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Qin Lore
Includes works used as references in biographies
古琴傳說 1

This page has basic information about some English and Chinese language reference materials important for traditional Chinese lore but not introduced elsewhere on the site.2 Some of the English references are translations of Chinese works. On this site many of the qin biographies are more lore than history. Other basic sources of qin lore are included either with melody introductions in the qin handbook section, or with stories themselves, particularly those in the collection in Qinshu Daquan (QSDQ), Folio 17, which includes many more references, but with few translations at yet. Links are being made connect these other pages and the listing below.

English language reference materials, a selected list

  1. Anne Birrell, Chinese Mythology, an Introduction; Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

  2. Robert Ford Campany, To Live as Long as Heaven and Earth, A Translation and Study of Ge Hong's Traditions of Divine Transcendents (神仙傳 Shenxian Zhuan); Berkeley, 2002. 3

  3. Robert Ford Campany, Strange Writing, Anomaly Accounts in Early Medieval China; SUNY Press, 1992. (SW)

  4. Richard B. Mather, Shih-shuo Hsin-yü, a New Account of Tales of the World, 2nd ed.; Ann Arbor, 2002 (details)
    An annotated translation (originally published in Minneapolis, 1976) of 世說新語 Shishuo Xinyu, now thought to have been compiled by a group of scholars within the entourage of (if not under the direction of) prince Liu Yiqing.4
Early Chinese language sources, a selected list
Many more are mentioned in QSDQ, Folio 17

  1. 白虎通 Baihu Tong: Comprehensive Discussions in the White Tiger Hall (四庫全書; ctext)
    By 班固 Ban Gu (32 - 92 CE). "A record...of discussions on the classics and on Confucian themes held at the court of the Han Emperor Zhang (r.75-88 C.E.) in 29 C.E.)." (Sources of Chinese Tradition, I, p.344.) References include:

    QSDQ, Folio 1, #1 (the famous 琴者禁也。禁止於邪以正人心也。)
    Qin Shi Bu, Fu Xi as one of the San Huang

  2. 博物志 Bowu Zhi: Treatise on Curiosities
    By 張華 Zhang Hua (232 - 303; Bio/1206), style name 茂先 Maoxian, was from 方城 Fangcheng in modern Hebei. Poor as a child, when he had to tend sheep, he studied hard, married well, completed his education then gained attention through his writings. He became a successful scholar and statesman under the Jin, living in the milieu of
    Ruan Ji and Xi Kang. But he was eventually executed for intrigue during a change of power. ICTCL, p.215, says he "is best remembered for his compilation 博物志 Bowu Zhi (Account of Wide Ranging Matters) which, despite its fictional quality and moderate size (in extant editions, 10 folios), provides excellent source materials...."

    Relevant references on this site, in addition to those in QSDQ, Folio 17, #18 and #42, include,

    Yang Chun (quoted)
    Bai Xue (referenced)
    Yang Chun (quoted)
    Biography of Zuo Si (referenced)

    (In QSDQ, Folio 16, #53 Su Dongpo mentions a different Zhang Hua)

  3. 洞仙傳 Dongxian Zhuan: Biographies of Grotto-Transcendents
    Originally written in 6th C. CE. (SW; 17777.xxx; .24 is 洞仙歌)
    References include QSDQ,
    Folio 17, #1.

  4. 風俗通 Fengsu Tong: Penetrating Popular Ways
    By 應劭 Ying Shao (3rd c. CE; Bio/1119); full title: Fengsu Tongyi (
    風俗通義 44734.218)

    Qinshu Daquan, Folio 1, #6 has the entire chapter from Fengsu Tongyi entitled Qin (original).
        Van Gulik, Lore, pp.72-3, translates it in its entirety.
    Part of the original text is quoted under Bo Ya
    Yuefu Shiji, Preface to the Qin Section quotes the end of the previous
    Taiyin Daquanji, Folio 1 begins by also quoting the end of the previous
    Taiyin Daquanji, Folio 4 is also said to quote it but I cannot find this
    Qin Shi Bu, Fu Xi quotes a different chapter saying the Three Majesties were Fu Xi, Nü Wa and Shen Nong
    Another chapter is the source of a story about Baili Xi (but not the title Yan Yi Ge)

  5. 古今注 Gujin Zhu: Note Old and New
    3308.55; by 崔豹 Cui Bao, ca. 300 CE; ICTCL, p.485/6). Several references in
    Yuefu Shiji
    TKW, Qin Fu, p.1686, has a 中華古今注 revised version by 馬縞 Ma Gao (d.936; Bio/67)

  6. 山海經 Shanhai Jing: Classic of Mountains and Seas (Wiki)
    The first known editor was 郭璞 Guo Pu (276 - 322; elsewhere there are also some non-specific citations to him). Standard editions such as found today seem to start in the late Ming dynasty; likewise with illustrated editions (online example)

    Guo Pu (276 - 322; 40338.365, Strange Writing, ICTCL, Giles) was a 方士 master of esoteric skills connected to several works on anomalies: Shanhai Jing and 穆天子傳 (An Account of Emperor Mu; edited and perhaps augmented); 玄中記 Xuanzhong Ji (Records from Within the Recondite; author). He also wrote glosses for 爾雅 Er Ya.

    Shan Hai Jing itself was apparently compiled from earlier sources, many or most dating from the Warring States period or earlier. It has been translated by Anne Birrell with the title The Classic of Mountains and Seas. Her translation refers to people mainly by translated names (e.g., Shun is "Hibiscus") and there are no Chinese characters, no index, and no Chinese to English glossary. This plus the translations of musical instrument names in particular makes it difficult to know their actual identity without looking at the original text. Here are four examples from the Penguin edition:

    1. p.159: "Fond Care threw away his five-stringed lute and his twenty-five-stringed lute."
      Original is 顓頊棄其琴瑟 Zhuanxu threw away his qin se (a common pairing in early sources).
    2. p.195: "Mild dragon was the one who invented the lute and the zither."
      Original is 晏龍是為琴瑟 Yanlong was the one who invented the qin and se (or qinse: zithers; Yanlong was a son of 俊 Jun, i.e., Di Ku).
    3. p. 87: "Mount Lutedrum". Original is 琴鼓之山 Mount Qin Drum
    4. pp.174, 226: "Longlute". Original is 長琴 Long Qin

    Guo Pu and Shanhai Jing references on this site include,

    YFSJ, Xiang Fei (both)
    QSCM 18, #30 (Guo Pu)

  7. 神仙感遇傳 Shenxian Ganyu Zhuan: Encounters with Divine Transcendents
    By 杜光庭 Du Guangting (850 - 933; ICTCL). References include QSDQ,
    Folio 17, #2.

  8. 墉城集仙錄 Yongcheng Jixian Lu: Records of the Assembled Transcendents of the Walled City
    Also by Du Guangting; QSDQ,
    Folio 17, #3, quotes two qin-related entries. Altogether this book has "careers, both mortal and immortal, of Taoist women and goddesses" (ICTCL). Of the apparently 109 original biographies 79 have survived, of which 27 are translated by Suzanne Cahill in her Divine Traces of the Daoist Sisterhood. This does not seem to include any of those with qin connections.

  9. 神仙傳 Shenxian Zhuan: Traditions of Divine Transcendents
    This "collection of the biographies of 84 Daoist immortals (mostly) extracted from various earlier works" (ICTCL, p.677) was written by 葛洪 Ge Hong (283 - 343), but commonly available Chinese versions (or quotations) are often from later works. Campany (see
    above) attempted as much as possible to reconstruct Ge Hong's original. Relevant references to it on this site include comments on the melodies Gu Guan Yu Shen and Yasheng Cao.

  10. 世說新語 Shishuo Xinyu by Liu Yiqing (403 - 444)
    Mather above and details below.

  11. 拾遺記 Shi Yi Ji: Researching Lost Records
    12365.33: originally by 符秦方士王嘉 Wang Jia (4th c.; Bio/148), also called 王子年 Wang Zinian. The original is lost; a new edition from fragments was compiled in the 6th c. by 蕭綺 Xiao Qi. References include QSDQ,
    Folio 17, #17 and Huaxu Yin.
Later Chinese language sources, a selected list
Most are referenced in Qin Shi Bu and Qin Shi Xu

  1. 蓴湖漫錄 Chunhu Manlu: Casual Notes from Chun Lake
    32430xxx; 32500.7 (Chun Lake, in 溧陽 Liyang district, between Taihu and Maoshan). Qin Shi Xu #353,
    Jiang Chunhu has the same "Chunhu", both having the chun written 艸/純, but there seems to be no connection: there are later references, the last one being Zhang Chupu in the late 19th century.
    Chunhu Manlu is given as the partial or sole source for about 17 entries in Qin Shi Bu (17) and an as yet uncounted number in Qinshi Xu, The Qin Shi Bu biographies are of Su Nü, Duke Huan of Qi, He Xun, Wang Zhongxiong, Li Bai, Lü Wei, Cui Chaocang, Wang Jing'ao, Jiang Xuan, Wei Xian, Yan Hua, Wang Wei, Yang Xiong, Shen Zun, Lei Wei, Li Jingxian and Zhao Bi. The credited Qin Shi Xu articles begin with Zhu Changwen, Zhang Sun and Wen Tianxiang.

  2. 廣博物志 Guangbowu Zhi: Treatise on Many Curiosities
    A book by 董斯張 Dong Sizhang (Ming dynasty; Bio/2262) in 50 folios and 22 categories (9693.215 references
    四庫提要,子,類書類). Often quoted in Qin Shi Bu. Compare Bowu Zhi above.

  3. 路史 Lu Shi: Road Histories (?) Lun Qin (V.26)
    38394.12 By 羅泌 Luo Mi (or Bi; prob. 13th c.; Bio/1486). A book in 47 folios, it has a Qin Lun in QSDQ,
    Folio 1, #16, and a section with biographies from pre-history. It is the partial source for several early entries in Qin Shi Bu, including those for Zhu Song, Shen Nong, Huang Di, Mou Gou and Wu Guang.

  4. 然脂餘韻 Ranzhi Yuyun:
    19581.31 has only ranzhi: burn fat. It is the partial or sole source for many of the entries in Qin Shi Xu that concern Qing dynasty women qin players, including those for
    Zhang Foxiu, Huang Wanqiong, Ruan Enluo, Ding Yuelin, Hu Xiangduan, Ms. Cai, Jiang Jinqiu, Wang Yunmei, Jiang Hongzhen, and Li Wenhui.

  5. 剪燈餘話 Jiandeng Yuhua (More Stories for the Trimmed Lampwick)
    By 李禎 Li Zhen (original name of 李昌祺 Li Changqi [1376-1452]; Bio/920 says Li Zhen was from 廬陵 Luling, part of 吉安 Ji'an district of western Jiangxi province). He became a local magistrate. His collection of 傳奇 Chuan Qi (romances or romance dramas) followed on the popularity of 剪燈新話 Jiandeng Xinhua (New Stories for the Trimmed Lampwick) by 瞿佑 Qu You (1341 - 1433), reviving a type of story that been popular during the Tang dynasty, but declined during the Song and Yuan periods (ICTCL, p.275). Some of these stories were revived during the Qing dynasty and/or became very popular in Japan.

    Only one story in the earlier Jiandeng Xinhua mentions qin: in Marvelous Encounter at Wei Pond (渭塘奇遇記 Wei Tang Qiyu Ji; source: http://zh.wikisource.org/zh/剪燈新話) there is a poem with a couplet that says, "箏許秦宮奪,琴從卓氏猜。" (a reference to 卓文君 Zhuo Wenjun?).

    In contrast nine of its 21 stories in Jiandeng Yuhua mention qin. These nine are as follows (with the number of occurrences based on the version at http://zh.wikisource.org/zh/剪燈餘話):

    2.2 聽經猿記 1x
    2.3 月夜彈琴記 6x (translation by Anne Gerritsen pending; further below)
    3.1 連理樹記 6x (translated in The Golden Casket; further below)
    3.2 田洙遇薛濤聯句記 3x
    3.5 鸞鸞傳 3x (translated in The Golden Casket; further below)
    4.2 武平靈怪錄 1x
    5.1 洞天花燭記 1x
    5.3 江廟泥神記 1x
    6.1 賈雲華還魂記 7x (further below)

    Five of the 21 stories are translated in Wolfgang Bauer and Herbert Franke (ed), The Golden Casket (New York, Harcourt, Brace and World, 1964). Li Zhen has women playing the qin in two of these five (3.1 and 3.5) as well as in Jia Yunhua's Return from the Grave (6.1); a man plays in Playing the Qin on a Moonlit Night (2.3).

    1. 連理樹記 The Trees at the Graveside (pp. 264 - 269)
      上官守愚 Shangguan Shouyu of Jiangtu (in Yangzhou) has a friend, 賈虛中 Jia Xuzhong, who has three daughters named after three qins in his possession, 瓊瑤 Jasper, 環珮 Jewel and 蓬萊 Paradise. The heroine of the story, Paradise, after various trials and tribulations including moving to Fujian, marries her childhood sweetheart Shangguan Sui. During their happy period she is described playing the qin, but then in 1362 her husband is murdered by bandits and she commits suicide by his grave.

    2. 鸞鸞記 Phoenix (pp. 277 - 284)
      Phoenix, daughter of 趙舉 Zhao Ju of Dongping in Shandong, expresses unhappiness in her marriage by writing a volume of verse called 破琴 Broken Zither (presumably evoking the famous
      Gao Shan Liu Shui story). She also mentions the qin in a poem. And she also commits suicide after her husband is murdered by bandits.

    3. 月夜彈琴記 Playing the Qin on a Moonlit Night
      The third story (information here is from Anne Gerritsen, whose translation is not yet published) concerns a man named 烏斯 Wu Si. One evening when Wu Si is playing the qin he encounters the ghost of a servant. The servant first gives him a set of poems composed by his mistress, then passes to him the qin melody
      Guangling San, the transmission of which has long been connected to ghosts (see comment).

    4. 賈雲華還魂記 Jia Yunhua's Return from the Grave
      This one is apparently "based on a true story", telling of the love between the scholar 魏鵬 Wei Peng and the beautiful 賈雲華 Jia Yunhua (also called 賈娉娉 Jia Pingping), who was a skilled poet; in the story she also plays qin and eventually starves herself to death. There is an outline of their story in Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: Tang Through Ming, 618-1644 (pp.163-5), but it does not mention the qin.

  6. 聊齋誌異 Liaozhai Zhiyi (Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio; Wiki)
    This famous work has almost 500 stories collected or written/re-written by 蒲松齡 Pu Songling (1640-1715). There are a number of translations of selected stories, including those by:

    1. Huang Youyi et al (Strange Tales from the Liaozhai Studio, 4 vols., 2019 pp., Forign Languages Press, 2008)
    2. Sidney L. Sondergard (Strange Tales from Liaozhai, Vols. 1 [#1-83] and 2 [#84-166], 2008)
    3. John Minford (Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio, 2006); 106 stories
    4. Wang Juan (100 Passages from Strange Stories of Liaozhai, 1998)
    5. Zhang Qingnian, Zhang Ciyun and Yang Yi (Strange Tales from the Liaozhai Studio, 3 vols., over 1000 pp. Beijing: People's China Publ., 1997)
    6. Denis C. & Victor H. Mair (Strange Tales from Make-do Studio, 36 stories (30? 50?), 1989)
    7. Lu Yunzhong, Chen Tifang, Yang Liyi, and Yang Zhihong (Strange Tales of Liaozhai, 1982)
    8. George Soulie (Strange Stories from the Lodge of Leisure, 1913)
    9. Herbert Giles (Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio [online], 1880).

    Liaozhai stories commonly mention 琴瑟 qinse to mean marital love, and at least one story has had a qin added in a film version re-telling:2

    Nie Xiaoqian (聶小倩 Nie Xiaoqian)
    The 1960 film
    The Enchanting Shadow, based on this story, features a qin, but no music instrument is mentioned in the original Liaozhai version of the story. (As of 2010 the translation by Wong Juan could be found online.)

    Two other stories mention qin, but not the classical version:5

    1. The Island of the Immortals (仙人島 Xianren Dao)
      王勉 Wang Mian hears an instrument that is 非琴非瑟 neither qin nor se.

    2. A Gentleman from Fengyang (鳳陽士人 Fengyang Shiren)
      A woman 以牙杖撫提琴 uses a piece of ivory to play an instrument called a tiqin.

    At least four Liaozhai stories actually mention or feature the qin as a music instrument. These latter include the following:6

    1. Huan Niang (宦娘 Huan Niang, i.e., 趙宦娘 Zhao Huan Niang): trans. Mair has Ghost Maiden Huanniang
      温如春 Wen Ruchun was a poor scholar from a good family who had loved qin since he was young and always carried one when he traveled. One day he met a Daoist in an old temple who also carried a qin around with him. From him Wen learned great playing skills. On his way home, during a heavy rain storm he went into a house saw a beautiful girl age 17,18, who ran into her room. An old lady came out and told him the girl, 宦娘 Huanniang, was like a daughter to her. He stayed there and at night played his qin.

      After Wen Ruchun arrived home he met a rich girl 良工 Lianggong who loved both the qin and him, and against the wishes of her family he somehow managed to marry her. One night they heard his qin being played, but they found no one playing it. His wife suggested using an ancient mirror belonging to her family, as if it was a ghost playing they would then be able to see it. They did this and found it was Huanniang. Huanniang confessed that she had been dead now for 100 years. When young she had always loved zheng and qin, but she had died before learning qin. When she heard Wen playing it, she decided to help him marry the beautiful Lianggong. She then asked Wen to teach qin to her, and she in turn taught zheng to Lianggong. Before she left, she gave Wen a picture of her, and told him that if from time to time he would hang up the picture, light incense, and play a tune, she would then be very happy. Upon saying this she disappeared. (Thanks to Lau Shing Hon for the translation.)

    2. Swindles (局詐 Ju Zha): two stories, the second translated by Minford as "The Lutenist" [or "The Antique Lute", sic.])
      In the second story 嘉祥李 Mr. Li of Jiaxiang is swindled out of his antique qin by a "Magistrate 程 Cheng", who plays Yu Feng Qu and Xiang Fei (Yuan), then whose "wife" plays Xian Qing zhi Fu (閑情之賦; Minford: All My Heart's Care, not on any qin melody lists) before they disappear with the qin.

    3. Chen Yunqi (陳雲棲 Chen Yunqi); partially trans. by Giles as Engaged to a Nun
      In this story the young scholar 真毓 Zhen Yu visits a temple, having heard that four beautiful nuns live there. Two of them, 白雲深 Bai Yunshen and 梁雲棟 Liang Yundong, get him drunk and seduce him, but he is particularly smitten by one who seems more chaste, real surname Wang but called Chen Yunqi after her Daoist master 陳 Chen. The fourth nun is her best friend, 盛雲眠 Sheng Yunmian. Zhen and Chen become engaged, but then separated. After various convoluted episodes they eventually marry.

      Giles translates only up to here; so far there has been no mention of qin. In the final third of the original story Zhen, having married Chen Yunqi, is persuaded by her also to marry Sheng Yunmian, whom Chen claims as a sister. The three live together, with the two women entertaining him by playing qin. (Thanks to Lau Shing Hon for help with this part.)

    4. Fen Die (White Butterfly [粉蝶 Fendie])
      陽日旦 Yang Ridan, while traveling home on a boat, encountered a great storm. Though blown way off course he managed to survive the storm. Suddenly he saw a small island. Landing, he went into a village house, heard qin and saw a beautiful maiden of 15 go inside. A young man named 晏 Yan then came out. After they talked a while Yan said that Yang must be his nephew. Although Yan's wife 十姑 Shigu looked only 18, she was Yang's aunt. It was she who was playing qin. Yang wanted to learn from her, so she taught him 2 tunes: Melody of the Great Storm (颶風操 Jufeng Cao) and Celestial Maiden Banished from Heaven (天女謫降 Tian Nü Zhe Jiang). At night Yang Ridan fell in love with the beautiful maid, whose name was 粉蝶 Fendie. Shigu promised Yang that later she would give Fendie to him.

      When Yang Ridan finally arrived home he found out he had actually disappeared for 16 years. His grandmother told him that Shigu was indeed his aunt, but she had married Yan, but he had left home when she was 16. She stayed at home and died 4 years later, but this was 30 years ago. When they looked in her coffin they had found no body.

      Now in their village there is a beautiful girl of 16 called 荷生 Hesheng. She has been engaged three times, but all three men died before they could marry. Yang Ridan marries her, and when he sees her he thinks she is in fact Fendie. But she knows nothing about having met him, being in fact a reincarnation of Fendie. So whenever Yang plays Celestial Maiden Banished from Heaven, Hesheng is really moved by it. (Thanks to Lau Shing Hon for the translation. In a modern version Fendie is a reincarnation of a butterfly spirit and Hesheng is said to have evolved from silk string.)

    Some of these stories have been adapted for television or film.

  7. 玄品錄 Xuanpin Lu: Records of the Mysterious Hierarchy (original text)
    By 張天雨 Zhang Tianyu (1279-1350), a Maoshan Daoist priest. Thomas Cleary renders the title as "Mystic History" in his Alchemists, Mediums and Magicians (Boston/London, Shambala, 2009), which translates most or all of the stories (Cleary does not say which; he also does not tell the Chinese title of the book or give any characters, and he translates "qin" as "lute"). The following entries mention qin; as can be seen, all but the last have entries in earlier qin sources.

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Image
Not yet selected

2. Other collections of lore discussed on this site
For example, Liexian Zhuan and Lienü Zhuan are introduced with the author, Liu Xiang.

3. Ge Hong (葛洪 283 - 343)
Ge Hong, nicknamed 抱朴子 Baopuzi, in addition to his Shenxian Zhuan, is said to have written a Baopuzi 內篇 Nei Pian (the Daoist and esoteric Inner Chapters) and a Baopuzi 外篇 Wai Pian (the exoteric and Confucian Outer Chapters); there is further discussion in Wiki. His name is also romanized Ko Hung; and one biography, for some reason, calls him Kou Hong. He has a temple in Hangzhou named after him.

4. 劉義慶 Liu Yiqing (403 - 444)
Bio/660 (and 2270.919) say nothing about music or poems, the only literary reference being Shishuo Xinyu. A noted scholar-official, Liu Yiqing was a member of the Southern Song dynasty imperial clan. His official positions included being cishi (inspector) of Linchuan in Jiangxi as well as governor of Yanzhou in Shandong. His writings are said to have included:

  1. 世說新語 Shishuo Xinyu (New Account of Tales of the World; ctext)
    33.303. This "anthology of anecdotes, noteworthy conversations or remarks, and brief characterizations of historical persons...." (ICTCL, p.704) was long attributed to Liu Yiqing himself, but it is now generally said to have been compiled by people within his entourage. He also has sometimes been credited with having turned this compilation into a literary work of art, but it is also said that his own literary talent was not so high. Divided into thirty-six chapters on such topics as moral integrity, discourse, government affairs, and literature. Its anecdotes regarding eminent people of the period since the end of the Han Dynasty included satirical accounts of their behavior.

    Liu Yiqing himself is the subject of the earliest commentary on the melody Wu Ye Ti (details).

    Shishuo Xinyu has a number of guqin related stories. They do not include the Wu Ye Ti story, but they do include these (and others):

    • Gu Kaizhi ("殷中軍") compares his Rhapsody on the Zheng to the Rhapsody on the Qin by Xi Kang (Chapter 4 / Section 98).
    • Xi Kang     (嵇中散) plays Guangling San just before his execution (6/2)
    • Dai Kui      ("戴公") impresses Xie An with his discussion of qin and calligraphy (6/34).
    • Zhang Han ("張季鷹") plays qin on the spirit bed of Gu Rong ("顧彥"; 17/7).
    • Boya           ("牙生") breaks his qin after Ziqi ("鍾子") dies; this is perhaps the inspiration for the stories of playing qin in honor of a friend who dies (17/11).
    • Wang Huizhi ("子猷") plays qin on the spirit bed of his brother Wang Xianzhi ("子敬"; 17/16).
    • He Xun        ("賀司空") plays qin on a boat in Suzhou, impressing Zhang Han ("張季鷹"; 23/22).
    • Wang Huizhi ("子猷") meets Huan Yi ("桓子野") on the road and asks him to play his flute; this came to be commemorated by Three Repetitions of Plum Blossom (23/49).

    There are many more references here, but it is generally beyond the scope of this site to determine which first survive from Shi Shuo Xin Yu.

  2. 幽明錄 You Ming Lu (Records of the Hidden and Visible World)
    9411.33xxx; Ghost stories. Qinshu Daquan, Folio 17, #8, quotes it, and it also includes the story Pang A.
  3. 集林 Ji Lin

There is some further speculation about Liu Yiqing under the melody Yu Shu Lin Feng.

5. 聊齋誌異 Liaozhai Zhi Yi original text for 聶小倩 Nie Xiaoqian
As mentioned above, the qin is added only for the film versions - this original version does not mention any music instrument at all (copied from open-lit):














3. 聊齋誌異 Liaozhai Zhi Yi stories that mention "qin" but not the guqin
Here is the original Chinese for two 聊齋誌異 Liao Zhai Zhiyi stories that mention the "qin" but not the classical instrument (copied from open-lit):

  1. 鳳陽士人 Fengyang Shiren
  2. 仙人島 Xianren Dao




6. 聊齋誌異 Liao Zhai Zhiyi stories that mention qin
These four have been copied from open-lit:

  1. 宦娘 Huan Niang

  2. 局詐 Ju Zha


    (琴家? Minford translates this as a separate story, #94, "The lutenist" (sic.)
    嘉祥李生,善琴。偶適東郊,見工人掘土得古琴,遂以賤直得之。拭之有異光;安絃而操,清烈非常。喜極,若獲拱璧,貯以錦囊,藏之密室,雖至戚不以示也。邑丞程氏,新蒞任,投刺謁李。李故寡交游,以其先施故,報之。過數日,又招飲,固請乃往。程為人風雅絕倫,議論瀟灑,李悅焉。越日,折柬酬之,懽笑益洽。從此月夕花晨,未嘗不相共也。年餘,偶於丞廨中,見繡囊裹琴置几上。李便展玩。程問:「亦諳此否?」李曰:「生平最好。」程訝曰:「知交非一日,絕技胡不一聞?」撥爐爇沉香,請為小奏。李敬如教。程曰:「大高手!願獻薄技,勿笑小巫也。」遂鼓《御風曲》,其聲泠泠,有絕世出塵之意。李更傾倒,願師事之。自此二人以琴交,情分益篤。年餘,盡傳其技。然程每詣李,李以常琴供之,未肯洩所藏也。一夕,薄醉。丞曰:「某新肄一曲,無亦願聞之乎?」為秦《湘妃》,幽怨若泣。李亟贊之。丞曰:「所恨無良琴;若得良琴,音調益勝。」李欣然曰:「僕蓄一琴,頗異凡品。今遇鍾期,何敢終密?」乃啟櫝負囊而出。程以袍袂拂塵,憑几再鼓,剛柔應節,工妙入神。李擊節不置。丞曰:「區區拙技,負此良琴。若得荊人一奏,當有一兩聲可聽者。」李驚曰:「公閨中亦精之耶?」丞笑曰:「適此操乃傳自細君者。」李曰:「恨在閨閣,小生不得聞耳。」丞曰:「我輩通家,原不以形跡相限。明日,請攜琴去,當使隔簾為君奏之。」李悅。次日,抱琴而往。程即治具懽飲。少間,將琴入,旋出即坐。俄見簾內隱隱有麗妝,頃之,香流戶外。又少時,絃聲細作;聽之不知何曲,但覺蕩心媚骨,令人魂魄飛越。曲終便來窺簾,竟二十餘絕代之姝也。丞以巨白勸釂,內復改絃為《閑情之賦》,李形神益惑。傾飲過醉,離席興辭,索琴。丞曰:「醉後防有磋跌。明日復臨,當今閨人盡其所長。」李歸。次日詣之,則廨舍寂然,惟一老隸應門。問之,云:「五更攜眷去,不知何作,言往復可三日耳。」如期往伺之,日暮,並無音耗。吏皂皆疑,白令破扃而窺其室,室盡空,惟几榻猶存耳。達之上臺,並不測其何故。李喪琴,寢食俱廢,不遠數千里訪諸其家。──程故楚產,三年前,捐貲受嘉祥。──執其姓名,詢其居里,楚中並無其人。或云:「有程道士者,善鼓琴;又傳其有點金術。三年前,忽去不復見。」疑即其人。又細審其年甲、容貌,吻合不謬。乃知道士之納官,皆為琴也。知交年餘,並不言及音律;漸而出琴,漸而獻技,又漸而惑以佳麗;浸漬三年,得琴而去。道士之癖,更甚於李生也。天下之 騙機多端,若道士,猶騙中之風雅者也。

  3. 陳雲棲 Chen Yunqi

    (Not translated by Giles:) 先是,女與雲眠俱依王道成。道成居隘,雲眠遂去之漢口。女嬌癡不能作苦,又羞出操道士業,道成頗不善之。會京氏如黃岡,女遇之流涕,因與俱去,俾改女冠裝,將論婚士族,故諱其曾隸道士籍。而問名者,女輒不願,舅及妗皆不知其意向,心厭嫌之。是日,從夫人歸,得所託,如釋重負焉。合巹後,各述所遭,喜極而泣。女孝謹,夫人雅憐愛之;而彈琴好弈,不知理家人生業,夫人頗以為憂。積月餘,母遣兩人如京氏,留數日而歸,泛舟江流,欻一舟過,中一女冠,近之,則雲眠也。雲眠獨與女善。女喜,招與同舟,相對酸辛。問:「將何之?」盛雲:「久切懸念。遠至棲鶴觀。則聞依京舅矣。故將詣黃岡,一奉探耳。竟不知意中人已得相聚。今視之如仙,剩此漂泊人,不知何時已矣!」因而欷歔。女設一謀:令易道裝,偽作姊,攜伴夫人,徐擇佳耦。盛從之。既歸,女先白夫人,盛乃入。舉止大家;談笑間,練達世故。母既寡,苦寂,得盛良懽,惟恐其去。盛早起,代母劬勞,不自作客。母益喜,陰思納女姊,以掩女冠之名,而未敢言也。一日,忘某事未作,急問之,則盛代備已久。因謂女曰:「畫中人不能作家,亦復何為。新婦若大姊者,吾不憂也。」不知女存心久,但懼母嗔。聞母言,笑對曰:「母既愛之,新婦欲效英、皇,何如?」母不言,亦囅然笑。女退,告生曰:「老母首肯矣。」乃另潔一室,告盛曰:「昔在觀中共枕時,姊言:『但得一能知親愛之人,我兩人當共事之。』猶憶之否?」盛不覺雙眥熒熒,曰:「妾所謂親愛者,非他:如日日經營,曾無一人知其甘苦;數日來,略有微勞,即煩老母卹念,則中心冷暖頓殊矣。若不下逐客令,俾得長伴老母,於願斯足,亦不望前言之踐也。」女告母。母今姊妹焚香,各矢無悔詞,乃使生與行夫婦禮。將寢,告生曰:「妾乃二十三歲老處女也。」生猶未信。既而落紅殷褥,始奇之。盛曰:「妾所以樂得良人者,非不能甘岑寂也;誠以閨閣之身,腆然酬應如勾欄,所不堪耳。借此一度,挂名君籍,當為君奉事老母,作內紀綱,若房闈之樂,請別與人探討之。」三日後,襆被從母,遣之不去。女早詣母所,占其床寢,不得已,乃從生去。由是三兩日輒一更代,習為常。夫人故善弈,自宴居,不暇為之。自得盛,經理井井,晝日無事,輒與女弈。挑燈瀹茗,聽兩婦彈琴,夜分始散。每與人曰:「兒父在時,亦未能有此樂也。」盛司出納,每記籍報母。母疑曰:「兒輩常言幼孤,作字彈棋,誰教之?」女笑以實告。母亦笑曰:「我初不欲為兒娶一道士,今竟得兩矣。」忽憶童時所卜,始信定數不可逃也。生再試不第。夫人曰:「吾家雖不豐,簿田三百畝,幸得雲眠紀理,日益溫飽。兒但在膝下,率兩婦與老身共樂,不願汝求富貴也。」生從之。後雲眠生男女各一;雲棲女一男三。母八十餘歲而終:孫皆入泮;長孫,雲眠所出,已中鄉選矣。

  4. 粉蝶Fen Die

See also:

This story, in spite of the title, does not mention qin:

  1. 酒狂 (Wine Mad; story concerns Miao Yongding; last story in 卷四 Folio 4)


Not translated

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