Table of Contents for Lixing Yuanya (1618)
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Lixing Yuanya
Rational nature basic elegance 1

Table of Contents

-- Zhang Tingyu prefatory comments (VIII/173)
-- (see Caoman Yin; VIII/178)
--   Tuning strings method for 5 string qin using the 5th and 7th strings as the standard
--   Tuning strings method for 7 string qin using the 7th and 4th strings as the standard
--   Tuning strings method for 9 string qin using the 9th and 6th strings as the standard
-- What must be known about playing qin (VIII/178)
-- What must be known in choosing what to do (VIII/179)
-- Discourse about changing gong on the seven strings (VIII/179)
-- Discourse about three qins from beginning to end (VIII/180)
-- Five tones and 12 modes as they correspond to strings (VIII/181)
-- Fingering methods (Right and Left, VIII/182 & 184)
-- Table of Contents (VIII/185)

   (Note: All melodies have lyrics)

    Folio One

    Melodies for seven string qin

    本調宮音 Standard tuning gong mode

  1. Meihua Sannong (11; VIII/189)
    Melody related to
    SQMP version
  2. Jiu Kuang (7; VIII/194)
    Related to
    SQMP version melody
  3. Yang Chun (15; VIII/196)
    Related to
    1539 version but melody and lyrics very different
  4. Lu Ming (3; VIII/202)
    First of 6 but unrelated to later ones, from 1745 to 1910
  5. Haohao Ge (3; VIII/203)

    本調商音 Standard tuning shang mode

  6. Tengwang Ge Fu (14; VIII/204)
  7. Kechuang Yehua (10; VIII/209)
    1511, which has lyrics
  8. Fusheng Cao (5; VIII/213)
    1511 Yasheng Cao; here "大哉顏回" begins Section 2

    Folio Two

  9. Yuan He Shuang Qing (12; VIII/215)
    1511 Shuang Qing Zhuan
  10. Bai Xue (9; VIII/220)
  11. Guiqulai Ce (6; VIII/222)
  12. Shitan Zhang (VIII/224)
  13. Du Jiangjun Ge (6; VIII/228)
    Only here
  14. Xiangfei Yuan (4; VIII/230)

    本調角音 Standard tuning jue mode

  15. Liezi Yu Feng (10; VIII/232)
  16. Qiusheng Fu (7; VIII/236)
    1589, etc.
  17. 風雲會四朝元 Feng Yun Hui Si Chao Yuan (4; VIII/238)
    Table of contents (and Zha Guide) give the title only as Si Chao Yuan;
    Only here; lyrics are from the opera 琵琶記 Pipa Ji
  18. Ba Jiu Wen Yue (2; VIII/241)
    Only here; lyrics by Li Bai

    本調徴音 Standard tuning zhi mode

  19. Yu Qiao Wenda (12; VIII/242)
    1559, etc.
  20. Guan Ju (10; VIII/246)
    1585 and see below
  21. Xing Tan Yin (1; VIII/249)
    1525, etc.

    本調羽音 Standard tuning yu mode

  22. Han Gong Qiu Yue (10; VIII/250)
    1525, etc.
  23. Shuilong Yin (2; VIII/253)
  24. Feng Qiu Huang (1; VIII/254)
    Compare from
    1539 Wenjun Cao
  25. Xiang Si Qu (1; VIII/255)
    Listen to this and 5+1 other versions from 1573, especially Japan and the 1864 Gu Qin Yin

    Folio Three

    別調七絃 Non-standard tunings, seven-string qin
    (24 melodies in 20 non-standard tunings;
    further comment under the Xilutang Qintong chart)

  26. 慢宮 Mangong ("lower 1, 3, 6; same as 夷則 [same as 1525 yize, 南呂 nanlü"; VIII/256)
      猗蘭操 Yilan Cao (2 sections, titled)
    Section 1 lyrics as 1511 and Japan; Section 2 lyrics: 曄曄秋蘭,孤無俗態....(source not identified)
  27. 黃鐘 Huangzhong ("raise 5, lower 1" [same as 1525 wuyi, #32 dalü]; VIII/257)
      昭君怨 Zhaojun Yuan (compare in 1425; 8T)
  28. Again Huangzhong (same tuning as previous; VIII/261)
      前赤壁賦 Qian Chibi Fu (
    compare in 1511; 11)
  29. 姑洗 Guxian ("raise 2, 5, 7; same as 夾鍾 jiazhong, 清商 qingshang" [same as 1525 guxian] ; VIII/264)
      有回行 You Hui Xing (5; only here)
  30. 蕤賓 Ruibin ("raise 1" [same as 1525 ruibin]; VIII/266)
      秋鴻 Qiu Hong (36; compare guxian in 1425!)
  31. 無射 Wuyi ("lower 1, 2" [melody tends to avoid these 2 strings!]; VIII/277)
      梅花十五弄 Mei Hua Shiwu Nong (
    q.v.; unrelated to other Meihua; 15T)
  32. 大呂 Dalü ("raise 5, lower 1; 如黃鍾但" [same as #27 Huangzhong; again as 1525 wuyi]); VIII/280)
      三癖操 San Pi Cao (3; "three cravings": 馬、錢、傳); only here; "噫。馬癖兮,胡不為....")
  33. 慢商 Manshang ("lower 1, 3"; same as 1525 yunü; VIII/281)
      結客少年塲 Jie Ke Shaonian Chang (3; only here; "有田磽角,有馬齧蹄....")
  34. 慢角 Manjiao ("lower 3, 6" [same as 1525 wumei; compare wumei below]; VIII/282)
      將進酒 Jiang Jin Jiu (2; only here; "君不見,古來山水絕勝清涼寺,丹崖樓閣靑霞擎。...."; compare He Zhu “城下路,凄风露,今人犁田古人墓。....")
  35. 清角 Qing Jiao ("lower 1, 6, raise 3"; VIII/283)
      妾薄命 Qie Bo Ming (4; by 張子 Zhang Zi;
    only here)
  36. 清徵 Qingzhi ("raise 4, lower 5"; VIII/285)
    Cha Ge (4; only here; Tea Song [only qin tune about tea])
  37. 慢羽 Manyu ("lower 5"; VIII/286)
      過義士橋 Guo Yishi Qiao (2;
    only here)
  38. 清羽 Qingyu ("raise 2, 4"; VIII/287)
      手挽長河行 Shouwan Chang He Xing (4;
    only here)
  39. 側羽 Ceyu ("raise 7"; VIII/290)
      飲中八仙歌 Yinzhong Baxian Ge (2; lyrics are Du Fu's
    Song of the Eight Drinking Immortals; only here)
  40. 凄凉 Qiliang ("raise 2, 5"; as 1525; VIII/291)
      屈原問渡 Qu Yuan Wen Du (9)
  41. Again Qiliang (same tuning; VIII/294)
    Yangguan Sandie (3)
  42. Again Qiliang (same tuning; VIII/295)
      春江送別 Chunjiang Songbie (9; title
    only here and 1738, but it is actually a version of Yangguan Sandie)
  43. 碧玉 Biyu ("raise 3, 5, 7" [same as #49 below; compare 1525 and 1425]; VIII/298)
      陌上桑 Moshang Sang (3; only here and an unrelated 1597)
  44. 側蜀 Ceshu ("lower 3" [as 1525 huangzhong, etc.; VIII/300)
      醒心集 Xing Xin Ji (5; new version, with music unrelated to 1585; "窩雖小,清以寧....")
  45. 側楚 Cechu ("raise 7, lower 2"; VIII/302)
      孝順歌 Xiao Shun Ge (3;
    only here)
  46. 無媒 Wumei ("raise 2, 6"; VIII/304)
      白頭吟 Baitou Yin (4;
    only here; see details and compare Manjiao above)
  47. 清調 Qingdiao ("raise 5, 7"; VIII/305)
      Wang Mingjun Yin (3;
    only here)
  48. 離憂 Liyou ("lower 1, 2"; VIII/307 [reverses order with next])
      東飛伯勞歌 Dong Fei Bo Lao Ge (2;
    only here)
  49. 泉鳴 Quanming ("tighten 3, 5, 7" [same as #43 above]; VIII/308)
      相逢行 Xiang Feng Xing (2; only here)

    Folio Four (23 Melodies for five, nine and one string qin)

    Five string qin melodies
    (see as

  50. 關雎     Guan Ju (3; VIII/309)
    new version; uses only the lyrics of the original poem
  51. 蓼莪     Lu E (6; VIII/311)
    "Long and large grows the E". Sometimes written "Liao E"; 蓼 pronounced liao would mean "vexatious"; 莪 is a member of the mustard family;
    only here.
    This lament for deceased parents is set to the lyrics of Shi Jing #202: also see translation by Ezra Pound. Preface relates a story by 朱熹 Zhu Xi of 晉王衰 the defeated King of Jin reading the lyrics and mourning his parents, adding that he then created the melody. See also here and here.
  52. 襄陽歌 Xiangyang Ge (3; VIII/312)
    new version: only other one,
    1579, is diff, though the lyrics here can be sung there (VIII/312)
  53. 兵車行 Bing Che Xing (3; VIII/313)
    only here; set to lyrics by Du Fu.
  54. 風入松 Feng Ru Song (1; VIII/315)
    1511 diff.
  55. 獲麟解 Huo Lin Jie (3; VIII/316)
    only here
  56. 南薰歌 Nan Xun Ge (2; VIII/317)
    >1505 diff.
  57. 思親操 Si Qin Cao (1; VIII/318)
    1511 diff.
  58. 拘幽操 Ju You Cao (1; VIII/318)
    1511 diff.
  59. 西銘     Xi Ming (3; VIII/319)
    only here
  60. 履霜操 Lü Shuang Cao (1; VIII/320)
    1511 diff.
  61. 四愁詩 Si Chou Shi (4; VIII/321)
    Raise 5th, lower 1st strings; this title
    only here but the lyrics are elsewhere set to different music as Si Si Ge
  62. 漁父辭 Yu Fu Ci (4; VIII/323)
    Raise 2nd and 5th strings;
    only here

    Nine string qin melodies2
    The only known old 9-string tablatures; see account in QSCB.
      Tuning method and sample of 9-string qin pu
    Page 1 of Qian Chu Shi Biao (complete pdf)  
    Compare Cai Yong and Song Taizong, whose attempt failed.

  63. 前岀師表 Qian Chu Shi Biao (9; VIII/324)
    Only here and
    1585 (lyrics by Zhuge Liang same; music seems different). The tablature itself seems problematic.3
  64. 蜀道難 Shu Dao Nan (3; VIII/328)
    First of three; all use as lyrics Li Bai, The Road to Shu is Hard (噫噓嚱,危乎高哉!....), but with some variations
    • Here
    • 1677 [XII/436], diff;
    • 1910 [XXX/34], also diff.)
  65. 獨樂園 Du Le Yuan (3; VIII/330)
    Only here; lyrics are the poem "司馬君實獨樂園 The Honorable Sima (Guang)'s own Garden of Solitary Delight" by 蘇軾 Su Shi, as follows ([5+5]x13):

  66. 胡笳十八拍 Hujia Shiba Pai (18; VIII/331)
    Lyrics attributed to Cai Wenji as in 1597 but music different; nothing said about tuning.
  67. 接輿歌 Jie Yu Ge (3; VIII/338)
    Only here (Song of Jie Yu, the "楚狂接舆 The Madman of Chu"; see separate entry.
    The lyrics, from the Analects and the Zhuangzi, begin, 鳳兮鳳兮,何德之衰?往者不可諫,來者猶可追。....

    One string qin melodies (further comment)   One-string qin tablature (expand)      
    See one-string qin images;
    Si Xian Cao (at right) is rather long, the other four very short)

  68. 思賢操 Si Xian Cao (7; VIII/339)
    Tablature at right; compare
    1511 Ya Sheng Cao
  69. 杏壇吟 Xing Tan Yin (1; VIII/342)
    Tablature (expanded); same lyrics as 1525 Xing Tan
  70. 浪淘沙 Lang Tao Sha (1; VIII/342)
    (Tune): 岀古詞府 Chu Gu Ci Fu (see
  71. 塞上曲 Sai Shang Qu (1; VIII/343)
    By 黃魯直 Huang Luzhi (Huang Tingjian: "十月北風燕草黃,燕人馬肥弓力強。...." ([7+7] x 4)
  72. 水調歌頭 Shui Diao Ge Tou (1; VIII/343)
    1st of 4; preface; lyrics by Su Dongpo begin "明月幾時有...."

Return to the Lixing Yuanya intro or the Guqin ToC


Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. References
理性元雅 21475.37 only 理性; 1356 no 元雅.

2. Nine string melodies First page of 1618 Jie Yu Ge (complete pdf.)  
Are the two extra strings added at the top, bottom or one each? The introductory paragraph at VIII/324 (in image above) does not discuss this. What it does say is that the open strings 1-6, 2-7, 3-8 and 4-9 all form octaves; it then gives a somewhat confusing correspondence of stopped compared to open strings that in the end seems to indicate that the relative overall tuning is most likely either:

1 2 4 5 6 1 2 4 5
2 3 5 6 1 2 3 5 6

My preliminary examination of these five nine-string tablatures suggests that the two upper strings are used quite a bit more than that two lower ones. This is particularly true of the one which I have studied in some detail, #67 接輿歌 Jie Yu Ge (Song of Jie Yu).

3. Problems in tablature for Qian Chu Shi Biao
For example, the left hand position "九下" that occurs four times in line 1 of the tablature yields a dissonance (later the position on the same strings are given just as "九"). Later in that section "立九" from position "十" seems to specify that the 撞 from the 10th position (hui) goes up to the 9th hui, but this is not actually explained anywhere and this usage does not seem to be consistent.