1 and #5 - 9?)
Although this list begins with four the names of four "diao, it is not specifically stated that these titles refer to modal preludes rather than being just a list of the modes included. However, there is logic to this idea. First is the fact that elsewhere modal preludes have sometimes been listed or written out first; then there is the observation that if you don't have to include these four "diao when counting titles, then that makes it logical that You Lan is Number 5.

It has been further speculated that the other 55 titles were melodies that fit into these modes. From this, and the fact Qiu Ming lived in the Chu region, it is further speculated that Jieshi Diao was a type of Chu Mode (楚調 Chu Diao). However, as discussed further here, it seems more likely that jieshi refers to an actual melody or type of melody, one perhaps associated in some way with "Towering Rock Mountain" (碣石山 Jieshi Shan).

Chu melodies surviving from Ming dynasty tablature usually use one of the raised fifth tunings; see Chu Region. This does not seem to be the case for the surviving versions of the melodies included here.

Note also that This is related to the question of whether You Lan being called Number 5 means it is the fifth piece in the Chu mode or the 5th piece overall.

4. 千金調 Qianjin Diao (#2 and #10 - 18?)
Surviving versions of these titles all use standard tuning.

5. 胡笳調 Hujia Diao (#3 and #19 - 32?)
Hujia melodies surviving from Ming dynasty tablature usually use lowered first/raised fifth tuning; see North and Central Asia region. Regarding the first four melodies in this section, a commentary in Qin Ji (see YFSJ p.426) says, "胡笳明君四弄有上舞、下舞、上間絃、下間絃。 Four Ming Jun melodies in the Hujia Mode are Shang Wu (sic.), Xia Wu (sic.), Shang Jianxian and Xia Jianxian." The other five melodies in this category could also related to Central Asia: the first four are connected to the military official Liu Kun and #28 concerns Wang Zhaojun.

6. 感神調 Ganshen Diao (Inducing Celestials Mode; #4 and #33 - end?); 7/612xxx; gan shen is mentioned in connection with the melody Shenren Chang, but as yet no further information.

Appendix: 琴歷 Qin Li (Qin Account)

玉函山房輯 Yuhan Shanfang Ji has a list of 38 melodies under the title Qin Li, with references made to 琴歷頭薄 Qin Li Toubo, said to be from the 隋志 Sui Annals, and 琴集力頭拍薄 Qin Ji Li Tou Pai Bo, its name in the 唐志 Tang Annals. Qin Li lists the 38 melodies as follows:

  1. 蔡氏五弄 Caishi Wunong
  2. 雙鳳 Shuang Feng
  3. 離鸞 Li Luan
  4. 歸風 Gui Feng (太平御覽 has 歸鳳 Gui Feng)
  5. 送遠 Song Yuan
  6. 幽蘭 You Lan
  7. 白雪 Bai Xue
  8. 長清 Chang Qing
  9. 短清 Duan Qing
  10. 長側 Chang Ce
  11. 短側 Duan Ce (御覽 does not have this 側曲; added here from 初學記)
  12. 清調 Qing Diao
  13. 瑟調 Se Diao (初學記 does not have this melody; added here from 御覽)
  14. 大遊 Da You
  15. 小遊 Xiao You
  16. 明君胡笳 Mingjun Hujia
  17. 廣陵散 Guangling San
  18. 白玉歎 Baiyu Tan
  19. 楚妃歎 Chufei Tan
  20. 風入松 Feng Ru Song
  21. 烏夜啼 Wu Ye Ti (has comment on story, adding that they are not in 御覽 but are in 初學記)
  22. 楚明光 Chu Ming Guang
  23. 石上流泉 Shishang Liu Quan
  24. 臨汝侯 Linru Hou (Marquis of Linru; see Shen Jiao Qu)
  25. 子安之 Zi An Zhi
  26. 流漸涸 Liu Jian Hao
  27. 雙燕離 Shuang Yan Li
  28. 陽春弄 Yang Chun Nong
  29. 悅弄 Yue Nong
  30. 連弄 Lian Nong (#29 and 30 not in 初學記, added from 御覽)
  31. 悅人弄 Yue Ren Nong
  32. 連珠弄 Lian Zhu Nong
  33. 中揮清 Zhong Hui Qing (the 揮 is not clear)
  34. 暢志清 Chang Zhi Qing
  35. 蟹行清 Xie Xing Qing (omitted from 御覽 so added from 初學記)
  36. 看客清 Kan Ke Qing (初學記 has 看; 御覽 has 着)
  37. 便僻清 Pian Pi Qing (Bian?)
  38. 婉轉清 Wan Zhuan Qing (Both 徐堅初學記卷16, (太平御覽卷578)

Other melodies are mentioned in the Qinshu Cunmu entry.

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