Xiaoxiang Shuiyun
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53. Clouds over the Xiao and Xiang Rivers
- Ruibin mode: tighten the fifth string one position: 2 3 5 6 1 2 3 2
瀟湘水雲 1
Xiao Xiang Shuiyun
  Dong Yuan: The Xiao and Xiang Rivers 3                
Xiaoxiang Shuiyun is one of the most popular of all qin melodies, surviving in at least 58 handbooks from 1425 to 1946 (see appendix below). The variety of these versions as well as their number attest to its popularity. Meanwhile, the variety of possible thematic associations contribute to our level of appreciation.

The Xiao Xiang Shuiyun melody has one of the most clearly defined origins, being attributed not only to a specific person, the famous Song dynasty qin player Guo Mian, but also connected to specific events in his life: trips to the Chu region (Hubei/Hunan), which included the Xiao and Xiang Rivers as well as the Canglang River (the prelude is called Floating on the Canglang) and Dongting Lake (see Section 1). Although Guo himself was from Yongjia (by the southern coast of Jiangsu province), and he was connected with a famous group of qin players based in Hangzhou, it was said that he was always thinking of Chu, as well as traveling there, hence his nickname Chuwang ("looking at Chu").4 From Chu he apparently wanted to see the Jiuyi mountains, which run along the border between Hunan and Guangdong provinces. The previous melody, Floating on the Canglang, suggests that Guo liked to view this scene from the Canglang river, which perhaps flowed into Dongting lake.5

The scenery of the Jiuyi Mountains and of the Xiao River (Xiao Shui)6 in the south of Hunan, that of the Canglang River and Dongting Lake in the north, as well as that of the Xiang River which connects them, are all mentioned often in Chinese poetry.7 In addition, these together as well as separately have formed a famous theme in painting, particularly as Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers.8 This theme might more completely be described as, "From the Xiao River along the Xiang River to Dongting Lake", a distance of over 200 kilometers. There are also allusions here to the continuation of the Xiang after Dongting: the title of Section 2 of the present melody is relevant because the Xiang and Dongting lake enter the Yangzi River about 200 km. upriver from where the Han River comes into the Yangzi from the north.

Early mention of the Xiao and Xiang rivers associate it with beautiful scenery, river goddesses and lovely women. The Lament of the Xiang River Concubines (Xiang Fei Yuan), in particular, brings out this aspect: two beautiful concubines mourn the death of their husband, the legendary emperor Yu Shun; in this regard see also the melody Cangwu Lament (Cangwu Yuan), the Cangwu mountain range here being the same as the Jiu Yi range. But even in the Lament of the Xiang River Concubines, the mountains in the background add an additional significance. As the reputed burial place of Yu Shun, this mountain range is sometimes used to represent China, and this seems to be the intention here: the mention in the preface of loyalty to one's country suggest that the clouds blocking the view of Jiuyi mountains are an allusion to the Jin dynasty then controlling north China and so blocking access to it.

Guo's Fan Canglang and Xiao Xiang Shui Yun also concern exile, as well as the merits of being out of office. Other of Guo's compositions like Bu Yue and Qiu Yu9 do so as well: although the music hasn't survived, two poems by Yuan Jue show how they use scenery to describe such emotion. Other compositions with a theme of exile include #63 Feiming Yin (q.v.) and #64 Qiu Hong (q.v.).10 Guo Chuwang has also been associated with the melody title Chun Yu, but this seems to have no such implications.11

In sum, as the preface makes clear, one should be able to put aside such concerns and simply enjoy the scenery for what it is. This aspect is brought out by the titles applied to each of the ten sections.

Along with Meihua Sannong and Liu Shui, this is one of the three pieces in SQMP that survived into the active modern repertoire with clearly recognizable motifs.12 Thus, when in 1976 I decided to expand my repertoire by learning from tablature rather than from the living tradition, Xiao Xiang Shui Yun was one of the first pieces that I reconstructed.13

Xiao Xiang Shui Yun is also one of the most popular qin pieces both historically (in at least 54 surviving handbooks and in terms of present day recordings (at least 2714). As for recordings of the version from Shen Qi Mi Pu, in addition to my own, there is at least one other, by Chen Xicheng.15

Original Preface16

The Emaciated Immortal says

this piece was written by Mr. Chuwang, Guo Mian. Mr. Guo was from Yongjia. Whenever (while in Chu) he wanted to look at the Jiuyi mountains they were blocked by clouds above the Xiao and Xiang rivers, so he used (writing music about) this to express his loyalty to his country. However, this piece about water and clouds (also) has the suggestion of making one's own enjoyment; the flavor of cloud shapes reflected in sparkling water; and a desire to have wind and rain fall on the head, to wear a grass rain cape by the side of a river, and to use a boat on the Five Lakes (to hide from the world).

Ten sections (today's version often has 18);
Timings follow the recording on my CD; 聽錄音 listen with my transcription (compare video)

(00.00) 01. Mist and rain over Dongting Lake18
(00.43) 02. The Jiang and Han river scenery is broad and clear19
(01.23) 03. Cloud images cast down by a brilliant sky20
(01.51) 04. The sky and water join on the horizon21
(02.26) 05. Waves roll and clouds fly 22
(02.59) 06. A wind comes up and stirs the water 23
(03.19) 07. Water and sky have the same azure color
(03.42) 08. Cold river and cool moon
(04.29) 09. Limpid waves extend forever
(04.54) 10. (Evening) reflections contain all aspects of nature 24
(05.37) --- harmonics
(05.58) --- Piece ends

Return to the Shen Qi Mi Pu ToC or to the Guqin ToC.

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Xiao Xiang Shui Yun 瀟湘水雲 (QQJC I/155)
Online information includes Google pages Xiaoxiang and Eight Views of Xiaoxiang. ZWDCD has no entries for 瀟湘水雲 Xiao Xiang Shui Yun; those for 19079.5 瀟湘 Xiao Xiang make no mention of water and clouds, while 1745.472 水雲 shuiyun makes no mention of 瀟湘 Xiao Xiang. None of the entries mentions music.

19079.5 瀟湘 says Xiao Xiang refers to the area of Hunan province where the two rivers meet. It gives five references:

  1. A line from 山海經 Shan Hai Jing (Wiki; China Text Project edition line 200)

    The two daughters of the gread god live (on this mountain). They often sport in the deeps of Long River, and then the winds make the Lapping and Source rivers merge with the deep waters of the Squall and Roil rivers. This is the space between the Nine Rivers. When (the two goddesss) come out and go in, there are sure to be whirlwinds and teeming rain.

    This translation from The Classic of Mountains and Seas, p. 100, refers to the Xiao and Xiang as the Squall and Roil rivers. Its notes, p. 266, discuss the unnamed "two daughters of the great god".

  2. The second couplet of 文選,曹植,雜詩 a Miscellaneous Poem by Cao Zhi (192 - 232) in Wen Xuan (p. 1316)

    朝遊江北岸,日夕宿湘沚。     (ZWDCD instead has "朝游江北岸,夕宿瀟湘沚。")

    This poem is translated by Hugh Dunn in his Cao Zhi, The Life of a Princely Chinese Poet (Beijing, New World Press, 1983, p. 91), as follows:

    In a southern state is a lovely woman
    In looks as fair as peach or plum.
    In the morning she roams the Yangtze banks;
    When day is dusk she sleeps by the Xiang's shore.   (ZWDCD: At dusk she sleeps by the shores of the Xiao and Xiang.)
    Time's passing will fade her lovely looks,
    Then who will smile on her?
    Seek where she may, each year she grows older
    For bright beauty is hard to keep for long.

  3. The first couplet of 文選,謝眺,新亭渚别范零陵雲詩 the poem I Take Leave of Fan Yun of Lingling on Xinting Island, by Xie Tiao (464 - 499) in Wen Xuan (p. 880). Lingling is where the Xiao River joins the Xiang; New Pavilion (13888.227 新亭 Xinting) was in 建康 Jiankang (Nanjing), perhaps on a islet in the 秦淮 Qinhuai River. The full poem is:


    This poem has been translated by J. D. Frodsham in An Anthology of Chinese Verse: Han, Wei, Chin And the Northern And Southern Dynasties, p. 162, as follows (Romanization changed; footnotes omitted):

    Once music filled the country round Dongting,
    By Xiao and Xiang an emperor's daughters wandered.
    The clouds have fled from Cangwu's wilderness,
    Their rain runs back to the Yangzi and the Han.
    I rein in my horses, gaze sadly after you,
    Shipping your oars, you seem to hesitate.
    You are renowned like the governor of Guangping,
    You wil be found, when wanted, at Maoling.
    This is the end of the hopes I had,
    On the Yangzi's banks only parting sorrow remains.

  4. The first line of the Li Bai poem Parting from Afar (遠別離 Yuan Bieli).

    In ancient times there were the two daughters (of Emperor Yao), (E) Huang and (Nü) Ying.
        They were south of Dongting near the Xiao and Xiang riverbanks.....

    The full poem is given and translated here as it more closely concerns the stories connected to the melodies Cangwu Yuan and Xiang Fei Yuan.

  5. The second couplet of 柳宗元,酬曹侍御過象縣見寄詩 the Liu Zongyuan poem Toasting Attendant Censor Cao for hosting as he goes to Xiang district (in Hunan)


A particularly relevant later poem on the Xiao Xiang theme is this one mentioning the qin, by 耶律楚材 Yelü Chucai. It is from his 湛然居士文集 Zhanran Jushi Ji:


Not yet translated.

19079.6 瀟湘八景 Xiao Xiang Bajing (Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang), in discussing these views, gives as its earliest reference 宋迪 Song Di (ca. 1015 - ca. 1080). Regarding his role in initiating this theme see below.

2. Ruibin mode (蕤賓調 ruibin diao)
For further information on ruibin mode see Shenpin Ruibin Yi and Modality in Early Ming Qin Tablature. Note in particular that ruibin is a "la mi" mode that uses a non-standard tuning. Thus, although in my transcription the open first string is notated as a "d", this should be considered as the relative pitch "re", and in the recording the actual pitch is equivalent to the modern Western "A" (i.e., approximately 440 Hz).

A section by section account of the tonal centers shows:

  1. Strongly la mi, ending on descent mi to la
  2. Strongly la mi, ending on la to mi
  3. Also la mi but prominence also to re: ends on re
  4. Also la mi but again prominence to re: ends on re
  5. Still la mi but much movement and ending on do (or sol do)
  6. La mi, ending on la (with do)
  7. Many variations from la mi, especially to sol, ending re to sol.
  8. La mi, ending mi to la
  9. La mi but some prominence to re and ending on re
  10. Begins on fa (temple bell?) then goes through re back to ending on la

Not examined is to what extent the more elaborated modern versions keep this modality.

3. Image of Xiao Xiang, attrib. Dong Yuan 董源,瀟湘圖 (source)
The Wikipedia biography of Dong Yuan (c. 934-c. 962) includes a copy of this image. The original is in the Palace Museum, Beijing. Their website has some further information and, when I first looked, a larger image. For other paintings on this theme see below.

4. Guo Chuwang 郭楚望 of Yongjia 永嘉
This nickname of Guo Mian literally means "Guo who looks at Chu". Yongjia, today called Wenzhou, is by the coast in southern Zhejiang province. From there, or Guo's base in Hangzhou, it would not be possible to see the Jiuyi mountains. Thus in his preface Zhu Quan must mean the mountains were blocked when Guo was making one of his frequent trips to the Chu region. There is further information on Guo and his contemporaries in Xu Jian and Rao Zongyi as well as in Qin Shi.

5. Guo Mian and the Chu region
There is more discussion of this under the previous melody, #52 Fan Canglang. Note that, while the course of the Xiang river has been clearly named since pre-Ming times, the course of the Xiao and exact extent of the Jiuyi mountains were not so clearly described.

6. Literary references to the Xiao Xiang, Jiuyi Mountains and Dongting Lake
Some of the Xiao Xiang references are detailed above. For Dongting Lake see the melody Autumn Thoughts at Dongting. For Jiuyi Mountains see under Floating on the Canglang as well as comments under Cangwu Lament.

7. Xiao River (瀟水 Xiao Shui)
In contrast to the Xiang, which is a major river running about 850 km from 海陽山 Haiyang Mountain in Guangxi Province (near Guilin) through Hunan Province into the Yangzi River, the Xiao is a small stream in southern Hunan. 19079.2 瀟水 says, "一名泥江,古之冷水 also called Muddy River (Ni Jiang, it is an ancient cold river; 源出湖南省寧遠縣南之九疑山山,注入湘水 its source comes from the Jiu Yi mountains of Hunan's Ningyuan district, and it flows into the Xiang River". On modern maps the source appears to be near 25° 21' N by 112° 05' E; near here there is Shun Memorial. Where it enters the Xiang River is near 零陵 Lingling in 永州 Yongzhou district. Even on a clear day it would not be possible to see this region from the Canglang River, as the crow flies about 200 km to the north.

8. Eight Views of Xiao Xiang 瀟湘八景
There are a number of paintings on this theme, and it can also be found in important Korean and Japanese paintings as well. The earliest surviving set is thought to be one by 王洪 Wang Hong (fl. c. 1130-1161). The Xiaoxiang theme is discussed in detail in Alfreda Murck, The Subtle Art of Dissent, Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, 50. The earliest paintings she mentions on this theme (p. 63) are a set by the court painter 黃荃 Huang Quan (903-968). Apparently more important in developing their prominence as a theme connected to exile was 宋迪 Song Di (style name 復古 Fugu; ca. 1015 - ca. 1080). On pages 42ff. and 61ff. she describes how, after a long and successful official career, Song Di was suddenly cashiered in 1074. "Exiled" to Luoyang (the capital then was Kaifeng), together with well-known literati who had opposed the reforms of Wang Anshi, he may have become a painter in order to support himself financially. His paintings of the Eight Views gained wide praise.

19079.6 瀟湘八景 Xiao Xiang Bajing lists the eight views, from the Mengxi Bitan of Shen Gua, as follows:

  1. 平沙雁落 Pingsha Yan Luo To Level Sand the Geese Descend
  2. 遠浦帆歸 Yuan Pu Fan Gui From a Distant Shore Sails Return
  3. 山市晴嵐 Shan Shi Qing Lan Mountain Market, Clearing Mist
  4. 江天暮雪 Jiang Tian Mu Xue River and Sky, Snow at Sunset
  5. 洞庭秋月 Dongting Qiu Yue Dongting's Autumn Moon
  6. 瀟湘夜雨 Xiao Xiang Ye Yu Xiao Xiang Night Rain
  7. 煙寺晚鐘 Yan Si Wan Zhong A Mist-Shrouded Temple has an Evening Bell
  8. 漁村落照 Yu Cun Luo Zhao Fishing Village in Evening Glow

The first section of Xiao Xiang Shui Yun mentions Dongting Lake (compare Scene 5 above); otherwise, the closest thematic connection between these scene titles and the thematic content of the qin melody seems to come in Section 10 of the melody, which opens with a passage said to evoke the sound of a temple bell. Elsewhere, Geese Descending to Level Sand is the name of a qin melody and similar phrases can be found as melody section titles (see, e.g., Qiu Hong, Section 15. There is also a qin melody called Autumn Thoughts at Dongting. And Night Rain on Xiao Xiang is name of the Song dynasty qin used in my CD Music Beyond Sound.

9. Poems by Yuan Jue: Bu Yue and Qiu Yu
袁桷「郭楚望〈步月〉、〈秋雨〉琴調二首」。 Partial text is in Xu Jian, p. 89. For 步月,秋雨 Walking the Moon, Autumn Rain see Xu Jian.

10. Other qin compositions related to Guo Chuwang and exile
The composition 秋鴻 Qiu Hong (and thus its prelude 飛鳴吟 Feiming Yin, alludes to exile and was later sometimes attributed to Guo Chuwang. Wang Mengshu in his Wusilan commentary, p.23 #43, says Chengyi Qintan (?) attributes to Guo a version of 風入松 Feng Ru Song, though this is in fact a very ancient title.

11. Chun Yu 春雨
Spring Rain: see Xu Jian, Chapter 6, Section A3. The Chun Yu in Wusheng Qinpu (1457) is probably unrelated.

12. Old melodies surviving into the modern repertoire
Here "survived" means survived through oral tradition: many other ancient pieces have recently been reconstructed. Besides the appendix below, see also the footnote with Liu Shui for pieces which have survived in less recognizable form.

13. Beginning to reconstruct melodies (打譜 dapu)
As described here, because the tablature describes only finger positions, stroke techniques and ornamentation, with no direct indication of note values/rhythms, I began my music reconstruction project by working on the earliest versions of melodies still actively played today. Thus, Xiao Xiang Shui Yun is one of the first pieces I reconstructed because, although it is shorter than the current version, it is quite obviously related to it and I could use the rhythms of the version I had learned from my teacher Sun Yuqin as a guide for reconstructing rhythms here.

In the process I also looked at various early tablatures (as below). When seeing variations (compare, e.g., the glissandi openings of 1425, 1546, 1590 and 1722), I had to try to determine to what extent these tablatures should be considered as descriptions of "compositions", thus to what extent they may be indications of developments in the music, and to what extent they might simply be reflecting the fact that creative people would not always play a piece the same way (see Qin music: composed or created?).

Applying this to the various openings of Xiao Xiang Shui Yun referenced in the previous paragraph, and considering that the melody concerns floating clouds, I interpreted the opening 7-note fu (upward glissando) as slowing down midway. It is not surprising that someone trying to put this in tablature would find it difficult to decide whether to write the opening simply as "fu the 1st to the 7th string", as "fu the 1st to 6th strings then play the 7th string", or (as in some later interpretations such as 1722) "fu the 1st to 5th strings then pause after the 5th, 6th and 7th strings". All of these could be interpreted differently, but they could also all reflect a single interpretation (e.g., slowing down towards the end of the glissando). After all, the piece was probably already well-known to most players at the time. If people knew that it was common to slow down during the run they might not have been bothered about the specifics of how that slowing down was indicated in the tablature. In addition, all the tablatures say "repeat the opening glissando": does that mean repeat the rhythm as well? For performances that insert a gun (downward glissando) before repeating the fu it seems to be common to repeat that rhythm of the fu. And in my own original 1425 recording I also do so. However, since that time it has often felt more interesting to use a somewhat different rhythm when repeating the fu (as Zha Fuxi does at the opening of his recording from the 1802 version, though compare that with this reconstruction by Yao Bingyan 1425). For example, I might pause on different notes on the repeat, or play the repeat with a more regular speed/rhythm.

14. Modern recordings
Perhaps the earliest modern recording is the one by Zha Fuxi at the Library of Congress. Currently there is a online a very good YouTube recording of Yuan Jung-Ping.

15. Reconstructions of the 1425 Xiao Xiang Shui Yun
The performance by 陳熙珵 Chen Xicheng can be heard on her CD, Favourite Qin Pieces of Chen Xi-Cheng (龍音海文版 CD-563).

16. Preface
For the original text see

17. Music
For the original section titles see

Placing this 10 section 1425 version of Xiao Xiang Shui Yun next to the 18 section 1722/modern version shows the following sections have some common phrases:

1425 1722/modern
1 1
2 2
3 3 - 4
4 5 - 8
5 9 - 12
6 13?
7 14 - 15
8 16
9 17
10 18


18. Section 1: Mist and rain over Dongting Lake 洞庭煙雨
The melody opens with a run (拂 fu) from the first to the seventh strings. In modern versions the run goes only to the first string, with the six and seventh then written as separate notes. My interpretation is somewhere in between these two, emphasizing the calm mood suggested by the title.

Note the harmonic played on the second string between the 8th and 9th hui positions.

19. Section 2: Jiang and Han river scenery is broad and clear 江漢舒晴
The 江漢 Jiang (Yangzi) and Han Rivers (17496.378) meet in modern Wuhan. As mentioned above, this is a long way from the mouth of the Xiang River, making this section title somewhat puzzling. Other handbooks with section titles for this melody do the same. Could it be suggesting that to the north the skies are clear: it is only to the south that the view is blocked?

At the beginning of this section is a comment 一絃合處水光雲影, meaning "the passage on the first string which calls for (sliding into) a unison sound (he), depicts cloud images in the rippling water"; at the beginning of section three the instruction is repeated 一絃合處亦謂水光雲影. However, appropriate slides do not occur in section 2, only near the end of sections 3 and 4.

20. Section 3: Cloud images cast down by a brilliant sky 天光雲影
See Chinese text as well as the comment about Section 3 in the previous footnote.

21. Section 4: The sky and water join on the horizon 水接天隅
The opening passage with its two runs (拂 fu) seems to be a short version of the passage opening Section 5, with its two longer runs. However, the title of this section shows that its feeling is more like that of the two runs at the beginning of the melody.

22. Section 5: Waves roll and clouds fly 浪捲雲飛
There is no explanatory comment with this section. However, the title suggests that the two runs across the seven strings that begin the section should be played quite strongly (compare Section 4), taking the melody from being calm to being stirred up. After Section 6 it calms down again.

23. Section 6: A wind comes up and stirs the water 風起水湧
At the beginning of this section are the instructions 至此為滿天風雨 "here comes the part about wind and rain coming down on the head" (includes the zhaifu discrete glissando up and down at the end of the section?).

24. Section 10: (Evening) reflections contain all aspects of nature 影涵萬象
This section begins with a dayuan on the note fa (4) -- in other words fa is played back and forth seven times, four at an upper octave, three at a lower one: this is completely outside the mode. There is no special mention of this in early handbooks, but the dayuan does seem to evoke the sound of a temple bell. Such an interpretation makes particular sense when put alongside the famous Song dynasty paintings of a related theme, 瀟湘八景 Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang River. The seventh view (see list) is called 煙寺晚鐘 Evening Bell from a Mist-Shrouded Temple, suggesting that Section 10 also is invoking the evening. (See Alfreda Murck, The Subtle Art of Dissent, p.110ff.)

Appendix: Chart Tracing 瀟湘水雲 Xiao Xiang Shuiyun

This chart is based mainly on Zha Fuxi's Guide, 8/86/135; comments on melody and mode are very tentative. The only versions known to have lyrics are dated 1491 and 1625.

      琴譜 Page numbers refer to indicated volume in 琴曲集成 Qinqu Jicheng
 1.   神奇秘譜
      (1425; I/167)
10T; begins "拂一至抹挑七" (compare 1546, 1590 and 1722); main body ends on 2, but closing harmonics end on 6;
tonal center is 6 (la), secondarily 3; sometimes changes to 1 or 2; also recorded by Yao Bingyan
 2.   浙音釋字琴譜
      (<1491; I/222)
10T; lyrics, otherwise = 1425; section titles also = 1425; lyrics begin: "洞庭煙雨,霏霏四起 Dongting mist and rain, heavy rain on all sides...", with no words paired to the opening run (拂, fu) or its repeat.
 3.   西麓堂琴統
      (1525; III/204)
11 (compare #3/#5 to #3); much more elaborate
tonal center generally still 6, but ends on 5 1
 4.   發明琴譜
      (1530; I/346)
10T; same as 1425
 5.   風宣玄品
      (1539; II/333)
10; same section titles; large sections same, others different
tonal center still seems to be 6 and 3
 6.   梧岡琴譜
      (1546; I/455)
10; more elaborate; begins "滾七至二" before "拂一至抹挑七" (compare 滾拂 gunfu); opening harmonics end on 1
main body ends on 2 then 3; then ends with modal prelude: 5 1
 7.   琴譜正傳
      (1547; II/475 & 501)
Neither has section titles; first: 10; same as 1546
Second: 10; many differences from above
 8.   步虛僊琴譜
      (1556; facs #48)
(These pages are missing from QQJC edition)
9; no section titles; modal prelude ends on 5 1
10. 太音傳習
      (1552-61; IV/185)
10; similar to 1425 (compare)
 9.   太音補遺
      (1557; III/403)
10; more elaborate; main body before the modal prelude adds 3 after 2
modal prelude ends on 5 1
11. 龍湖琴譜
      (1571; QF/278)
#5 in 琴府 Qin Fu; 10T; very similar to 1425 (compare); no lyrics
12. 玉梧琴譜
      (1589; VI/81)
10; more elaborate
13. 琴書大全
      (1590; V/526)
10; quite different; begins "拂一至六" then "抹挑七"
opening section ends on 1; melody ends on 5 1
14. 文會堂琴譜
      (1596; VI/268)
10; more elaborate
15. 藏春塢琴譜
      (1602; VI/431)
10; identical to 1589
16. 陽春堂琴譜
      (1611; VII/434)
(太古正音欽佩); 10; more elaborate
opening section ends on 1; melody ends on 5 1
17. 太音希聲
      (1625; IX/237)
10T; different lyrics; more elaborate
18. 古音正宗
      (1634; IX/376)
10T; titles as 1 but music more elaborate
19. 義軒琴經
      (late Ming; IX/452)
10 (1 & 2 are missing)
20. 徽言秘旨
      (1647; X/218)
10; more elaborate
some phrases once ending on 6 (la) now end on 2 (re, but ends on 1 and 5)
21. 徽言秘旨訂
      (1692; X/--)
see facsimile (same as 1647?)
22. 友聲社琴譜
      (early Qing; XI/175)
10; more elaborate
23. 愧菴琴譜
      (1660; XI/65)
10; quite diff; no illustration
24. 琴苑新傳全編
      (1670; XI/438)
10T; like 1425; last version to have section titles
Section titles same as 1425
25. 大還閣琴譜
      (1673; X/440)
12 untitled; more differences: many important phrases once ending on 6 (la) now end on 2 (re; open 1st string)
Part of its afterword is discussed in QSCB, Chapter 6b1-3
26. 響山堂琴譜
      (<1700?; XIV/99)
13; more elaborate
27. 澄鑒堂琴譜
      (1689; XIV/327)
13; more elaborate
28. 德音堂琴譜
      (1691; XII/593)
12; more elaborate
29. 琴譜析微
      (1692; XIII/138)
13; more elaborate
30. 誠一堂琴譜
      (1705; XIII/427)
12; more elaborate
31. 五知齋琴譜
      (1722; XIV/554)
18 sections; like modern version (see transcription in Guqin Quji, I., p.181ff);
tonal center remains shifted from la to re (open 1st string); opening 拂 fu has "pause" (少息: compare 𝄐) after 5th, 6th and 7th strings
32. 臥雲樓琴譜
      (1722; XV/141)
33. 存古堂琴譜
      (1726; XV/294)
34. 春草堂琴譜
      (1744; XVIII/272)
12; 無射均,商音
35. 蘭田館琴譜
      (1755; XVI/272)
12; more elaborate
36. 琴香堂琴譜
      (1760; XVII/162)
13; more elaborate
37. 研露樓琴譜
      (1766; XVI/522)
38. 自遠堂琴譜
      (1802; XVII/489)
12; more elaborate; recording by Zha Fuxi
39. 指法匯參確解
      (1821; XX/289)
40. 峰抱樓琴譜
      (1825; XX/344)
41. 鄰鶴齋琴譜
      (1830; XXI/66)
42. 二香琴譜
      (1833; XXIII/166)
12; afterword; facsimile
43. 悟雪山房琴譜
      (1836; XXII/410)
16; afterword
44. 行有恒堂錄存
      琴譜 (1840; XXIII/199)
18; has 眉批 page top comments
45. 稚雲琴譜
      (1849; XXIII/433)
46. 蕉庵琴譜
      (1868; XXVI/96)
13; commentary; facsimile
47. 天聞閣琴譜
      (1876; XXV/556)
13; 曹稚雲授譜 tablature of Cao Zhiyun (see comment)
48. 天籟閣琴譜
      (1876; XXI/240)
49. 希韶閣琴譜
      (1878; XXVI/391)
18; 熟派; commentary (attrib. Guo Chuwang)
50. 枕經葄史山房雜抄
      (>1881; XXVII/158)
51. 友石山房琴譜
      (1887; XXVII/418)
12; 無射均,商音
52. 枯木禪琴譜
      (1893; XXVIII/109)
18; commentary (attrib. Guo Chuwang)
53. 琴學初津
      (1894; XXVIII/371)
14; 中呂均,商音; afterword
54. 琴學叢書
      (1910; XXX/239)
also 琴府; 13; "1802 version"
adds 工尺譜 gongche
55. 雅齋琴譜叢集
      (end of Qing)
(3 pu)
Not in QQJC
56. 詩夢齋琴譜
18; afterword
Not in QQJC
57. 琴學摘要
      (~1920?; XXIX/120)
18; 蕤賓調,商音
58. 沙堰琴編
      (1946; XXIX/364)
13; preface and afterword
59. 愔愔室琴譜
13; includes number notation
60. 虞山吳氏琴譜
18, with staff notation

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