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06: Flowing Streams
- Gong mode, standard tuning: 5 6 1 2 3 5 6 2
流水 1
Liu Shui
Flowing Stream under a Small Bridge 3    
According to Xunzi, Confucius said,

Whenever the gentleman sees a great stream he feels the necessity of contemplating it.4

Such associations certainly enriched literati appreciation of the melody Flowing Streams. However, traditional commentary within guqin literature always connects Flowing Streams with High Mountains, and the melody High Mountains Flowing Streams (Gao Shan Liu Shui5) always tells the same story. According to this story, the famous qin player of antiquity Boya (also commonly Romanized Bo Ya) could evoke nature with his qin play, but only Ziqi (also Zi Qi or Zhong Ziqi) was able to recognize this. Unfortunately, soon after their first meeting Ziqi dies. Because to Boya the most important emotions cannot be expresssed in words, only through music, he considers himself very lucky finally to have found someone who understood his music; but having found such a person, how could he ever expect to find another? So Boya then breaks his instrument (or its strings) and never plays again.

From this story comes the expression "zhi yin: know sound", meaning friends who know what resounds in each others' hearts.

In Shen Qi Mi Pu a version of this story is related in the preface to Gao Shan. The preface there associates the melody with Mount Tai in Shandong, though it does not say that this is where the melody was played. The Gao Shan page also discusses other geographical associations as well as other versions of this story; that page also has most of the commentary that can be applied to the music of both Gao Shan and Liu Shui.

The biography of Bo Ya mentions other melodies also associated with Bo Ya. Of note here is the ancient mention of Sanxia Liu Quan6 (Flowing Springs in the Three Gorges); it might relate a similar story.

As for transmission of the guqin music specifically of Liu Shui, versions survive in 33 handbooks between 1425 and 1946 (compare the transmission of Gao Shan).7 In fact, Liu Shui is the only piece from the 1425 Shen Qi Mi Pu Folio 1 to have survived actively in a recognizable form into the modern repertoire.8 On the other hand, the only versions that follow closely the one in 1425 are the next two, published respectively in 1539 (Fengxuan Xuanpin) and 1552 (Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu). After this the versions in the other two handbooks published before 1589 are worthy of special mention:

After 1585 all surviving versions until at least 1853, when the ones with multiple gunfu (glissandi) begin to be published, seem to have recognizable similarities. As suggested by the chart below, they all have beginnings related to either the first two or first four sections of the Shen Qi Mi Pu version (particularly the harmonics), then these openings are followed by passages that are either very different from or completely different from those of 1425. In other words, the origin of these later 7 and 8 section versions is not clear (see further comments). To be more specific, from 1589 until the publication of the multiple gunfu (glissando) versions in the latter part of the 19th century, most versions after 1585 seem to be closely related to either to the eight section 1589 or 1634 versions, or to the seven section 1689 version.

Like Gao Shan, the Liu Shui in SQMP also had no punctuation, so again my reconstruction uses the phrasing from the identical version in Fengxuan Xuanpin (1539). And also as with Gao Shan, Liu Shui was not divided into sections.

It should be noted that neither the SQMP version of Liu Shui nor any versions prior to the nineteenth century prominently featured glissandos. In addition, the Shen Qi Mi Pus version is considerably longer than the other surviving early versions that did not copy the Shen Qi Mi Pu version, particularly those from 1589 right up to the 19th century. Because of this length, in my transcription I decided to divide the piece into what seem to me to be 16 natural sections. This sectioning is based in part on the sectioning of the version in Xilutang Qintong (1525): ten of the titles I have used here are the ten Xilutang Qintong (1525) sections, here applied to sections where the implication of the title seems to correspond well with the feeling of the Shen Qi Mi Pu music; two titles are phrases from Zhu Quan's preface to the melody; the other four titles come from the version in Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu (1585).

Dozens of recordings of Liu Shui have been made, but besides my own the only other available ones based on the version in SQMP are those by Yao Bingyan and his son, Yao Gongbai.10 Both use metal strings. The one by Yao Bingyan is transcribed by Bell Yung in Celestial Airs of Antiquity.

Modern Liu Shui

The version of Liu Shui commonly played today makes extensive use of harp-like glissandos called "gunfu".11 This version is generally attributed to the 19th century Sichuan school master Zhang Kongshan,12 and it is commonly known as the "72 gunfu Liu Shui",13 with suggestions that these gunfu are particularly appropriate to the lofty mountains of Sichuan, whereas this older versions were perhaps more descriptive of streams in the lower mountains of eastern China.14 This is by far the most popular version of Liu Shui, in part because a 1954 Guan Pinghu recording was selected for inclusion among the Voyager 2 recordings sent to outer space in 1977. In his hands, playing on silk strings (for which it was originally created), it is certainly a magnificent creation.

To others, however, this piece is too showy, emphasizing technical skill over musical understanding. This is especially true when played on the modern nylon-metal strings, but even in the silk string performances, according to Van Gulik, this "72 gunfu" version is basically a "show piece" created by Zhang Kongshan.15

This tune is technically so complicated that the composer had to invent a dozen new signs to be able to record this music in notation. Although interesting as a proof of the many possibilities of (qin) music, it has no value for the study of Chinese music...."

My own teacher, Sun Yuqin, was also rather disdainful of Liu Shui as played today. Although he did play and teach it, he liked to say this melody was actually easier to play than were so-called "beginners' melodies" such as Xiang Jiang Yuan; with Liu Shui all you had to do was practice the technique well enough that you could just wave your hands around and everyone would consider you a master, whereas with a "simpler" piece you had to be able to play with real understanding and subtlety.

Original Preface16
Zhu Quan's preface to #05 Gao Shan serves for both melodies.

Music (Timings follow the recording 錄音 from my CD; see also my transcription and video)
Undivided; here arranged into 16 sections; titles are from
Xilutang Qintong (X), Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu (C), and Zhu Quan's preface (ZP) 17

(00.00) 01. The long stream stretches out like a ribbon (X1)
(00.37) 02. A qin resounds by the hidden mountain stream (X2)
(01.09) 03. Directing the pulses (a Daoist exercise) leads to a long life (X3)
(01.40) 04. Floating clouds knock together (X5)
(02.24) 05. The wind causes ripples in the water (X6)
(02.58) 06. Look at the Big Dipper while traveling on an immortal's log (X7)18
(03.35) 07. Spring water gurgles up ("nian" near end; X4) 19
(04.09) 08. Bubbling eastward (C7)
(04.30) 09. Rivers return down to the sea (related to 9; has harmonics ; C5)
(04.57) 10. (The qin evokes) the vastness of the waters (resembles 15; ZP)
(05.17) 11. Rowing hurriedly through the mist (fast; X8)
(06.01) 12. (The river flows) eternally (freely; C6)
(06.39) 13. Mist above a clear river (slower; C4)
(07.24) 14. People of wisdom enjoy the waters (ZP)
(07.53) 15. The cinnabar door is thick (with lacquer? X9) 20
(08.10) 16. The spirit is like deep, dark waters (X10) 21
(08.48) --- Piece ends

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Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Liu Shui references
17762.16 流水 gives only geography; 17762.20 流水高山 adds nothing to 46302.32 高山流水 Gaoshan Liushui, discussed elsewhere.
17762.21 流水韻 writes of people using the sound of water to write music, but has nothing beyond the Bo Ya story.

2. Gong mode (宮調 gong diao)
For information on gong modal characteristics see Shenpin Gong Yi; for more general information see Modality in Early Ming Qin Tablature. Although Shen Qi Mi Pu does not identify the mode of its Liu Shui, the identical version in Fengxuan Xuanpin (1539) groups it under gong mode. In addition it has the standard characteristics of gong mode melodies published at that time: standard tuning used as 5 6 1 2 3 5 6 (i.e., the open third string is considered as playing the relative pitch gong), gong is the main tonal center (most common phrase ending and section ending, plus the melody ends on do), and zhi (5, sol) is the secondary tonal center.

3. Pu Hua: Flowing Stream under a Small Bridge 蒲華,小橋流水圖 Pu Hua fan with similar theme              
Pu Hua (1832 - 1911) was a well known painter from 嘉興 Jiaxing in Zhejiang province; further details and paintings can be found from a webpage
in his name; as of 2009 the Wikipedia article was just a stub. Note his mention of "qin" in the middle of the inscription and the qin being carried to the right of the bridge. This painting can be found on numerous websites; the original is apparently 新加坡國立大學李港乾美術館藏 in the Lee Kong Chian Collection at the Museum of the National University of Singapore, though their website does not mention it. One online comment says the composition of the painting shows some Western influence.

The full inscription on the painting is as follows:


The inscription begins with a four-line poem, seven characters per line. The third line mentions playing qin. After the poem there is the following explanation: "1893, summer, in the style of Mei Daoren (吳鎮 Wu Zhen, 1280-1354), by Zuoying, (nickname of) Pu Hua." (Thanks to 孫小青 Sun Xiaoqing for clarifying and explaining the calligraphy and the artist.)

In 2009 the first line (山路荒茫風日晴) and part of the last (仿梅道人蒲華) could be found online on a fan with a similar theme.

4. Xunzi 荀子 on flowing water (see also Confucius on water and mountains)
Xunzi (see also Chapter 7), Chapter 28 宥坐 You Zuo, has the following passage:


Chapter 28 is generally considered to be an apocryphal section added later. Knoblock, 28/5, translates this section as follows (omitting footnotes from the original translation in Vol III, Books 17 - 32, p. 248. Stanford University Press, 1994):

Confucius was once gazing at the water flowing eastward. Zigong 子貢 questioned Confucius about it, saying: "Why is it that whenever a gentleman sees a great stream, he feels the necessity to contemplate?"

Confucius replied: "Ah! Water - it bestows itself everywhere, on all living things, yet there is no assertion: in this it remembers inner power. Its direction of flow is to descend toward the low ground and whether its course is winding or straight, it necessarily follows its natural principles: in this it resembles morality. {Things float on its surface and its depths cannot be fathomed: in this it resembles knowledge.} Its vast rushing waters are neither subdued nor exhausted: in this it resembles the Way. If there should be anything that blocks its course, its response will be to react against it, like a reverberating echo. It will travel through chasms a hundred rods deep fearlessly: in this it seems as though it had courage. Led to an empty place, it is sure to make itself level: in this it resembles the law. It will fill something completely and not require a leveling stick: in this is resembles rectitude. Indulgent and restrained while penetrating into the subtlest matters: in this it resembles scrutiny. As it comes and goes, it accommodates itself [to whatever impurities encounter it], renewing and purifying them: in this it resembles the transforming power of the good. Through myriad turns and twists its course is certain to flow eastward: in this is resembles the mind with a sense of purpose. It is for such reasons that whenever the gentleman sees a great stream he feels the necessity of contemplating it."

Thanks to Stephen Walker for pointing out the original Chinese passage and to Christopher Evans for sending me a copy of Knoblock's translation. Note that most rivers in China flow generally eastward. Also, the author, whoever he may have been, wrote not of 流水 Liu Shui (Flowing Water) but 流之水 liu zhi shui (flowing water) and 大水 da shui (a great stream); there is no suggestion there was a melody of this title at the time.

5. Gao Shan Liu Shui 高山流水
Songfengge Qinpu (1677/82) has a melody called Gaoshan Liushui (High Mountains, Flowing Streams). In all other surviving qin handbooks Gao Shan and Liu Shui are separate titles, though usually paired, as here. See further comments.

6. Flowing Springs in the Three Gorges (三峽流泉 Sanxia Liu Quan)
See comments in footnote to Shishang Liu Quan (On a Rock by a Flowing Spring). General sources don't mention where Bo Ya lived, but one tradition says it was in Sichuan, location of the Three Gorges. Xu Jian, QSCB, p.177 (Chapter 9), says Tang poetic references to Sanxia Liu Quan also indicate it might be have been an early form of Liu Shui.

7. Tracing Liu Shui (see details in the appendix below)
According to data mostly from Zha Fuxi's Guide, whereas Gao Shan (2/21/14) survives in 49 versions from 1425 through 1946, Liu Shui (2/25/17) survives in only 40. Most of the difference comes between 1709 and the first publication of a multi-gunfu (glissando) Liu Shui in 1853: between these two dates there are 15 occurrences of Gao Shan but 9 of Liu Shui.

Note also that neither Gao Shan nor Liu Shui are in Zheyin Shizi Qinpu (before 1491), and that the lyrics of the versions in Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu (1585; see its #11 and #12) don't fit SQMP according the the normal pairing method of that time. The 1585 version seems to be the only one to have had lyrics (further comment).

As suggested above, the Liu Shui here was possibly not actively played at that time, so later Ming dynasty versions either copied it or were transmitted by people who gave new interpretations by studying the tablature rather than by learning it from a teacher. Perhaps careful reconstruction of later versions might clarify this, but the versions of 1525 and 1585 are so different that they perhaps should be considered separately. The 1525 version (from Xilutang Qintong), in particular, could have been transmitted from a source prior to the Ming dynasty, or one otherwise separate from the transmission of the present Shen Qi Mi Pu version.

8. Shen Qi Mi Pu melodies that survived into the modern repertoire
One can debate whether Gao Shan survived into the modern repertoire: there are some recordings available but they are rare. Melodies which have clearly survived, in addition to Liu Shui, are Meihua Sannong from Folio II and Xiaoxiang Shuiyun from Folio III. In addition several pieces have survived in very much modified form. From Folio II the most recognizable of these is Yin De (in the form of Qiujiang Yebo); much less commonly played are versions of Bai Xue, Liezi Yufeng, Qiao Ge and Shanju Yin. There are no other melodies surviving from Folio III. To my knowledge, other Shen Qi Mi Pu titles played today are either reconstructions, or are unrelated pieces of the same title.

9. The Liu Shui in Xilutang Qintong (1525)
This handbook has a number of melodies said to have been hand copied from earlier sources, but the sources and their dates are rarely clear. At first glance the 1525 tablature for Liu Shui does not seem to be as old-fashioned as that of the Liu Shui in Shen Qi Mi Pu, but there is still the possibility that it was copied from an earlier source but in the process was put into a more modern form without changing the notes.

The sectioning I devised for the Shen Qi Mi Pu version (the original had none) strongly suggests that the second surviving version, from Xilutang Qintong (1525), is most clearly related to 1425 at the beginning and end. Thus, the first six (of 16) sections in 1425 are paralleled by the first seven (of 10) sections of 1525. In this way the 1525 version might be more similar to the later versions (those beginning in 1589) than the 1425 version is. Whether this means that the 1525 version, or one related to it, should be considered as the real predecessor of these later versions is not something that, to my knowledge, has been examined.

Obstacles to reconstructing the 1525 version of Liu Shui include its often indicating a repeat without saying from where the repeat should begin and (at least in the QQJC edition) missing phrase punctuation.

Also puzzling (though not unprecedented) is its ending. As in 1425, the melody is said to be in gong mode. Also as in 1425, the 1525 version seems to use the open third string as the main tonal center. In addition, the main body of the 1525 melody ends with a passage identical to that in 1425, which ends on this do. However, 1525 then adds a new harmonic coda that changes the tonal center to and ends on sol (zhi; 5).

Also perhaps significant: at the end of what the present transcription of the 1425 version calls Section 7 there are instuctions to "念 nian" (for "捻 pinch a string with two fingers of the right hand, then lift up and release") the open first string, causing a slapping sound somewhat suggestive of a string breaking. As mentioned here, such a sound would be particularly appropriate at the end of the melody, where Boya is said to have broken the strings of his qin, but in 1425 it is near the middle. Such a nian does not appear in 1525 (nor have I yet found one in any of the later versions), but the passage at the beginning of 1425 Section 8 is most closely paralleled in Section 8 of 1525, i.e., rather near the end of the piece. Perhaps this suggests that earlier Liu Shui were considerably shorter than the 1425 version, with the latter part in particular being a later addition.

10. In Yaomen School, Hugo HRP 748-2, track 7 (10.35); Yao Bingyan's timing is 11.59; for mine it is 8.52.

11. Gunfu 滾拂 (袞拂; in tablature 袞弗)
For this technique (sometimes Romanized kunfu or written 袞拂), the ring finger of the right hand runs down across several strings then the index finger returns back up: in Liu Shui it is from the 7th to 1st, then 1st to 7th strings. The 72 gunfu version of Liu Shui, attributed to Zhang Kongshan (see next), depicts water flowing over rocks so evocatively that one need not be a Zi Qi to realize it. Traditional qin music, though commonly programmatic in title, tends to be more subtle (see further).

Taiyin Daquanji Folio 3 (QQJC I/54) initially has the first technique written 擂 lei (beat, as a drum), or perhaps 播 bo; it then says this is the same as 袞 gun (imperial; later more specifically 滾 rolling; rapid water). As yet I have not yet seen a poetic image of gun and fu together, nor have I seen a description, though 琴鏡續 Qinjing Xu apparently has fugun). According to VG, p.130, gun has been described poetically as "a heron bathing in a whirlpool" (鷺浴盤渦 luyu panwo; he does not give his source)

12. Zhang Kongshan 長空山 (dates unknown)
See his biography under Tianwenge Qinpu (1876). Although it seems that he himself developed the so-called 72 gunfu Liu Shui (see below), no close comparisons seem to have been published comparing the current version with the tablature in Tianwen'ge Qinpu itself; there have been claims that after the publication either he or his students made further modificiations.

13. 72 gunfu Liu Shui (七十二滾拂流水) vs "beginners' melodies"
To my ears the 72 gunfu version (see above) in the hands of the right player can indeed be beautifully evocative of flowing streams -- to the extent that it should not take a "zhi yin" such as Ziqi to recognize its theme. It is thus perhaps somewhat ironic that the explicit nature of this version has contributed to making it a modern model for evoking the traditional qin aesthetic.

14. Sichuan vs Eastern China
Reference needed

15. Criticism of the 72 Gunfu version of Liu Shui
See Van Gulik, Lore, p.99. After discussing in the same book the great skill necessary to play the "showpiece" version, on p.20 he quotes Ouyang Xiu as follows,

From my youth I did not relish vulgar music, but loved the sounds of the (qin). I particularly liked the tune Flowing Streams, in its simpler version ("小流水 xiao Liu Shui")....

One can only guess what Ouyang Xiu would have thought of the 19th century showpiece.

Of course, one can find a similar argument in Western classical music, where Mozart lovers will argue for their music's subtlety over the flagrant showiness of composers such as Chopin.

16. Original preface
None here, but see the Chinese preface under 高山.

17. Chinese for titles used here
The Chinese titles, from 西麓堂琴統西, 重修真傳琴譜 and Zhu Quan's 朱序, are:

(00.00) 01. 長溪舒練 (西 1)
(00.37) 02. 幽澗鳴琴 (西 2)
(01.09) 03. 導脈靈長 (西 3)
(01.40) 04. 雲浮拍拍 (西 5)
(02.24) 05. 風起潾潾 (西 6)
(02.58) 06. 望斗乘槎 (西 7)
(03.35) 07. 延流觱沸 (西 4)
(04.09) 08. 汨汨東流 (重 7)
(04.30) 09. 就下朝宗 (重 5)
(04.57) 10. 洋洋若江海 (朱序)
(05.17) 11. 衝煙搖櫂 (西 8)
(06.01) 12. 古今晝夜 (重 6)
(06.39) 13. 縹緲澄江 (重 4)
(07.24) 14. 智者樂水 (朱序)
(07.53) 15. 丹扃湛若 (西 9)
(08.10) 16. 靈府淵泫 (西 10)
(08.48) --- 終

In some cases the divisions are quite clear to the listener. In cases where it is not, the reason is usually that I have followed the sectioning that divides the same or similar passages in later tablature, even though when I play it does not feel like a section ending.
  cha; a log or a raft?        
18. Immortal's log or raft (槎 cha)
15591: logs, especially if tied together; "immortal's raft"; such conveyances are called "槎 cha" whether they look more like logs, as at right, or as boats, as in this image. Such objects are often referred to as "仙人乘槎 immortals traveling on a raft". Typically headed for the Milky Way, they can be found mentioned in poetry and literature as well as in paintings and for objects made of material such as wood, ivory or jade. The example at right is a Ming dynasty porcelein Jingdezhen dish with an "immortal on raft" from the website of the Metropolitan Museum of New York. Also from the Met website is the late 18th century carved bamboo Immortal Raft. Internet searches will yield many more examples.

For a mention in qin song lyrics see the melody 清平樂 Qing Ping Yue (Clear Peaceful Music).

19. nian
Nian ("pinch") calls for two fingers of the right hand to pinch a string, lift it and let it fall, making a snapping sound. Elsewhere this sound represents that of a string breaking, and as such comes at the end of at least two laments. Considering the story here, where in the end Boya breaks his strings and never plays again, it would seem appropriate to have this meaning. But here it occurs in the middle of the piece, and so its significance is not as clear. If the snap is not too loud it could have the original significance suggesting a bird picking off a twig. (So far I have found this nian only in one other version, that of 1539; 1552 changes it to open third string.) Note, however, that 1525 has a similar passage near the end of its Section 7, perhaps suggesting that the original melody (including a nian) was much shorter thant the 1425 version (further comment).

20. 101.87 dan qiong 丹扃 (XLTQT seems to have shang 戶 + ); 18213.14 zhanruo 湛若 has only zihao 字號.

21. 18126.xx yuanxuan 淵泫; Matthews has "a waste of waters"; Zha thinks the characters are yuanjie 淵結 , which he chages to yuanzhi 淵質.

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Appendix: Chart Tracing Liu Shui (further comment)
based mainly on Zha Fuxi's Guide, 2/25/17.
Compare Gao Shan chart

    (year; QQJC Vol/page)
Further information: (QQJC = 琴曲集成 Qinqu Jicheng; QF = 琴府 Qin Fu)
Right aligned commentary is for later versions of Liu Shui; compare Gao Shan chart
  1.  神奇秘譜
      (1425; I/121)
Original has no sectioning (but compare above) or phrasing indicated;
not in 1491 and lyrics of 1585 don't fit
  2. 西麓堂琴統
      (1525; III/78)
10T; Sections 1 to 5 like 1425, latter part seems quite different; 
further comment 
  3. 風宣玄品
      (1539; II/89)
Same as 1425 but adds phrasing
  4. 太音傳習
      (1552-61; IV/57)
Phrasing but no sectioning; similar to 1425
IV/58, top, col.7: no  
  5. 重修真傳琴譜
      (1585; IV/324)
8T; lyrics require quite a different melody;  
there seem to be quite a few tablature mistakes  
  6. 玉梧琴譜
      (1589; VI/18)
8; first 4 sections very much like 1425,
but then condenses or re-invents rest  
  7. 藏春塢琴譜
      (1602; VI/318)
8; identical to 1589 
8.a 真傳正宗琴譜
      (1589; VII/158)
8; (楊倫太古遺音); first two sections like 1425
but then seems to condense or re-invent the rest 
8.b 真傳正宗琴譜
      (1609; VII/--)
unchanged from 1589
  9. 古音正宗
      (1634; IX/282)
8; first two sections like 1425; 
then another re-working of rest 
10. 徽言秘旨
      (1647; X/45)
8; last four sections are another variation on 1589-1609
11. 徽言秘旨訂
      (1692; X/---)
not in QQJC edition because same as 1647 
12. 臣卉堂琴譜
      (1663; XI/94)
8; like 1634 
13.a. 琴苑新傳全編
      (1670; XI/325)
8; no subtitles; like 1634
quite diff. from version on p.482 
13.b. 琴苑新傳全編
      (1670; XI/482)
8; like 1589-1609
"周子沐本 Zhou Zimu volume"; compare p.325 
14. 東皋琴譜
      (1676; facs/上11)
8; Japan, but no lyrics: related 
almost same as 1589 
   . 松風閣琴譜
      (1677/82; XII/380)
Gaoshan Liushui: unrelated 
15. 澄鑒堂琴譜
      (1689; XIV/212)
7; no Gao Shan
still related; sections relatively short; compare 1802 
16. 德音堂琴譜
      (1691; XII/503)
8; related;
listen to a recording  
17. 響山堂琴譜
      (<1700?; XIV/97)
7; identical to 1689 ("handcopied"?); 
Incomplete handbook beginning with Liu Shui: Gao Shan was in original? 
18. 蓼懷堂琴譜
      (1702; XIII/184)
8; like 1634 
19. 一峰園琴譜
      (1709; XIII/524)
4T; related; 
each section includes material from two of 8 section versions  
20. 琴劍合譜
      (1749; XVIII/306)
7; like 1689 
21. 穎陽琴譜
      (1751; XVI/72)
8; like 1589-1609 
22. 酣古齋琴譜
      (1785; XVIII/427)
"=1709"; only first page
23. 自遠堂琴譜
      (1802; XVII/302)
7+1; like 1689 
24. 指法匯參確解
      (1821; XX/293)
8; "浙派 Zhe school"; no Gao Shan 
related but each section is quite a bit elaborated 
25. 琴學軔端
      (1828; XX/401)
8; hard to read; 
seems like earlier 8 section versions 
26. 悟雪山房琴譜
      (1836; XXII/291)
7+1; like 1802 
One version (had two versions of Gao Shan
27. 槐蔭書屋琴譜
      (1840; XXIII/352)
8; related to earlier ones; 
28. 一經盧琴學
      (1845; XXII/62)
7+1; like 1802 etc. 
No Gao Shan 
29. 荻灰館琴譜
      (1853; XXIV/93)
9+1; As played by a disciple of Zhang Kongshan
Seems to have more gunfu than 1876 (below)
30. 琴學尊聞
      (1864; XXIV/241)
7+1; like 1802 etc. 
31. 青箱齋琴譜
      (1866; XXIV/370)
8; like 1634
32. 白菡萏香館琴譜
      (1871; XXIV/440)
8; related to earlier but each sections seems shorter 
33. 天聞閣琴譜
      (1876; XXV/166)
Special symbols including for gunfu, but not "72 gunfu" (compare 1853)
only one version (1876 has three versions of Gao Shan)
34. 希韶閣琴譜
      (1878; XXVI/320)
6; condensed from earlier ones? 
35. 枕經葄史山房雜抄
      (>1881; XXVII/222)
9; afterword mentions Zhang Kongshan
seems to have fewer gunfu but there are some symbols that are not explained
36. 雙琴書屋琴譜集成
      (1884; XXVII/319)
8; compare 1634 
37. 養性堂琴譜
      (>1884; XXVII/365)
8; called 流水曲 Liushui Qu
Many gunfu; also connected to Zhang Kongshan?
38. 枯木禪琴譜
      (1893; XXVIII/41)
7+1; compare 1802 etc 
   . 琴學初津
      (1894; XXVIII/245)
Only Gaoshan Liushui
15 sections (combines the existing Gao Shan and Liu Shui?)
39. 琴學叢書
      (1910; XXX/133 & XXX/255)
two versions (also 琴府 854 & 1032)
No Gao Shan
40. 雅齋琴譜叢集
      (ND; ?)
41. 沙堰琴編
      (1946; XXIX/321)
Sichuan school handbook:
see its Gao Shan
42. 夏一峰傳譜
#10 has staff notation of a Gaoshan Liushui (see 古琴曲彙編 Guqinqu Huibian, Beijing, 1957:
commentary says it is from 1876; it looks like Zhang Kongshan Liu Shui
43. 研易習琴齋琴譜
7 sections
44. 愔愔室琴譜
45. 虞山吳氏琴譜
      (2001/40 &: 339)
Staff notation

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