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Zheyin  ToC   Melody of the Fisherman's Song   /   Standard tuning Yu Ge   /   Illustrated Yu Ge Scroll 首頁
09. Fisherman's Song
- Ruibin mode,2 from standard tuning raise the 5th string: 2 3 5 6 1 2 3
漁歌 1
Yu Ge
  From the Shanghai Museum: Wu Zhen, The Fisherman 3  
The earliest surviving version of the present melody, today more commonly called Ao Ai or Ao Ai Ge,4 occurs here in Zheyin Shizi Qinpu, where it follows the short Yuge Diao (Fisherman's Song Melody), a setting to music of a poem called Yu Weng (The Old Fisherman). Yu Weng is by the famous poet Liu Zongyuan (Liu Zihou, 773-819), and apparently for this reason the melody Yu Ge has also often been attributed to him.5

In fact, there are two Fisherman's Songs, the present one using the raised fifth string tuning (tonal center 6 [la], secondarily on 3 [mi], but in many passages the tonal center changes to 1 [do] and 5 [sol]), and another using standard tuning (zhi mode, tonal centers 5 and 2 [re]). Both remain in the current repertoire, the standard tuning one still called Yu Ge. There are over 30 published versions of each,6 with most having 18 sections.7

In addition, there are also about eight recordings of the standard tuning Yu Ge as well as about 14 recordings of Ao Ai. Within each tuning all melodies are clearly related, though there are also very significant differences.8

Both the Yu Ge (Ao Ai) using ruibin tuning and the Yu Ge using standard tuning survive in about 35 handbooks, the former from ca. 1491 to 1876, the latter from 1525 to 1910. The earliest handbook with the standard tuning Yu Ge, Xilutang Qintong,9 is also the first handbook to call the ruibin version Ao Ai as well as the first one (of 10) to have versions with both tunings. It attributes its standard tuning Yu Ge to the late Song dynasty qin master Mao Minzhong, but this attribution is generally not repeated in later handbooks.

Commentary on Ao Ai Ge in at least two handbooks, Chuncaotang Qinpu (1744) and Erxiang Qinpu (1833), begins by saying that it is commonly called the "northern Yu Ge"; the writers then suggest this is a mistake, Erxiang Qinpu explaining that Ao Ai is pentatonic (5 tone scale) and Yu Ge is diatonic (7 tone scale).10 Several other factors also suggest that the ruibin tuning Yu Ge should be considered a southern counterpart to the standard tuning northern one. Section titles and lyrics of the present ruibin version associate it with the south (Chu), whereas the Xilutang Qintong standard tuning version has section titles with associations to the region around Jiangsu's Lake Taihu. In addition, other melodies with one of the raised fifth tunings are often associated with Hunan and the ancient kingdom of Chu.11 And Liu Zongyuan spent years of exile in Hunan.12

My recording of the Yu Ge in Zheyin Shizi Qinpu shows some rather exotic modality in the second part of Section 14, following a comment that says these are "oar sounds".13 First there is a passage which has the repeated sequences 1 3 4 3 4 6 4 3, very much like a Japanese scale. The phrase ends on repeated intervals of a diminished ninth chord (3 and 4) and the following phrase then ends with a strong cadence on another diminished ninth (6 and 7 flat). I interpret the flatted 7 as leading strongly into the next passage, which begins on 6 (the tonic).

As mentioned in Tuning the Qin, early qin music includes quite a few passages which don't fit into the modality expected today. This is perhaps the most idiosyncratic passage. At first when I encountered it I was quite convinced there was a mistake (the sample page shows some actual mistakes from that page), and I tried to get myself to "correct" it; but the more I tried, the more I kept coming back to these fanciful dissonances. For me they work.

Zheyin Shizi Qinpu preface

Zheyin groups this with the preceding piece, Yuge Diao, and so it has no separate preface.14

18 Sections, titled; lyrics throughout (not sung on my recording)
This Illustrated Yu Ge Scroll has 18 images connected to the standard tuning Yu Ge

00.00   1. Clouds over the Xiao and Xiang rivers
01.08   2. The autumn river shines like a ribbon of white silk cloth
01.51   3. Autumn thoughts by Dongting lake
02.16   4. Mist and waves on the Chu and Xiang
02.54   5. A brilliant moon in the broad firmament
03.30   6. The fishermen's songs echo back and forth
04.29   7. Wild geese call
05.01   8. An evening alongside the western
05.27   9. The fishermen sing in the evening
06.23   10. Drunkenly lying among the rushes
07.07   11. Evening rain on an overgrown lattice window
07.33   12. Leaves fall from the wutong tree
08.00   13. At dawn drawing water from the Xiang river
08.30   14. The fishermen row their
09.04   15. Casting a net into the cool river
09.45   16. The sun comes out, dissolving the mists
10.12   17. The sound "ao ai" (oars splashing)
10.29   18. High mountains and long rivers.
10.49       Closing harmonics
11.02       End

Return to the Zheyin Shizi Qinpu index or to the Guqin ToC.

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Yu Ge 漁歌
18588.87 "song sung by a fisherman"; 18589.88 漁歌子,Yu Gezi 詞牌名 name of a ci song poem pattern connected to a poem by Tang poet 張志和 Zhang Zhihe (730-782).

2. Ruibin mode 蕤賓調
1=do, 2=re, etc.; in my transcription do is written as c, but the exact pitch depends on such things as the size and quality of the instrument and strings. For more information about 蕤賓調 ruibin mode see Shenpin Ruibin Yi. For modes in general see Modality in Early Ming Qin Tablature.

3. Wu Zhen (1280-1354): The Fisherman 吳鎮,漁父圖
The above is an excerpt from the Shanghai Museum website. There is a painting on this same theme also attributed to Wu Zhen in the Freer Gallery, Washington, D.C. (compare compare).

4. Pronunciation of 欸乃 and 欸乃歌 (see in poem)
16442.0 欸 gives ai, i and ao as pronunciations for several types of interjections.
115.0 乃 gives both nai and ai as pronunciations, associating the latter with 欸乃.
16442.1 欸乃 can thus be pronounced Ao Ai, Ai Ai or I Ai, though it is now also commonly pronounced Ai Nai. It is defined as the sound of oars being rowed, adding that by extension it also represents a boat song or fisherman's song.
16442.2 欸乃曲 Ao Ai Qu gives several references and says it is also a 詞牌名 poetic rhythm. 16442.3 欸乃詞 Ao Ai Ci is a woodcutter's song.

5. Liu Zongyuan, the Old Fisherman 柳宗元,漁翁
Liu Zongyuan was also called 柳子厚 Liu Zizou. Melodic settings of his poem, which survive in 12 handbooks up to Meian Qinpu (1931), are discussed under Yu Ge Diao. Xu Jian, Qinshi Chubian, p.75 discusses the connection between Yu Ge Diao and Ao Ai. Some handbooks also attribute Ao Ai itself to Liu, while some later ones even attribute to him the zhi mode Yu Ge.

6. Tracing Yu Ge and Ao Ai
For details see appendix below. For printed and punctuated copies of prefaces, etc., see Zha 11/117/200 (Yu Ge) and 21/190/376 (Ao Ai). Zha generally puts all the Yu Ge together, even if they use ruibin tuning.

7. Most have 18 Sections
The main exception is a 10 section standard tuning Yu Ge noted as following the Meixuewo revision.

8. Transcriptions and recordings
Transcriptions in the old Guqin Quji of the standard tuning Yu Ge are listed under its introduction. As yet the only published transcription I have seen of Ao Ai is the one of the abridged version in volume 2 of the conservatory repertoire Guqin Quji (see below). As for recordings, Guan Pinghu's (CD 2, track 8), follows the 1876 section by section but not note for note; timings are:

  1. 00.00 (related to preludes such as Leji Yin
  2. 01.01 (main melody of early versions begins)
  3. 02.31
  4. 03.42 (harmonics)
  5. 04.01
  6. 04.38 ("slow")
  7. 05.10
  8. 05.40
  9. 06.32
  10. 07.05
  11. 07.44 (harmonics)
  12. 08.00
  13. 08.35
  14. 09.19 (harmonics)
  15. 09.35 (includes comment "如䜭[浚]次第車上")
  16. 10.00
  17. 10.35
  18. 11.29 (quite slow)
    Coda: 12.14 (harmonics; end 12.30)

In the earliest version (see track 9 of my CD) the harmonic sections are #s 3, 10, 13 and the coda. One can see connections in the tablature between that version and this one, but they are difficult to hear.

The relationship between conservatory abridged version and the one played by Sun Yü-Ch'in is not clear. There were a number of abridged versions made, apparently in the 1980s and '90s, and recorded; it seems that no one else wanted to play the full version. The conservatory version is said to have been abridged by Li Xiangting, but it does not seem much different from these earlier abridged versions.

9. Ao Ai and Yu Ge in Xilutang Qintong (1525)
Ao Ai is the 112th melody in Xilutang Qintong, compiled by Wang Zhi (王芝), who lived on the southeast side of Huang Shan mountain in Anhui province. Wang in the introduction of his handbook says he spent 30 years collecting the tunes. Some of these seem to be very early versions, some quite late. His Ao Ai is quite different melodically from the earlier raised fifth Yu Ge. In addition, the titles of the 16 sections are also quite different from those for Yu Ge in Zheyin Shizi Qinpu. The preface for Ao Ai in Xilutang Qintong as follows,

In olden times gentlemen who set aside fame and embraced the Dao usually searched out fishermen and woodcutters in order to amuse themselves. This melody really has the passion of cool clouds and empty mountains as well as cold rivers and a white moon. There is no need to mention (Liu Zihou's lines about) "Drawing clear water from the Xiang River to make a bamboo fire below the western cliff."

The standard tuning Yu Ge is the 82nd piece in Xilutang Qintong. For it Xilutang Qintong has the following preface,

After the Qiwowen family took control (of China by capturing Hangzhou and initiating the Yuan dynasty in 1280), Mao Minzhong felt it was an insult to work for people with a barbarian surname, so he (resigned from office and) followed the winds and water, enjoying the Dao and escaping worldly affairs. He wrote this piece to attract others of similar intention. In a general way he imitated the idea of the Woodcutter's Song, but its melody seems somewhat newer. (6013.156 says Chiwowen was a the Yuan dynasty royal name.

10. Northern and Southern Songs of the Fisherman
Chuncaotang Qinpu (1744) and Erxiang Qinpu (1833) both have statements about the raised fifth version of Yu Ge being incorrectly called "northern Yu Ge". 1744 says this is wrong and it does not know where the idea came from. 1833 seems to give some explanation. After saying that Ao Ai Ge is commonly called "northern Yu Ge" it first says that old handbooks such as 1589, 1596 and 1611 call it Yu Ge and that their harmonic closings end either with the sounds of the 3rd and 5th strings (so do; see 1589, 1596 [but note, e.g., that <1491 ends on la; 1539 and 1579 end on mi la) or on the first and sixth strings (mi mi; 1611 [as do 1525, 1552]). "These are other melodies. Later, 1689 closed with the second and fourth strings (mi la): this is a yu melody" (羽 yu is la). Moreover, the northern "一字" (do) is not seen (as an ending) in printed versions. The so-called 'northern Yu Ges' are different from the Yu Ges that are 正調商音 zheng diao shang yin (standard tuning)." It goes on to say that in China, northern music tends more towards being diatonic than does southern music, and that it wants to distinguish the two melodies by referring to the raised fifth tuning one as Ao Ai because of the line in the poem by Liu (Zongyuan). It may be that later versions of Yu Ge were more diatonic (using seven tone scale) and of Ao Ai were more pentatonic, but this is not evident in the earliest surviving editions. See also the footnote with the standard tuning Yu Ge.

11. Chu connection to raised 5th tunings?
There is no information explaining this apparent connection, nor any evidence that ancient Chu melodies had this characteristic.

12. Location of Dongting
The situation is made more confusing by there being a 洞庭 Dongting (an island, hill or cave) in Taihu as well as the more famous Dongting Lake in Hunan. There is a relationship between the section titles of the ruibin Yu Ge and those of Xiao Xiang Shui Yun, which also uses ruibin tuning. And several prefaces to later versions of Zui Yu Chang Wan suggest it has melodic relations to (the zhi mode version of) Yu Ge.

13. Section 14: "Oar sounds" (櫓聲 lu sheng)
Compare the passage in Qiu Hong Section 16, said to be the sound of geese calling to the moon. In most versions of Ao Ai beginning with ca. 1700 this seems to corresponds with the concept of Section 15, this section also sometimes being singled out for comment (see in chart beginning with 1726), but the music is very different. In the modern abridged version that passage from Section 15 may have some connection to material in what is Section 6 of the conservatory version (Vol 2, p.81).

In the referenced first passage from 1491 (1 3 4 3 4 6 4 3), the "1" is actually written in a position producing 7 , but the fingering required for this followed by that for 3 is very awkward.

14. Original preface
See the Yuge Diao Preface (Chinese). In later handbooks, commentary with this ruibin tuning Yu Ge, as with Ao Ai, often associates the melody with Liu Zongyuan, as here.

15. Music and lyrics (QQJC I/218-222))
The original Chinese section titles can be seen under 漁歌. The complete original lyrics, which can be found in this .pdf file (from Zha Guide 200 [724]), begin as follows:

  1. 瀟湘水雲

  2. 秋江如練

Not yet translated.

Return to the top

Appendix: Chart Tracing Standard and Raised Fifth Ao Ai / Yu Ge
Based mainly on Zha Fuxi's
Guide, 11/117/200 Yu Ge and 21/190/376 Ao Ai
See also the Yu Ge Diao chart

    (year; QQJC Vol/page)
Further information (QQJC = 琴曲集成 Qinqu Jicheng; QF = 琴府 Qin Fu)
Raised fifth tuning                         -           Not clear           -                         Standard Tuning
  1.  浙音釋字琴譜
      (<1491; I/217)
18TL; ruibin diao (RBD); first version of melody later called Ao Ai
Yu Ge; "by Liu Zihou" (Liu Zongyuan), preceded by Yu Ge Diao, with which it shares a preface
2a.  西麓堂琴統
16T; RBD; section titles different; melody also very different: e.g., opens with harmonics
Ao Ai (very different, though parts are clearly related)
2b.  西麓堂琴統
      (1525; III/165)
18; zhi diao (ZD; earlier version than 1546?)
I play this version; afterword mentions Mao Minzhong; Yu Ge
  3.  風宣玄品
      (1539; II/342)
18T; RBD; similar music to <1491, with same section titles but no lyrics
Yu Ge (no Yu Ge Diao)
  4.  梧岡琴譜
      (1546; I/436)
10; 徵調 zhidiao (ZD); first printing of standard tuning Yu Ge
Meixuewo edition, 即山水綠 same as Shanshui Lü"; Yu Ge
  5.  琴譜正傳
      (1561; II/509)
10; ZD; identical to 1546
Meixuewo edition, "即山水綠 same as Shanshui Lü"; Yu Ge
6a.  太音傳習
      (1552-61; IV/180)
18; RBD
Ao Ai Ge; preceded by Leji Yin; preface mentions 山水綠之詩 poem of Shanshui Lü
6b.  太音傳習
      (1552-61; IV/126)
12; ZD
Yu Ge; has preface
7a.  太音補遺
      (1557; III/399)
18; RBD
Ao Ai Ge; preceded by Leji Yin; preface mentions 山水綠之詩 poem of Shanshui Lü
7b.  太音補遺
      (1557; III/371)
10; ZD
Yu Ge; preface like 1552
  8.  步虛僊琴譜
      (1556; III/286)
11; ZD
Yu Ge
  9.  五音琴譜
      (1579; IV/247)
18; RBD (listed under wai diao)
Ao Ai Ge; no commentary
10. 新刊正文對音捷要
      (1573; #61--)
#61; same as 1585?
Yu Ge; preceded by Yu Ge Diao
11. 重修真傳琴譜
      (1585; IV/472)
18L; RBD; attrib. Liu Zihou; lyrics similar to <1491 but melody quite diff.;
Yu Ge; preceded by Yu Ge Diao
12. 玉梧琴譜
      (1589; VI/77)
18; RBD
Ao Ai Ge; attrib. Liu Zihou
13a. 真傳正宗琴譜
      (1589; VII/138)
Yu Ge; preceded by Leji Yin
13b. 真傳正宗琴譜
      (1609; facsimile)
Repeat of 1589?
Yu Ge; preceded by Leji Yin
14. 琴書大全
      (1590; V/524)
18; RBD; preceded by 神品蕤賓意 Shenpin Ruibin Yi (SPRBY)
Yu Ge; the SPRBY somewhat resembles the Yu Ge Diao melody
15. 文會堂琴譜
      (1596; VI/265)
18; RBD
Yu Ge, "also called Ao Ai Ge"
16. 綠綺新聲
      (1597; VII/40)
20L; RBD
Ao Ai Ge
17a. 藏春塢琴譜
      (1602; VI/430)
18; RBD;
Ao Ai Ge; attrib. Liu Zihou, but no lyrics
17b. 藏春塢琴譜
      (1602; VI/385)
13; ZD; commentary says only "古曲 old melody"
Yu Ge
18. 陽春堂琴譜
      (1611; VII/430)
18; RBD; no commentary
Yu Ge; preceded by Leji Yin (Yu Ge Diao)
19. 琴適
      (1611; VIII/39)
20L; RBD; lyrics are related, but very diff.; no commentary
Ao Ai
20. 松絃館琴譜
      (1614; VIII/129)
18; zhi (diao); no commentary
Yu Ge
21. 思齊堂琴譜
      (1620; IX/51)
18; 徵意 zhi yi; no commentary
Yu Ge
22. 太音希聲
      (1625; IX/223)
18L; RBD
Ao Ai Ge
23a. 徽言秘旨
      (1647; X/222)
18; RBD
Ao Ai Ge
23b. 徽言秘旨
      (1647; X/150)
18; ZD
Yu Ge
24a. 徽言秘旨訂
      (1692; facsimile)
18; RBD
Ao Ai Ge; should be same as 1647
24b. 徽言秘旨訂
      (1692; facsimile)
18; ZD
Yu Ge; should be same as 1647
25. 友聲社琴譜
      (early Qing; XI/150)
18; zhi (diao); 嚴譜 Yan tablature; no other commentary
Yu Ge
26. 愧庵琴譜
      (1660; XI/46)
18; ZD
Yu Ge
27. 琴苑新傳全編
      (1670; XI/436)
8; RBD; attrib. Liu Zihou
Yu Ge
28. 響山堂琴譜
      (<1700?; XIV/134)
18; RBD; Section 2 is like Section 1 of earlier versions
Ao Ai Ge; earliest pu where Section 1 is like Leji Yin or a modal prelude
29a. 澄鑒堂琴譜
      (1689; XIV/333)
18; RBD; seems identical to <1700
Ao Ai Ge
29b. 澄鑒堂琴譜
      (1689; XIV/252)
18; ZD
Yu Ge
30a. 蓼懷堂琴譜
      (1702; XIII/???)
1876 Ao Ai Ge says it is copied from here, but there is no pu and it is not in ToC
Presumably would also be Ao Ai Ge
30b. 蓼懷堂琴譜
      (1702; XIII/243)
No lyrics or commentary; 18; ZD
Yu Ge
31a. 五知齋琴譜
      (1722; XIV/488)
18; ZD; "熟、金二譜合壁,歌文錄未 compared Shu and Jin tablature; put lyrics at end"
Wu Zhaoji notation: GQQJ#1/104; Yu Ge
31b. 五知齋琴譜
      (1722; XIV/493)
Lyrics of Leji Yin and a long Yu Ge Ci: no music (placed directly after standard tuning Yu Ge - see previous row)
(No tablature in 1722 for the ruibin versions!)
32. 存古堂琴譜
      (1726; XV/289)
18; RBD (#15: "此段撥刺宜輕肥")
Ao Ai Ge; like <1700
33a. 春草堂琴譜
      (1744; XVIII/275)
18; 無射均,羽音 wuyi jun, yuyin; afterword: "一派南音,並無北韻。俗呼為'北漁歌',不知何指"
Ao Ai; like <1700;                         "completely southern sound, don't know why called 'Northern Yu Ge'"
33b. 春草堂琴譜
      (1744; XVIII/257)
14; 中呂均 zhonglü yun (ZLY), 商音 shang yin (SY)
see afterword ("originally 18 sections...."}; Yu Ge
34. 蘭田館琴譜
      (1755; XVI/237)
18; ZD
Yu Ge
35a. 琴香堂琴譜
      (1760; XVII/168)
18; RBD; like <1700
Ao Ai Ge
35b. 琴香堂琴譜
      (1760; XVII/75)
18; ZD
Yu Ge
36. 研露樓琴譜
      (1766; XVI/526)
18; RBD; like <1700
Ao Ai Ge
37a. 自遠堂琴譜
      (1802; XVII/493)
18; zhidiao shangyin
Ao Ai Ge; like <1700
37b. 自遠堂琴譜
      (1802; XVII/376)
18; shangyin
Zha Fuxi pu in GQQJ#1/115; Yu Ge
38. 裛露軒琴譜
      (>1802; XIX/275)
18; ZD
Yu Ge
39a. 琴譜諧聲
      (1820; XX/177)
18L; 清變宮音 qingbian gongyin
Ao Ai; like <1700
39b. 琴譜諧聲
      (1820; XX/163)
14; 角商 jiaoshang
Yu Ge
40. 鄰鶴齋琴譜
      (1830; XXI/71)
18; NFI
Yu Ge (comes after XXSY but standard tuning)
41. 二香琴譜
      (1833; XXIII/170)
18; 羽音 yu yin; like <1700
Ao Ai Ge; like 1744, says Ao Ai commonly called the "Northern Yu Ge"
41. 二香琴譜
      (1833; XXIII/136)
short afterword; 18; 商音 shang yin
Yu Ge
42. 悟雪山房琴譜
      (1836/ XXII/340)
19; 中呂均 zhonglü yun (ZLY)
Yu Ge
43. 行有恒堂錄存琴譜
      (1840; XXIII/202)
18; has afterword and 眉批 (comments at top of two page)
Yu Ge
44. 張鞠田琴譜
      (1844; XXIII/280)
18; attrib. Liu Zihou and comes after XXSY but standard tuning
宮調商音 gong diao shang yin; has commentary, gongche notes and marginal comments; Yu Ge
45. 稚雲琴譜
      (1849; XXIII/418)
18; RBD
Ao Ai Ge; like <1700
46. 琴學尊聞
      (1864; XXIV/249)
13; 商音宮調 shangyin gongdiao
standard tuning; Yu Ge
47. 蕉庵琴譜
      (1868; XXVI/57)
18; shangyin
attrib. Liu Zihou but standard tuning; Yu Ge
48a. 天聞閣琴譜
      (1876; XXV/381)
preface and afterword; ToC: "from 1722"; 18; ZY;
there are lyrics at end XXV/388 (also = 1722) but they are for ruibin version (see next)!; Yu Ge
48b. 天聞閣琴譜
      (1876; XXV/457)
14; yuyin, shangdiao; commentary; "from 1744"
standard tuning; marginal comments, "originally 18 sections...."; Yu Ge
48c. 天聞閣琴譜
      (1876; XXV/561)
18 + 尾音 coda (#15 has comment); RBD; starts like <1700 but then Section 2 adds a descending glissando;
Ao Ai Ge; ToC and margins: "1702", but not there. Recorded by GPH.
48d. 天聞閣琴譜
      (1876; XXV/578)
8!; RBD; "琴苑譜" (almost same as 1670: corrections? Attrib Liu Zihou)
Yu Ge; not the source of the modern short Ao Ai
49. 天籟閣琴譜
      (1876; XXI/235)
18; RBD; like <1700
Ao Ai Qu: "same as the old Yu Ge"
50. 響雪齋琴譜
18; RBD
Ao Ai (Handbook not in QQJC)
51. 希韶閣琴譜
      (1878; XXVI/358)
compare 1722; attrib Liu Zihou; "熟,金二譜合壁"; 18; ZY;
preface, comments between sections, at end adds lyrics of Leji Yin and Yu Ge; Yu Ge
52. 雙琴書屋琴譜集成
      (1884; XXVII/304)
"邗江吳派 Wu School of Han River" (near Yangzhou?); 19 (including 尾聲 weisheng); shangyin
No mention of re-tuning strings; Yu Ge
53. 枯木禪琴譜
      (1893; XXVIII/73)
18; zhiyin
attrib. Liu Zihou; Yu Ge
54. 琴學初津
      (1894; XXVIII/292)
19 including 收音 finale; shangyin
Guess standard tuning (Zha guide mentions no tuning changes for any piece here); Yu Ge
55. 琴學叢書
      (1910; XXX/232)
18; gongdiao shangyin; from 1802
琴府/986; Yu Ge
56. 夏一峰傳譜
      (1957; #11)
18; standard tuning
Yu Ge
57. 虞山吳氏琴譜
      (2001, p.74)
said to follow Wu Jinglue's 1940s reconstruction from 1722; 18
Yu Ge
58. 古琴曲集 II
      (2010, Level 8 #6, pp.78-82)
7; abridged versions of Ao ai have been popular since at least the 1980s, with quite a few modern recordings
Ao Ai; transcription in the Conservatory repertoire Guqin Quji abridges Guan Pinghu's reconstruction from 1876 (XXV/561)

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