Important Words from Miscellaneous Books
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Taiyin Daquanji 1
Folio 4, Part 1: Important Words from Miscellaneous Books
Explanations by the translator are either in brackets ( ) or footnotes.2
Folio 4/1 (expand); red marks correspond to sections at left3    

    (In the original these quotations are unnumbered.)

  1. The qin has the meaning "restricted". It restricts people from stopping amidst evil, and is used to rectify their minds.
        - from Baihu Tong (see yin shi)

  2. The qin belongs to the category of music. It is what the gentleman should "operate".
        - from Fengsu Tong (see yin shi)

  3. The qin is 3 chi, 6 cun, 6 fen long, (resembling the 360 days in a year). It is 6 cun wide, (resembling the 6 harmonies). The (area) above is called a "pool" (a pool is a pond; it speaks of being level)...; that below is called a "shoreline"; (a shoreline is a guest; it speaks of being ready to serve). It is broad in front and narrow in back; in this it resembles social rank. Above it is round, below it is square; in this way resembling heaven and earth.

    The (original) five strings ... resemble the five elements. The big (1st) string is the "master", (broad-minded and genial); the small (usually 2nd) string called "servant" (modest and not disorderly). Wen Wang and Wu Wang added two strings; they are to draw together the affections of master and servant. (The 1st string is lord; the 2nd string is servant; the 3rd string is the people; the 4th string is affairs; the 5th string is objects.)4
        - from Qin Cao (see yin shi; also see in Er Ya Shu)

  4. Whenever a qin tune is put together with music it is called a qu. If it is composed of sad themes it is called cao.
        - from Fengsu Tong (see yin shi)

  5. When the peaceful man hears the zheng zither, dizi flute or pipa lute he becomes restless and even more ambitious. If he hears the sound of the qin or se zithers then his body is at rest and his mind is at peace.
        - from an essay by Xi Kang (see
    yin shi)

  6. The first qin string is called gong; the next is called shang; next is jue; after this is zhi; then comes yu; then shao gong and finally shao shang.
        - from Sanli Tu (see
    yin shi)

    [Yin shi:]
    Baihu Tong (Constant Principles of the White Tiger [Hall]) was written by Ban Gu.
    Fengsu Tong (Constant Principles of Popular Customs) was written by Ying Shao.
    Qin Cao was written by Cai Yong. It recorded lists of qin melodies from everywhere. Cao means "fidelity" or "integrity". They concern meeting dangers but not losing one's moral integrity. (The above is an excerpt from the complete preface.)
    Xi Kang Lun was written by Xi Kang, who lived during the Jin dynasty.
    Sanli Tu (Outline of the Three Rituals) is the name of a book written during at the beginning of the (Northern) Song dynasty by Nie Zongyi.

  7. The Yellow Emperor had a qin named Qingjue (see under Di Zhong).
    Prince Wei of Qi had one named Hao Zhong (Sounding Bell).
    King Zhuang of Chu had one named Rao Liang (Long Resonance).
    Sima Xiangru had one named Lu Qi (Dappled Green Silk).
    Cai Yong had one named Jiao Wei (Scorched Tail).
    Zhao Feiyan had one named Fenghuang (Phoenix).
        - from the Compilation of Important Things by Liang Emperor Wu (Wen?).

  8. (Qin Cao of Cai Yong? There is no overall title and the 21 Hejian Yage differ from the 21 + 3 Hejian Zage of the Pingjin Guan edition.5)

    Five tunes (五曲 Wu Qu; see the Five Melodies for Book of Songs Poems in Qin Cao but compare Cai's own Five Melodies)

    [Yin shi: these Yin shi normally refer to the section preceding, but here it concerns the following two lists (5 tunes and 12 laments). For this translation it has thus been broken in two parts, and each put after the relevant list below - see the red mark in this image.]

    Lu Ming (Call of the deer; Mao#161; Waley#183; Seng, Most ancient)
    Fa Tan (Chop sandalwood; Mao#112; Waley#259: Seng, Most ancient)
    Zouyu (The Unicorn; Mao#25; Waley#207: Seng, Most ancient)
    Jue Chao (Magpie's Nest; Mao#12; Waley#89; Seng, Most ancient)
    Bai Ju (White Colt; Mao#186; Waley#185)

    [Yin shi:] Lu Ming to Bai Ju are all entries in Mao Heng's edition of the Classic of Poetry.

    Twelve laments (操 cao; compare Pingjin Guan Qin Cao)

    Jiang Gui (About to Return)
    Yi Lan (Flourishing Orchid)
    Gui Shan (Turtle Mountain), by Confucius
    Yueshang (Yueshang People), by Zhou Gong
    Ju You (Detained in Gloom) by Wen Wang
    Ji Shan (Jishan Mountain), by a man of Zhou for Wen Wang
    Lü Shuang (Over the Hoarfrost), by Yin Boji
    Zhi Zhaofei (The Pheasants Fly in the Morning), by Mu Duzi
    Bie He (Parted Cranes), by Shangling Muzi
    Can Xing (Partial Form), by Zengzi
    Shui Xian (Water Spirit), [by Boya]
    Huai Ling (Mount Cherished), [by Boya]

    [Yin shi:]
    Jiang Gui Cao (describes something that happened when) Confucius went to Zhao. He heard that Count Jian of Zhao was about to kill Dou Mingdu, and was so emotionally moved that he wrote this lament.
    Yi Lan Cao was written when Confucius was sad about not meeting with the time. (He compares himself with the orchid).
    Gui Shan Cao: When Ji Huanzi accepted (on behalf of his sovereign Duke Ding of Lu) the present of singing girls from Qi (intended to distract Duke Ding from listening to Confucius' advice), Confucius admonished him, but (the duke) didn't follow the advice, so Confucius looked towards Turtle Mountain and wrote this lament.
    Yueshang Cao is the name of a country to the south of Jiao Zhi. During the time of King Cheng of Zhou someone from Yueshang brought tribute, but while on the return trip they lost their way to the proper road home, so the Zhou Gong made a compass and presented it to them. The Yueshang ambassadors made use of the compass and arrived at their home country one calendar year later. As a result of this, the Zhou Gong wrote Yueshang Cao.
    Ju You Cao: Zhou, (the last emperor of the Shang dynasty,) imprisoned Wen Wang at Jiangli. Wen Wang was melancholy and listless, so he took his qin and played it, at this time composing Detained in Gloom Lament.
    Ji Shan Cao: Zhou Tai Wang once left Bin to flee the barbarians. He lived for a while at Ji Shan. Later when Zhou Gong was nostalgically remembering Tai Wang he wrote this lament.
    Lü Shuang Cao: Although Yin Jifu's son Yin Boji had committed no offense, he was slandered by his stepmother and banished. He was very sad, and (in the cold?) thus wrote this lament.
    Zhi Zhao Fei: Mu Duzi was 70 years old but had no wife. Seeing two wild pheasants flying together he became very sad. Feeling this way, he wrote this lament.
    Bie He Cao: Shangling Muzi had been married for five years but did not have a son. His parents wanted him to take another wife. When his wife heard this at midnight she was very sad. Han Muzi felt emotional about this and so he wrote this lament.
    Can Xing Cao: Zengzi once saw a fox in a dream, but he couldn't see a head on the fox.
    Shui Xian Cao and Huai Ling were both written by Bo Ya. It is not known why he wrote these, so I won't explain them here.

    Nine preludes (引 yin; compare Pingjin Guan Qin Cao)

    Lienü Yin (Heroic Woman Prelude; 上古 )
    Bo Ji Yin (Prelude about Bo Ji; 上古)
    Zhennü Yin (貞女 Virtuous Woman Prelude)
    Si Gui Yin (Longing to Return Prelude)
    Pili Yin (Thunder Prelude; 上古)
    Zouma Yin (Riding Horse Prelude; 上 / 中古)
    Konghou Yin (Konghou Harp Prelude; 中古)
    Qin Yin (Qin Prelude)
    Chu Yin (Prelude from Chu; 中古)

    (Taiyin Daquanji adds no comments about these nine preludes.)

    Hejian Yage 21 Refrains (河間雅歌二十一章)
    (See also under Qin Cao, but that edition actually has a different list called Hejian Zage)

    Cai Shi Wunong (Five melodies of the Cai Clan)
    Shuang Feng (Paired Phoenixes)
    Li Luan (Parting of the Fabulous Luan)
    Gui Feng (Returning Phoenix)
    Song Yuan (Seen off to a Distant Place)
    You Lan (Solitary Orchid; 上古)
    Bai Xue (White Snow; 上古)
    Chang Qing (Long Clarity, 下古)
    Duan Qing (Short Clarity, 下古)
    Chang Ze (Long Slant; )
    Duan Ze (Short Slant; 下古)
    Qing Zhou (Clear Zhou)
    Da Dun (Big Shield)
    Xiao Yu (Short Ramble)
    Ming Jun (Zhao Jun; see
    Zhaojun Yuan)
    Hu Jia (Barbarian Reedpipe; 中古)
    Guangling San (Guangling Melody; 下古)
    Bai Yu Tan (White Fish Elegy)
    Chu Fei Tan (Chu Concubine Elegy; 上古)
    Feng Ru Song (Wind Enters the Pines)
    Wu Ye Ti (Evening Call of the Raven; 下古)

    並出琴操 also from Qin Cao
    (Taiyin Daquanji adds no further comments about
    these 21 refrains)
    Continue with 彈琴賦 Rhapsody on Playing Qin

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Taiyin Daquanji Folio 4, Part 1 (QQJC I/70-1 30 Volume edition I/80-1; QF/74-5)
See the Comment on the different editions; in the older edition of QQJC I the original of this passage was on pp. 70-71). It is here modified from the rough translation I made in the 1970s of the nearly identical passage as reprinted in QFTGYY, pp. 74 - 75. It should be noted that the meaning of a number of passages still elude me.

2. Explanations by translator
See comments concerning the structure of the original text.

3. Image: 太音大全集琴操 Qin Cao in Folio 4 of Taiyin Daquanji (QQJC I/80; compare Taigu Yiyin)
Here in Taiyin Daquanji the left half of the first page, beginning at "五曲", has one version of the contents of Qin Cao. The opening of Folio 4 in Taigu Yiyin is almost the same but spread out and better organized; there Qin Cao begins on the next page.

The Yinshi has some discussion of the content of Qin Cao, otherwise the handbook has just a list of melodies. By comparision the Pingjin Guan edition of Qin Cao (starting with Lu Ming), has commentary on each melody (example, from QQJC XXX/17).

4. 五絃象五行....
See original, from middle of column 5

5. Qin Cao?
See original; starts near the bottom of the sixth line from the end.

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