Japanese Handbooks in QQJC Volume XII;
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Japanese Handbooks in Qinqu Jicheng 1
The three handbooks in QQJC Vol. 12 (compare the "Correct Toko Kinpu")
The focus below is on the first, the Qin Handbook with Lyrics having Japanese Pronunciation.
Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu, p.12  

Japanese qin players have produced numerous handbooks over the years. Most of the important early ones are mentioned in Guqin Handbooks Published in Japan, with some information on later ones also given on that page. Included in Qinqu Jicheng Volume XII are reprints of three of the most important handbooks. All are said to contain the music passed down by 蔣興疇 Jiang Xingchou (1639-1695), who arrived in Japan from Hangzhou in 1676. There, as the monk 心越 Shin-etsu, he became the source of virtually all the qin music played in Japan until the 20th century (the fact that the actual music survived only in handbooks that survive from after he died perhaps led to the inclusion of some extra pieces).

The three Japanese handbooks published in QQJC XII (with 38+4+8 = 50 distinct pieces) are as follows:

  1. 和文注音琴譜 Hewen Zhu(yin) Qinpu (Wabun Chuyin Kinpu), <1676   (38 pieces; Appendix I)
  2. &
  3. 東皋琴譜 Donggao Qinpu (Toko Kinpu), 1709?

Until 2016 my work on qin melodies in Japan was confined to the above volumes. However, in 2016 I acquired information about two other important sources:

The music in those two handbooks are dicussed separately. Meanwhile, the present page outlines the contents of the three handbooks published in Volume XII of Qinqu Jicheng; this should then be compared against the details in the "Correct Toko Kinpu".

Because the three handbooks have considerable overlap in content, these contents are given here as three appendices on a single page rather than separately.  

Appendix I

Wabun Chuin Kinpu (?; <1676?)
Hewen Zhu(yin) Qinpu
Qinqu Jicheng, Vol. XII/167 - 241
"Qin Handbook with Lyrics having Japanese Pronunciation"

38 melodies (34-1st); all with lyrics, hence the title. Except for the Fusang cao, these were intended to represent the melodies 蔣興疇 Jiang Xingchou took from Hangzhou to Japan in 1676, though the fact that it survives only in an edition apparently compiled some years after his arrival in Japan has perhaps led to the inclusion of some extra pieces that Jiang either created or wrote down after his arrival. In Japan, as the monk 心越 Shin-etsu (and other names), Jiang taught many students. Many handbooks following the Shin-Etsu tradition were published later in Japan, generally with the title Toko Kinpu.

The volume used for QQJC, now in the Shanghai Library, was brought from Japan to China around 1900 by Zhou Qingyun. In his QSCM (#321) Zhou Qingyun writes that the book, which he calls 和文注琴譜 Hewen Zhu Qinpu, is a hand copy said at one time to have been in 桂川家藏 the collection of the Katsuragawa family.4 He adds that 每譜前有桂川家藏印記 in front of each melody was the Katsuragawa family seal. The copy in QQJC has the seal marks only in front of a few of these.5 This brings up the question of whether Zhou may have made his own copy, or had someone make a copy, from the original.

Based on the information in Yang (p.59 & 62), of the versions he examined the one closest to Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu (which Yang refers to as Hewen Zhu Qinpu) seems to have been based initially on a third edition of Katsuragawa, "compiled by Kojima Hyaku’ichi 兒島百一 (1778‐1835) in early nineteenth century", with 46 pieces in three volumes. If so, the edition in QQJC was considerably edited, in particularly missing melodies from the latter half of Toko Kinpu Zhengben (referred to below as simply "the Zhengben").

Zha Fuxi in his preface ascribes the date of this collection simply to "before 1676". He also says that it was compiled by the monk Toko Etsu. This must be based on a belief that the melodies were brought to Japan by the Buddhist monk Jiang Xingchou when he arrived there from Hangzhou in 1676; in Japan he was known as Toko Etsu (also other names).

However, as the QQJC preface itself points out, in this handbook most of the melodies have indications that either Shin-Etsu himself or one of his students revised them.6 In addition, the handbook itself labels two of the melodies (#34 and #35) as 扶桑操 Fusang Cao, Japanese melodies (Fusang was an old name for Japan).7

The evidence suggesting that many of these melodies were at that time actively played in China is largely circumstantial. Although very few of them can be found in handbooks published in China, there were probably many qin songs that were sung but, though perhaps hand-copied, never published. And before Jiang Xingchou arrived in Japan and became Shin-Etsu, he was active as a qin player in both Nanjing and Hangzhou. Nanjing was a center of the so-called Jiang School, which emphasized qin melodies with lyrics.

Cipai (lyrics that use the structures of old ci poems)

Moved; cipai deserve special mention here, as qin handbooks in Japan have many.
  • Zui Weng Cao; qin only (XII/190)

    Melodies published in both China and Japan

    So far I have found the following connections between the melodies published in Japan and melodies surviving in handbooks produced in China.

    See also Yu Qiao Wenda and Yangguan Sandie below under the Toko Kinpu.

      Table of Contents for Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu

    1. 調絃入弄 Tiaoxian Runong (XII/167; video at Ryoanji Temple Rock Garden, Kyoto, dubbed with music)
      The original is top right (expanded version); no commentary; version of the beginners' melody aka 操縵引 Caoman Yin and 仙翁操 Xianweng Cao;
      Music and lyrics unattributed; lyrics begin "得道仙翁,得道陳摶仙翁,得道陳摶仙翁,...." (not sung on video)

      Gong Mode (宮音 Gong Yin)

    2. 清平樂 Qing Ping Yue (Clear Peaceful Music); subtitle: 七夕 Qi Xi (7th night [of the 7th month]; XII/168)
      Qing Ping Yue is the name of a 詞牌 cipai with 46 characters (as here: 4,5;7,6. 6,6;6,6). For the version in Japanese handbooks the lyrics ("The magpie bridge forms....") by 孫蒼虬 Sun Cangqiu concern the legend of the cowherd and weaving girl (牛郎織女), as follows:

      凝眸斗渚迢遙,浮槎定擬今宵。誰識天涯此際,教人暗裏魂銷。   (translation)

    3. 浪淘沙 Lang Tao Sha (Waves Scouring the Sands); subtitle 懷舊 Huai Jiu (Yearning for the past; XII/169)
      Zha Guide 32/--/471: 1618 (only VIII/342 [1-string qin] and Japan [same lyrics, different music]). Also transcribed in Wang Di (#30, pp.103)
      The lyrics by 歐陽修 Ouyang Xiu, in the cipai of this name (structured [5,4;7;7,4.] x 2), begin


    4. 東風齊著力 Dongfeng Qi Zhuo Li (East Winds Work Together; XII/170)
      Subtitle: 除夜 Chuye (New Year's Eve)
      Zha Guide 34/--/502: only in Japan; name of a cipai. Lyrics by the Song dynasty poet 胡浩然 Hu Haoran. It begins,


      Shang Mode (商音 Shang Yin)

    5. 三才引 San Cai Yin (Three Powers Prelude; XII/172)
      10.126 三才 says "所謂天、地、人 it refers to heaven, earth and people"; see the 孝經 Classic of Filial Piety in
      ctext: "夫孝,天之經也,地之義也,民之行也 Filial piety is the constant (method) of Heaven, the righteousness of Earth, and the practical duty of Man." The body of this melody concerns heaven and earth, while the harmonics at the end honor Confucius himself, "All who have blood and breath unfeignedly honor and love him. Hence it is said, "He is the equal of Heaven."
      Zha Guide 25/208/502 has one other listing, 1559 (no lyrics; unrelated melody; phrasing doesn't seem to fit)
      Lyrics are identified as from from 中庸 Doctrine of the Mean, Chapter 25 (ctext.org: most of #27 (omit poem at end), then (in harmonics) the end of #32; translation from Legge 26 also in Confucius, Dover, p.420-21 and 429); see Wang Yiheng (?)



    6. 大哉引 Da Zai Yin (Prelude to How Great; XII/174)
      Zha Guide 34/--/502 only in Japan
      Lyrics are from 中庸 Doctrine of the Mean, Chapter 27 (
      ctext.org #28; Legge, Confucius, Dover, p.422-3); again see Wang Yiheng (?)

        尾:《詩 [260]》曰:(泛起)

      For comment on the Doctrine of the Mean and Zen Buddhism see Hsueh-Li Cheng

    7. 秋風辭 Qiu Feng Ci (XII/177)
      Zha Guide 34/260/503 lists it here and in 1840 (XXIII/347)
      See also below; "聖湖野樵訂 Edited by Seiko ...."(?)
      Lyrics are a poem in YFSJ (p.1180) attributed to 漢武帝 Han emperor Wudi (called 辭, not 詞)


      Transcribed in Wang Di, #44 (pp.109-110).

    8. 歸去來辭 Gui Qu Lai Ci (XII/178)
      Zha Guide 13/145/251; main intro and translation at
      Lyrics by 陶淵明 Tao Yuanming; similar music to the common ones, but divided into sections as in Taigu Zhengyin Qinpu (Yangchun Tang Qinpu, 1611; VII/455)


    9. 子夜吳歌 Ziye Wu Ge (XII/185)
      Zha Guide 34/--/503; only in Japan
      Lyrics by 李青蓮 i.e., 李白 Li Bai.

      Also transcribed in Wang Di (#36, pp.101)

    10. 幽澗泉 You Jian Quan (Secluded Cascading Spring; XII/186)
      Zha Guide 34/260/504: only Japan and the musically unrelated 1739 (XVIII/161)
      Lyrics by Li Bai;
      further detail.

    11. 久別離 Jiu Bieli (XII/188)
      Zha Guide 35/--/504: only in Japan; 122.23 jiu bie: long separated
      Same as Jiu Libie
      below; lyrics by Li Bai

      愁如回飆亂白雪。 (飆 here written 一 over 儿 with 百 inside plus 炎 at right)

      Transcribed in Wang Di, #43 (pp.107-8).

    12. 醉翁操 Zui Weng Cao (Old Toper's Melody; XII/190)
      Zha Guide 16/--/362 醉翁亭 (also 醉翁吟, e.g, 1539) lists various versions with differing music and sometimes differing lyrics (details)
      The lyrics of Sections 1 and 2 are, as in 1539, by Su Dongpo; Section 3

      1. 琅然清圓,誰彈響空山無言?

      2. 醉翁嘯詠,聲和流泉。

      3. 琴在手,月在天,

      Transcribed in Wang Di, #46 (pp.111-2).

    13. 八聲甘州 Basheng Ganzhou (Eight Beats of a Gangzhou Song; subtitle: 送人 Song Ren (Seeing off a Friend; transcription; XII/192 and )
      Zha Guide 35/--/504: only here; 甘州 Ganzhou is today called 張掖 Zhangye (Gansu province)
      Lyrics by Su Dongpo; the earliest poem in this form was by Liu Yong, discussed further here. Also transribed in Wang Di, #49 (pp.115/6).


    14. 瑞鶴仙 Rui He Xian; subtitle: 醉翁亭 Zui Weng Ting (Old Toper's Pavilion; XII/194)
      Zha Guide 35/--/505: only here; Rui He Xian (21606.133) is a cipai from a 周邦彥 Zhou Bangyan Northern Song poem (compare Qiliang Fan as well as Ruilong Yin).
      The lyrics here are by 黃山谷 Huang Shan'gu (i.e., Huang Tingjian), retelling Ouyang Xiu's 醉翁亭記 Record of the Old Toper's Pavilion
      Although it reads like a narrative, it does follow a version of the ci pattern.


    15. 鳳凰台上憶吹簫 Fenghuangtaishang Yi Chui Xiao; subtitle: 離別 Li Bie (Departure; XII/196)
      43079.41: On Phoenix Terrace Recalling the Playing of a Flute; no mention of cipai
      Zha Guide 35/--/505: only here, adding "different from 1609" (Gui Yuan Cao), which has the same lyrics but a different melody
      The title is a cipai; the lyrics by 李易南, i.e., 李清照 Li Qingzhao (1084 - ca.1151), are about her absent lover:


    16. 太平引 Taiping Yin (XII/198)
      Zha Guide 35/--/505: only here; 5965.xxx; an
      old title
      Transcribed in Wang Di (#41, pp.105; first verse only)
      The piece has two verses; both have 40 characters but their phrasing is different

      1. By 賀東山 He Dongshan (賀鑄 He Zhu 1052 - 1125; from his 豔聲歌 [太平時七首] Yan Sheng Ge [7 pieces from Taiping Shi]; compare Lu You):
      2. By 辛棄疾 Xin Qiji (d.1198); from his《昭君怨·長記瀟湘秋晚》 Zhaojun Yuan
        長記瀟湘秋晚,歌舞橘洲人散。走馬月明中,折芙蓉。今日西山南浦,畫棟珠簾雲雨。 風景不爭多,奈愁何。

    17. 鶴沖霄 He Chong Xiao (Cranes Pierce the Clouds; XII/200)
      Zha Guide 35/--/506, only in Japan; 48157.42 and 12/1145 have only 鶴沖天 He Chong Tian (see in 1511): Cranes Pierce the Heavens
        (or A Crane Pierces the Heavens, i.e., a person becomes an immortal in the form of a crane).
      Lyrics, by 和凝 He Ning are verse 2 of his poem in cipai 春光好 Chun Guang Hao, as follows:


    18. 南浦月 Nan Pu Yue (XII/201)
      Zha Guide 35/--/506; only here. Lyrics by 何籀 He Zhou (Bio/xxx; Song). Also called 點降脣 Dian Jiang Chun. Lyrics here have same the structure as in 1682 (滴瀝新晴,高秋雲薄渾如削....) as well as in Cao Tang Yin #2, below. The lyrics are,

      (Compare structure of 點絳唇)
      鶯踏花翻,亂紅堆徑無人掃。 (鶯 is elsewhere written 鸎)

    19. 飛瓊吟 Fei Qiong Yin (Flying Snow Crystals; XII/202)
      Zha Guide 24/203/506 has two, the other an unrelated melody from 1559 with no lyrics Lyrics are from one of the Three Poems on Snow (雪三首 Xue San Shou) by 林和靖 Lin Heqing, i.e., 林逋 Lin Bu:


    20. 梅花 Mei Hua (Plum Blossoms; also called 瑤芳引 Yao Fang Yin; XII/203)
      Page includes my recording together with the lyrics by Lin Bu.

      山園小梅 Shan Yuan Xiao Mei (How Plum Flowers Embarrass a Garden)

      眾芳搖落獨鮮妍,佔盡風情向小園。 (鮮 elsewhere 暄)

      (Listen also to Mei Shao Yue)

    21. 偶成 Ou Cheng (short for 秋日偶成 Qiuri Oucheng: Stray Thoughts on an Autumn Day; XII/204)
      Only in Japan; melody clearly related to #20; lyrics are a poem by Cheng Hao:


      The introduction to Jing Guan Yin dated 1609 quotes the second line of these lyrics.

      Yu Mode (羽音 Yu Yin)

    22. 離別難 Libie Nan (Parting is Such Sorrow); subtitle: "送蔣馭鹿遊建溪 (Seeing Jiang Yulu off to Jianxi; XII/205)
      Lyrics by 鄒訏士 Zou Xushi (鄒祇謨 Zou Zhimo); see also #23, #24 and #26. Further detail here, including alternate lyrics by Liu Yong. Zha 35/--/507: only in Japan.



    23. 離別難,又譜 Libie Nan #2; subtitle as above (XII/207)
      Zha 35/--/507 as above; further comment here.

      Lyrics as #22 but differences in the music.

    24. 華清引 Hua Qing Yin (XII/209)
      Zha Guide 35/--/508: only in Japan; 華清引 31910.208 only 華清 Hua Qing (man's name)
      Lyrics by 鄒訏士 Zou Xushi (鄒祇謨
      Zou Zhimo); see also #22, #23 and #26
      (Elsewhere the poem has the added comment "晏起 (評語:羡門雲,非玉台金屋人不解。")


    25. 霹靂引 Pili Yin (Thunderbolt Prelude; XII/210)
      The music here is unrelated to that of the Pili Yin used for Feng Lei Yin
      Lyrics by 唐,沈佺期 Shen Quanqi (c.650-713), also in YFSJ, begin


    26. 月當廳 Yue Dang Ting; subtitle: 秋夜聞蟋蟀聲 (On an autumn evening hearing cricket sounds; XII/213)
      Only here; cipai;
      Lyrics by 鄒訏士 Zou Xushi (鄒祇謨 Zou Zhimo; see #22, #23 and #24 above)


    27. 憶王孫 Yi Wangsun (Recalling a Prince; XII/215)
      Zha Guide 35/--/509: only in Japan; 11558.1: cipai; 7,7,7.3,7. (here the last 7 is repeated)
      Opening four notes same as Zhu Zhi Ci but with harmonics on first two (the Zhengben is the same);
      Lyrics by 秦少游 Qin Shaoyou (秦觀 Qin Guan, 1049 - 1100)

      雨打梨花深閉門。   (This line written out again for the closing harmonic passage.)

    28. 草堂唫(吟) Cao Tang Yin (Thatched Cottage Intonation; XII/216; .pdf)
      Zha Guide 35/--/509: only here; 31629.173 etc. xxx; "from 曲肱軒 Qu Gong Xuan"
      The lyrics here are the same as those of the first four sections plus the first line of the fifth section, of the 10+1 section melody 梨雲春思 Li Yun Chun Si, which attributes them to 錢塘毛先舒 Mao Xianshu, who lived in Hangzhou when Jiang Xingchou was there.

      1. 鵲橋仙 Que Qiao Xian     (Magpie Bridge Immortal; ci structure [from 秦觀 Qin Guan?] unrelated to Qing Ping Yue)
      2. 點絳唇 Dian Jiang Chun           (ci structure same as that of Nan Pu Yue)
      3. 好事近 Hao Shi Jin (name of a cipai; compare this one by Fan Chengda)
      4. 畫堂春 Hua Tang Chun (name of a cipai; #4 in 1664; compare this one from 1687)
        Wei (coda)

    29. 長相思 Chang Xiang Si (Everlasting Longing); subtitle 春閨 Chun Gui (Spring Chamber; XII/220)
      Zha Guide 35/--/510; as with #2 Qing Ping Yue, same lyrics as but different music from:
          1677 (XII/374), 1677 (XII/392) and 1802 (XVII/549); it is not in 1738 (?)
      Lyrics by 馮延巳 Feng Yansi (903? - 960; ICTCL) follow the cipai:


      春閨 Chun Gui has no connection with 春閨怨 Chun Gui Yuan.

      Also transcribed in Wang Di, #52, p.124 (compare my transcription).

    30. 相思曲 Xiang Si Qu (Melody of Mutual Love; XII/221; six recordings with further comment
      Zha Guide 26/215/408: 3rd of 5 with this title; same lyrics and music as in 1618; compare 1585
      Lyrics, which have no connection to those in YFSJ, are from a ghost story about Su Shi and a female qin player; for this reason they are generally attributed to Su Shi himself.


    31. 竹枝詞 Zhu Zhi Ci (Bamboo Branch Lyrics; XII/222)
      Zha Guide 35/--/510: only in Japan; zhu zhi ci were (ABC) "ancient folk love poems" or "classical poems on local themes". Compare Yi Wangsun. The anonymous lyrics begin

      "非商非羽聲吾伊...." (complete).

    32. 小操 Xiao Cao (XII/223)
      Zha Guide 35/--/511: only in Japan; "Little Melody"
      Lyrics unattributed. Also transcribed in
      Wang Di (#37, pp.102)

      嫌小人而踏高位,鶴有乘軒。 惡利口之覆邦家,雀能穿屋。

      Shangjiao Mode (商角音 Shangjiao Yin)

    33. 箕山操 Jishan Cao (XII/224)
      Zha Guide 35/--/511: only here; see comment under
      Dun Shi Cao
      Lyrics are unattributed but can be found in earlier sources such as #3 in the Qin Cao of Yang Weizhen. (N.B., baike.baidu.com specifies they are from Yang's 鐵崖樂府 Tiěyá Yuèfǔ.


      Transcribed in Wang Di, #47 (p.113).

      Shang Mode (商音 Shang Yin)

      扶桑操(之一) Fusang Cao
      ("Fusang" is an old name for Japan, but the following three melodies do not sound Japanese, so this comment is thought to mean they were created in Japan by Shin-etsu himself. See also

    34. 熙春操 Xi Chun Cao (扶桑操 Fusang Cao #1; XII/225)
      Zha Guide: 35/--/511: only in Japan
      Lyrics unattributed;


    35. 思親引 Si Qin Yin (扶桑操 Fusang Cao #2; XII/227)
      Zha Guide: 35/--/512: only in Japan (no connection to 思親操
      Si Qin Cao)
      Lyrics unattributed; also transcribed in Wang Di (#38, pp.102)


      Jiao Mode (角音 Jiao Yin)

    36. 安排曲 An Pai Qu (XII/228)
      Zha Guide 35/--/512: only in Japan (
      fusang); 7221.314 only an pai
      Lyrics "by a person of the Song dynasty" (compare 安分咏 An Fen Yong in 解人頤 Jie Ren Yi by 錢德蒼 Qian Decang [18th c.]) 功名大小,天已安排了,何用百般機巧。


      Ruibin Mode (蕤賓音 Ruibin Yin)

    37. 樂極吟 Le Ji Yin (XII/229)
      Zha Guide 24/201/384: see introduction at
      Yu Ge Diao
      Same Liu Zongyuan lyrics but melody is quite different


      Gong Mode (宮音 Gong Yin)

    38. 高山 Gao Shan (XII/230-41)
      Zha Guide 2/21/14; a comment at end says, "神品執徐孟冬再校正". The melody and lyrics are similar to some of the
      versions published in China,

      The present version is in particular similar in music and lyrics to the only other version with lyrics, i.e., the one in Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu (1585). Both have four sections, though in Japan the sections are not numbered. The lyrics amount to about 700 characters in all, beginning:

      懸崔削壁,天外雲間,蓬萊第一山.... (The entire Gao Shan lyrics can be seen on this .pdf file [146.5 KB]).


    Appendix II

    Meiwahon Toko Kinpu (Meiwa Toko Kinpu?; 1772)
    Minghe Ben Donggao Qinpu
    Qinqu Jicheng XII/245-59
    Four pieces are not in Hewen:

    1. Canglang Ge
    2. Ji Yinzhe
    3. Nanfeng Ge
    4. Yanguan Qu

    Although Van Gulik says that Toko Kinpu has Japanese copies of pieces Shin-etsu (Toko Zenji) taught beginners, this might not have been completely true; Zha Fuxi mentions numerous editions. The earliest (1709) was not available for QQJC, so Zha Fuxi took two of the many later editions and appended them to Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu:

    This edition was compiled in the 9th year of Meiwa, 1764 - 1772.

      Table of Contents

    1. 操縵 Cao Man (XII/248)
      Lyrics unattributed; same as the Tiaoxian Runong in

    2. 浪淘沙 Lang Tao Sha (XII/249)
      Lyrics by 歐陽修 Ouyang Xiu; also in

    3. 滄浪歌 Canglang Ge (XII/250)
      Lyrics (滄浪之水清兮....) by Qu Yuan; Zha Guide 39/--/552; no musical relation to
      Fan Canglang; transcribed in Wang Di (#34, pp.100)
      Also included below

    4. 鶴沖霄 He Chong Xiao (XII/250)
      Lyrics; also in

    5. 思親引 Si Qin Yin (XII/251)
      Lyrics; also in

    6. 子夜吳歌 Ziye Wu Ge (XII/252)
      Lyrics; same as 1676

    7. 秋風辭 Qiu Feng Ci (XII/252)
      See also
      1676 above

    8. 寄隱者 Ji Yinzhe (XII/254)
      Lyrics by 杜牧 Du Mu; also
      below; Zha Guide 40/--/553
      not in QQJC XII; Wang Di (#35, p.100) transcribes this as 送隱者 Song Yinzhe


    9. 南風歌 Nanfeng Ge (XII/254)
      Zhiyin; lyrics only 南風之薰兮,可以解吾民之慍兮。南風之時兮,可以阜吾民之財兮。
      Same as
      Nanxun Cao below; see my transcription and listen to my recording.
      These lyrics were also in the musically unrelated Nan Feng Ge (1.B.)

    10. 竹枝詞 Zhuzhi Ci (XII/255)
      Lyrics; same lyrics and music as in

    11. 憶王孫 Yi Wangsun (XII/255)
      Lyrics; same as

    12. 華清引 Hua Qing Yin (XII/256)
      Lyrics; also in

    13. 小操 Xiao Cao (XII/257)
      Lyrics; also in

    14. 長相思 Chang Xiang Si (XII/258)
      Lyrics; also in

    15. 陽關曲 Yangguan Qu (XII/258)
      Lyrics: only the four lines of Wang Wei's poem, thus different from (shorter than) the Yangguan Sandie
      below; also qiliang tuning

      Transcribed in Wang Di, #54, p.126.


    Appendix III

    Ohara Shiro's Toko Kinpu (1898)
    Dayuan Zhilang ben Donggao Qinpu
    Qinqu Jicheng, XII/261-285
    No further information as yet on Ohara Shiro
    Eight pieces are not in either of the above two handbooks:

    1. Ming Feng Zhaoyang (Call of Phoenix at Sunrise)
    2. Shi Jiao Yin
    3. Yu Qiao Wenda
    4. Yangguan Sandie
    5. Yi Lan Cao
    6. Ye Zuo
    7. Zhou Ye
    8. Cao Man Yin
      Table of Contents

    1. 調絃入弄 Tiaoxian Runong (XII/263)
      Lyrics; also in

    2. 長相思 Chang Xiang Si (XII/263)
      Lyrics by 馮延已 Feng Yanyi (not in YFSJ 69, pp.990-5); also in

    3. 南熏操 Nanxun Cao (XII/263)
      Lyrics and music same as in Nanfeng Ge
      above but mode called shangyin

    4. 滄浪歌 Canglang Ge (XII/263)
      Lyrics; also above in

    5. 梅花 Mei Hua (XII/264)
      Lyrics by
      Lin Bu; virtually identical to 1676

    6. 偶成 Ou Cheng (XII/264)
      Lyrics; same as

    7. 秋風辭 Qiu Feng Ci (XII/264)
      Same as
      1676 and 1772

    8. 熙春操 Xi Chun Cao (XII/265)
      Lyrics; also in

    9. 鳴鳳朝陽 Ming Feng Zhaoyang (XII/265)
      47641.102xxx; only here; not in Zha Guide; not related to
      1525. The lyrics are:


      Although the lyrics are here unattributed (101.237xxx?), some online sources say the first three lines form 岐山下 Qi Shan Xia by 韓愈 Han Yu. The rest is said to be from 說苑,辨物 the chapter Bian Wu in the Shuo Yuan.

    10. 安排曲 Anpai Qu (XII/266)
      Lyrics; also in

    11. 子夜吳歌 Ziye Wu Ge (XII/266)
      Lyrics; also in 1676

    12. 相思曲 Xiang Si Qu (XII/266)
      Lyrics; also in

    13. 小操 Xiao Cao (XII/267)
      Lyrics; also in

    14. 東風齊著力 Dongfeng Qi Zhuo Li (XII/267)
      Lyrics; same as

    15. 久離別 Jiu Libie (XII/267)
      Lyrics; same as Jiu Bieli in

    16. 浪淘沙 Lang Tao Sha (XII/268)
      Lyrics by 歐陽修 Ouyang Xiu; also in

    17. 石交吟 Shi Jiao Yin (XII/268)
      Lyrics unattited ; not in Zha Guide; only here (and
      TKKP 26)


      後記 Afterword:
      .... this tablature was harmonized by Ma Jiliang....
      庚寅冬,葛村漁長識。 The comment (winter of gengyin: 1710? 1770? etc) was by Kuzumura/Katsumura Rryonaga/Isanaga

      Ma Jiliang (zhwiki) was from a family of tea merchants, married a daughter of 劉美 Liu Mei (1547-1606), the elder brother of the third empress of Zhao Zhenzong.

    18. 幽澗泉 You Jian Quan (XII/269)
      Lyrics; also in

    19. 醉翁操 Zui Weng Cao (XII/269)
      Lyrics; also in

    20. 三才引 Sancai Yin (XII/270)
      Lyrics; also in

    21. 寄隱者 Ji Yinzhe (XII/271)
      Lyrics; also above in

    22. 清平樂 Qing Ping潛龍潛龍ziye Yue (XII/271)
      Lyrics by 孫蒼虬 Sun Cangqiu (孫蒼虯? 7135.xxx); also in

    23. 大哉引 Dazai Yin (XII/272)
      Lyrics; same as

    24. 霹靂引 Pili Yin (XII/272)
      Lyrics; also in

    25. 離別難 Libie Nan (XII/273)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676 (2)

    26. 歸去來辭 Gui Qu Lai Ci (XII/274)
      Lyrics; also in

    27. 樂極吟 Leji Yin (XII/276)
      Lyrics; also in

    28. 思親引 Si Qin Yin (XII/276)
      Lyrics; also in

    29. 漁樵問答 Yu Qiao Wenda (XII/276)
      Lyrics; related to various
      Yu Qiao Wenda Chinese versions, especially the one dated 1589?
      Transcribed in Wang Di, #51, pp.117-123.

    30. 陽關三疊 Yangguan Sandie (XII/280)
      Lyrics; qiliang tuning; related to the
      short Chinese versions but longer than the Yangguan Qu above;
      Transcribed in Wang Di, #50, p.116.

    31. 猗蘭操 Yi Lan Cao (XII/281)
      Lyrics (習習谷風....) as section 1 of
      1511 and of 1618, but melody seems unlike any Chinese version; not in the other Japanese handbooks

    32. 瑞鶴仙 Rui He Xian (XII/281)
      Lyrics; also in

    33. 夜座 Ye Zuo (XII/282)
      Only lyrics, no music; not in the other Japanese handbooks

    34. 舟夜 Zhou Ye (XII/282)
      Only lyrics, no music; not in the other Japanese handbooks

    35. 操縵引 Caoman Yin (XII/283)
      One section, no lyrics, only music; any lyrics would be similar to those in
      #1 above, but although the music is in the same style, it is rather different

    Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

    1. Japanese Guqin Handbooks
    These three handbooks are all in 琴曲集成 Qinqu Jicheng (QQJC), Volume XII/165-381. The QQJC preface by Zha Fuxi (p. ii), entitled "和文注音琴譜 Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu" (the other two volumes included here are mentioned only in the last line) begins as follows:

    This volume was in the collection of 烏程周慶雲 Zhou Qingyun of Wucheng; it has now "returned" to the Shanghai Library. Its entry in Mr. Zhou's Qinshu Cunmu says it was "日本東皋越杜多撰 compiled in Japan by Toko Etsu the Monk" (1639-1695), whose common name was Jiang Xingchou, style name Dongyue (Etsu in Japanese). He was from 浙江金華浦陽 Puyang in the Jinhua district of Zhejiang province. When young he left home. In 1676, while residing at the 杭州永福寺 Yongfu Temple in Hangzhou, to flee local difficulties he moved to Japan, using his studies of Chan (Buddhism) to make connection with the 關東幕府 Kanto bakufu (military govenment in the Tokyo region). He died at the 江戶祇園寺 Gion Temple in Edo (this was actually the Gion Temple in 水戶 Mito). Mr. Jiang while in China studied qin with Zhuang Zhenfeng and 褚虛舟 Zhu Xuzhou. While stuck in (滯) Japan he transmitted his qin art to the 日儒 Japanese Confucian Hitomi Chikudo and the 幕府貴官 Bakufu Chief Officer (?) Sugiura Kinsen....

    Zha Fuxi goes on to suggest that this handbook, though copied later by various people, came directly from Shen-Etsu. However, the account above suggests questions this.

    2. Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu, p.1
    From QQJC XII/167. The expanded version is from pp. 167-8. The larger seal below the title of the first piece says, "桂川家臧 Katsuragawa Family Collection" (see below").

    3. "Correct Toko Kinpu"
    To determine the accuracy of this handbook compared to the ones in Qinqu Jicheng, discussed here, required comprehensive study of completed reconstructions. As with those handbooks, the "Correct Toko Kinpu" has its own mistakes.

    4. Katsuragawa Family Collection (桂川家藏)
    桂川月池 Katsuragawa Etchi (1751 - 1809), a doctor of Chinese medicine, was also a qin player. See Van Gulik, Lore, p.239.

    5. Pieces with the Katsuragawa family seal
    There are four: QQJC/XII/pp.167, 190, 205 and 220. The image at top shows p.167.

    6. "訂正、校正"; it is not clear whether the revisions were to the melodies, to the lyrics, or to both.

    7. A preliminary investigation suggests they are still in a Chinese style.

    Return to the Guqin ToC